Skip to main content

Full text of "Essays upon several moral subjects"

See other formats


^  ir    2^^ 



Section        /  ^/  ^  7 


^o^jal  ^ubfects 

In  Two  Parts,  f-^^ 

Part  I. 

Upon  Pride.  UponCloaths.  Upon  Duelling.^ 
General  Kindnefs.  Upon  the  Office  of  a  Chaplain. 
Upon  the  Weaknefs  of  Human  Reafon. 

Part  II. 

Of  Fame.  OfMufick.  Of  the  Value  of  Life.  Of  the 
Spleen.  OfEagernefsof  Defire.  OfFriendfhip. 
Of  Popularity,  A  Thought.  Of  the  Entertain- 
ment of  Books.  Of  Confidence.  Of  Envy.  Of  the 
Afped.  Againft  Defpair.  Of  Covetoufaefs.  Of 
Liberty.  Of  Old  Age.  OfPleafure. 


Cfie  Jfiftl)  mitm. 


Printed  forRiCHARoSAREat  Grays'Jnn* 
Gate  in  Holhom,  M  DCC  III, 



COme  mijlahes   concerning  Converfation  re-- 

^     moved.  Page  5 

The  Grounds  of  Pride  enquired  into^  and  Jl)ewn 

to  he  founded  in  Self-Love^   and  why.  p.   5 

The  due  Bounds  of  Self-Love  briefly  examined^ 

Tride  defcrihed^   I .  By  way  of  Negation,    p.  8 
iXhe  Pofitive  Marks  of  it  are  laid  down.  p.  i  i 
The  principal  Pretences  to  this  Vice^  viz.  Learn- 
ings Nobility s  Wealthy  Power ^  and  Beauty. 

p.   l5 

The  Pretences  of  Learning  confidered.     p.  17 

The  Office  of  Curates  generally  mifunder flood  5 

the  mi  flakes  about  it  reBified.  P«  29 

The  depr effing  their  Char aUer^  and  flraightning 

them  in  point  of  Maintenance ^  of  ill  Confe-- 

quence  to  Religion.  P*  3  2^ 

The  cafe  of  Nobility  confidered.  P*   53 

Nobility  divided  into  Hereditary  or  Acquired. 

.  P-  55 

The  Privileges  of  Antiquity  ex amifted.    p.  59 

Families  generally  raifed  either  by  Commerce^ 
Arms^  or  Learning.  P*  ^9 

A  2  Tht 

The  Contents. 

The  pretences  of  Commerce  inquired  wto^  where 
likewife  thofc  of  Wealthy  are  occafionally 
handled.  p.   70,  71 

The  Merit  of  Arms  debated.  p.  75 

The  Advantages  of  Learnings  and  Arms  com-' 
pared.  p.   75 

The  Plea  of  Beauty  argued^  and  that  of  Acquis 
red  Nobility.  p.  33 

The  difference  between  Pride  and  Magnanimity. 

p.  89 

The  jujl  Advantages  of  Nobility.  P»   9 1 

Some  of  the  unhappy  Confcquences  of  Pride 
hinted.  p,  ^^ 

t  o 

T  O    T  H  E 


IEaJily  forefee  Jome  People  mil  be 
difobliged  with  the  Freedom  of  thefe 
Papers^  and  think  themfehes  treats 
ed  with  too  little  Ceremony ;    But  unlefs 
they  can  difarm  their  pretended  Adwrfary^ 
and  confute  his  Arguments^  I  would  dejire 
them  by  all  means  to  [mother  their  Refent- 
ments :  For  as  bad  us  the  World  Is^  to  ap^ 
pear  in  defence  of  Pride^  and  turn  Adm^ 
cate  for  the  Deml^  looks  like  an  untoward 
fort  of  an  Employment.  However  to  fweet- 
en  their  Humour  ojs  much  as  may  be^  they 
may  pleafe  to  confider  that  there  was  no  good 
to  be  done  in  this  Cafe  without  plain  deaU 
ing ;  ThU  Malady  of  all  others  mufi  be  well 
examined^  otherwije  it^s  in  mm  to  expt& 
a  Cure.     ^Tu  to  no  purpofe  to  declaim  m 
general  againfi  a  Proud  Man^  and  to  giz^e 
him  a  gteat  many  hard  Names  ;  for  unlefs 


To  the  Reader. 

you  point  dire&ly  upon  his  Vice^  difiinguijh 
its  Nature^  and  difcover  the  weaknefs  of 
that  which  he  builds  upon^  Every  one  will  be 
jure  to  avoid  the  Charge^  and  parry  againji 
the  Application,  Farther^  to  abate  their 
Cenfure^  1  think  it  not  improper  to  acquaint 
thevi  that  here  are  no  particular  Chara&ers 
attempted^  nor  is  there  the  lead  intention  to 
provoke  or  expofe  any  Perfin  Living.  Be- 
Jides  when  a  Piece  like  this  is  drawn  from  fo 
many  different  Face^;  the  mixing  of  Fea- 
tures and  Complexions^  will  keep  the  Ori- 
ginals from  being  difcover  d.  In  Jhort^  the 
Defign  of  thvs  fmall  Dijcourje  Is  only  to 
make  Men  more  ufeful  and  acceptable  to  So- 
ciety^  and  more  eajy  to  themfelves  then  they 
generally  are :  And  that  thofe  who  over^top 
their  Neighbours  upon  any  con/iderable  ac^ 
count  y  may  manage  their  Advantage  with 
that  Modejiy  and  good  Humour^  that  none 
may  have  any  juji  occajion  to  wijh  them  lefs. 




PART    I. 


P-  95 

1.  T  TP on  Pride.  Page 

2.  V^l.  Z)pon  Cloaths.  p.  < 

3.  VponDHelling.  p.  i^^ 

4.  ZJ/?(?«  General  Kindnefs.  p.   147 

5.  ZJ/?(7«  the  Office  of  a  Chaplain.  p.   177 

6.  Upon  the  Weaknefs  of  Human  Reafon. 

p.  239 

PART    II. 

I-  {^FFame.  Page  1 

2.  KJ  OfMufich  p    17 

3.  0//Ae  Value  of  Life,  p.  27 
4-  Of  the  Spleen.  p.  55 

5.  OfEagernefs  ofDeJtre.  p.  41 

6.  Of  Friendjhip.  p.  4^ 

7.  Of  Popularity.  P*  71 

8.  A  Thought.  V'  77 

9.  0//^e  Entertainment  of  Books.  p.  97 

10.  Of  Confidencec  p.  101 

II.  0/ 

The  Contents. 

11.  Of  Envy.  p.  107 

12.  OftheAfpeS.  p.  121 

13.  Againji  Defpair.  P-  129 

14.  OfCovetoufnefs.  P-  ^35 

15.  Of  Liberty.  p.  1 51 
i6.  Of  Old  Age.  J.  157 
17,  0  Pleafure.  p.  189 


Moral  Effay 



I  N    A 



Vbtlotimm  and  Vhildethes, 

Vh'tlot.  '^~\HilaUthes,  I  am  glad  to  fee 
you,though  you  are  fo  wrapt 
up  in  Speculation  that  I 
fcarce    knew  you    at  firft 

figbt ;  pray  why  fo  Thoughtful  ^  you  don't 

ufe  to  have  fo  much  Philofophy  in  your 


B  PkiUL 

A  Moral  Essay 

FhiUL  I  have  a  particular  reafon  to  look 
a  little  pretendingly  at  prefent  5  therefore  I 
hope  you  will  excufe  it. 

Philot.  With  all  my  Heart  ^  for  I  fuppofe 
you  will  not  make  a  Praftice  of  it :  But 
whatever  Emergency  you  may  be  under,  I 
would  advife  you  to  aippear  in  your  old 
Shape  again  5  for  in  my  Judgment  that  con- 
templative Figure  does  not  become  you. 

Philal.  I  am  forry  to  hear  Thinking  agrees 
fo  ill  v/ith  my  Conftitution  ^  but  I  hope  this 
Alteration  does  not  arife  from  any  natural 
Antipathy  I  have  to  Senfe  5  but  from  the 
Hnacceptablenefs  of  the  Subjeft  I  am  upon. 

Fhilot,  Pray  if  it  be  not  too  free  a  Quefti- 
on.  What  were  you  mufing  upon  ? 

Philal.  Why  laft  night  I  happen'd  to  light 
npon  an  overgrown  Fop,  who  plagued  the 
Company  withfuch  an  impertinent  Hiftory 
of  his  Quality  and  Performances,  and  was 
fo  vain  and  infolent  in  all  his  Behaviour, 
that  as  foon  as  I  was  delivered  from  him,  I 
had  a  plentiful  occafion  to  confider  the  \m- 
ireafonablenefs  of  Pride :,  which  is  the  pre- 
fent Employment  of  my  Thoughts :  And 
upon  a  full  View,  I  find  fo  much  FoIIy,and 
ill  Humour,  and  Monfter  in  the  Compofiti- 
on  of  this  Vice,  that  I  am  aftiamed,  and  al- 
nioft  afraid,  of  the  Idea  I  have  raifed. 

Phrlof.  'Tis  fomewhat  hard  you  can^t 
ftand  the  Charge  of  your  own  Imaginati- 

upon  PRIDE.  5. 

on  5  But  though  I  fliall  not  difpute  your 
Courage,  yet  I  much  queftion  your  Morti- 
Philal.  The  Reafon  of  your  Cenfure  > 
Philot.  Becaufe  I  have  obferved,  it's  but 
a  bad  Sign  of  Humility  to  declaim  againft 
Pride  3  for  he  that  is  really  Humble  will  be 
unconcerned  about  Refpeft  and  Applaufe  5 
fuch  a  Perfon  values  himfelf  upon  nothing 
but  his  Confcience  and  Integrity  5  and 
therefore  the  haughtinefs  of  another  can-fi 
make  him  uneafy  3  fo  that  if  he  finds  him- 
felf wince  upon  the  Account  of  Negleft,  he 
may  be  pretty  well  affured  he  has  a  Sore 

Philal.  I  think  you  are  fomewhat  out  in 
your  Notion  of  Humility  3  for  that  Virtue 
does  not  make  us  either  fervile  or  infenfible  ^ 
it  does  not  oblige  us  to  be  ridden  at  the 
Pleafure  of  every  Coxcomb  :  We  may  fliew 
our  diflike  of  an  imperious  Humour,  as 
well  as  of  any  other  foolifli  Aftion  ^  both 
for  the  Benefit  of  Others,  and  in  Vindica- 
tion of  our  own  Right. 

Philot.  I  am  glad  to  hear  this  Concelfion 
from  you  5  becaufe  from  hence  it  follows, 
that  a  Man  may  have  a  juftEfteemof  him- 
felf without  being  Proud  :  Now  if  this  Ob- 
fervation  was  remembred  and  rightly  a  p- 
plyed,  Men  would  not  be  fo  Cenforious  in 
this  Point,  nor  miftake  their  own  Pride  for 

B  2  thdt 

4  A  MoR  AL  Essay 

their  Neighbours  fo  often  as  they  do.  For 
inftance,  a  Man  whom  the  Law  has  made 
my  Superiour,  may  take  notice  of  his  Qua- 
lity if  he  pleafes  5  but  this  can  t  well  be 
done  except  he  makes  me  an  Abatement  of 
the  Regard  he  receives  from  me  5  therefore 
I  ought  not  to  interpret  the  Referve  or  Fa- 
miliarity  of  his  Carriage,  as  a  Negleft  5  for 
provided  he  keeps  within  his  Proportion, 
he  Challenges  nothing  but  his  own  5  fo  that 
if  I  am  difpleafed,  the  Pride  lies  on  my  fide, 
for  afFefting  to  have  an  equal  Regard  paid 
to  Perfons  who  are  unequal. 

Philal.  I  have  nothing  to  Objeft  againft 
the  main  of  your  Difcourfe  ^  and  conceive 
that  the  beft  way  to  know  whether  we  are 
Guilty  or  not,  and  to  prevent  charging  this 
odious  Imputation  unjuftly  upon  Others,  is 
to  State  the  nature  of  Pride,  and  to  enquire 
into  the  Grounds  of  it. 

Philot.  I  confefs  this  is  the  way  to  Pinch 
the  Queftion^  therefore  let  what  will  come 
of  it,  I  will  ftand  the  Teft  of  your  Method, 
though  I  am  afraid  you  will  fay  fome  unac- 
ceptable Things. 

Philal.  Suppofel  do;  if  theSubjeft  leads 
me  to  it,  the  fault  is  not  mine;  But  to 
come  to  the  Point :  Pride  has  a  very  ftrong 
Foundation  in  the  Mind  5  it's  bottomed  up- 
on Self-love. 


upon  PRIDE.  5 

Pkilot.  Then  I  find  there  is  fomewhat  to 
Work  upon. — 

Philal.  Pray  give  me  leave,  I  fay  Pride 
is  originally  founded  in  Self-love  5  which  is 
the  moft  intimate  and  infeparable  Paffion 
of  Humane  Nature.  The  Kindnefs  Mca 
have  for  themfelves,  is  apt  to  put  them  up- 
on over-valuing  their  own  Things :  which 
Humour  unlefs  checked  in  time,  will  make 
them  take  moft  delight  in  thofe  Circumftan- 
ces  and  Aftions  which  diftinguifli  them 
from  their  Neighbours  5  and  place  their 
fuppofed  Advantages  in  the  beft  Light. 
Now  this  Defign  is  beft  purfued  by  being 
Mafter  of  uncommon  Excellences  ^  which 
though  defired  by  all,  are  poffeffed  but  by 
a  few  5  for  the  rarenefs  of  Things  raifes 
their  Efteem,  and  draws  a  general  Admira- 
tion. And  their  defire  of  being  diftinguifti- 
ed,  is  one  reafon  why  they  love  to  keep  the 
Odds  in  their  own  Hand,  and  to  make  the 
Diftance  between  themfelves  and  their 
Neighbours  as  Wide  as  may  be  ^  which  of- 
ten runs  them  upon  a  vain,  and  tyrannical 
Oftentation  of  their  Power,  Capacity,  &e. 
For  this  magnificent  Difcovery  makes  the 
Difference  between  them  and  their  Neigh^- 
bours  more  Apparent  5  and  confequently, 
occafions  their  own  Greatnefs  to  be  the 
more  remarkable. 

B  ?  Thllot. 

6  A  MoR  AL  Essay 

Pifilof.  I  think  you  have  faidfomething 
very  remarkable  5  and  I  don't  know  but 
you  may  growConfiderable  by  it^  if  you 
can  prove  your  AjTertion. 

P/jilaL  Pray  what  rifing  Doftrine  have 
I  laid  down? 

Philot.  You  fay  that  Pride  is  founded  in 
Self-love,  which  is  an  unfeparable  Paflion 
of  Humane  Nature  ^  from  whence  I  gather, 
that  it's  impoflible  for  a  Man  not  to  be 
Proud,  becaufe  it's  impoflible  for  a  Man  not 
to  love  himfelf.  We  are  like  to  have  an 
admirable  Prefervative  from  you  at  this 

PhilaL  Not  fo  faft :  If  you  had  attend- 
ed  to  the  Whole,  you  might  have  obfer- 
ved,  That  by  Self-love  I  meant  the  Excefles 
of  it. 

Philot.  I  thought  a  Man  could  not  have 
loved  himfelf  too  well. 

PhlUL  If  by  loving  you  mean  wifliing 
himfelf  Happy,  I  agree  with  you  5  for  we 
may,  or  rather  we  muft  defire  to  be  as  Hap- 
py as  is  poffible  ^  provided  it  be  without 
Prejudice  to  another.  But  then,  if  Efteemis 
underftood  by  Love,  it*s  eafy  (  without 
Care  )  to  exceed  in  our  own  behalf  5  and 
^n  this  Senfe  we  certainly  do  love  ourfelves 
too  well,  as  often  as  we  fet  an  over-pro- 
portioned and  unufual  Value  upon  any 
Thingj  becaufe  it's  our  own,  as  if  our  Fond- 



nefs  and  Partiality  was  the  true  Standard  of 
Worth  5  and  we  had  the  Faculty  of  turning 
every  thing  we  touch  into  Gold. 

Philot.  I  will  not  Conteft  this  Point  any 
farther  with  you  5  but  as  I  remember  you 
ftarted  another  Paradox,  by  intimating, 
that  it  was  a  fign  of  Ambition  to  efteem 
any  Excellency  the  higher  for  being  un- 
common :  Now  fince  the  Value  of  an  Ad- 
vantage is  inhanced  by  it's  Scarcenefs,  and 
made  more  Reputable  to  the  Owner  ^  I 
think  it  fomewhat  hard  not  to  give  a  Man 
leave  to  Love  that  moft  which  is  moft  Ser- 
viceable to  him. 

Fhilal.  So  it  would  if  he  had  no  Body  to 
Love  but  himfelf  5  but  fince heis  both  obli- 
ged and  naturally  inclinable   to  univerfal 
Benevolence,  this  alters  theCafe  :    For  he 
who  Values  any  thing  the  more  for  being 
uncommon,  will  defire  it  (hould  continue 
fo :  Which  is  no  kind  Wi{h  to  his  Neigh- 
bours ^  and  is  an  Argument  that  a  Man  does 
not  delight  in  an  Advantage  fo  much  for  it 
felf,  as  for  the  Comparifon  ^  not  fo  much 
for  it's  own  irrefpeftive  Goodnefs,  as  be- 
caufe  others  want  it.     Now  it  affords  a 
more  generous,  and  I  believe,  a  more  tran- 
fporting  Pleafure,  to  converfe  with  uni- 
verfal  Happinefs ,   though   we   make  no 
greater  Figure  in  it,  than   the  reft  of  our 
Neighbours?,  than  to  be  gazed  at,  and  ad- 

B  4  mirei 

8  A  Moral  Essay 

mired  by  a  Crowd  of  indigent  andinferiour 

PhHot.  The  World  does  not  feem  to  be 
c  i  your  Opinion  5  however  I  will  let  your 
Argument  pifs,  for  the  good  Nature  of  it. 
But  after  all  let  me  tell  you,  though  I  have 
no  Mind  to  be  counted  Proud,  yet  I  have  a 
ftrong  Fancy  for  my  felf :  and  therefore  if 
you  will  not  allow  me  to  be  Civil  to  my 
Perfon,  we  might  e'en  as  good  Difpute  no 
farther  5  for — 

PhilaL  Don't  trouble  your  felf,  if  your 
Terms  are  Moderate ,  we'll  never  break  off 
upon  that  Score  ^  therefore  I  will  offer  at  a 
fhort  Negative  Defcription  of  Pride  5  in 
which  if  it's  poffible,  I  will  give  youSatif- 

Philot,  Pray  let  us  fee  how  Liberal  you 
will  be. 

Philal.  Firft,  It's  no  part  of  Pride  to  be 
Confcious  of  any  Perfeftions  we  have,  whe- 
ther Intelleftual  or  Morale  for  this  is  in  ma- 
ny Cafes  neceffary,  and  impoflible  to  be 
avoided.  He  that  is  Wife  or  Learned  mufl: 
know  it,  otherwife  he  can't  underftand 
when  he  judges  TrueorFalfe^  nordiftin- 
guifh  difficult  and  noble  Speculations,  from 
trifling  and  vulgar  Remarks:  nor  tell  when 
heads  Rationally  or  not.  Now  a  Man  that 
is  ignorant  of  thefe  Things,  can  neither  be 
Wife  npr  Knowing :  Therefore  as  he  that 

upon  PRIDE.  9 

has  a  juft  and  vigorous  Senfe  of  the  Magni- 
tude, Diftance  and  Colours  of  Objefts, 
muft  conclude  that  he  has  Eyes  whether  he 
will  or  not  5  fo  thefe  Perfeftions  of  the 
Mind  difcover  themfelves  by  their  own 
Light :  The  Poffeffour  can  no  more  be  Ig- 
norant of  them,  than  he  can  doubt  of  his 
Exiftence  when  he  is  Awake.  To  give  one 
Inftance  more :  How  can  any  Perion  have 
true  Fortitude,  who  does  not  know  how 
far  he  ought  to  Hazard  himfelf^  and  where- 
in the  Bafenefs  of  Cowardife  confifts?  So 
that  to  affirm  a  Man  may  be  ignorant  of  his 
ownConfiderablenefs,  is  to  make  him  Wife 
and  Great,  and  Good  by  Chance  5  which 
is  a  Contradiftion  to  the  Excellences  fup- 
pofed  in  him. 

Pkilot.  Right.  And  fince  I  like  the 
Franknefs,  and  Tendency  of  your  Argu- 
ment,  Til  try  if  I  can  Reinforce  it ;  I  fay- 
then,  fuppofing  it  was  Poffible  for  a  Man 
to  be  ignorant  of  his  good  Qualities  5  it 
was  by  no  Means  convenient  :  For  if  he 
carried  fuch  a  Treafure  about  him,  with- 
out knowing  how  well  furniflied  he  was  ^ 
it*s  fomewhat  hard  to  conceive  how  he 
could  either  Improve  or  Ufe  it :  If  it  lay 
thus  clofe,  it  would  be  little  better,  than  a 
Mineundifcovered:;,  for  which  neither  the 
Owner  of  the  Ground,  or  any  Body  elfe, 
are  ever  the  Richer. 


lo        A  MoR  AL  Essay 

PhiUL  You  fay  well,  and  therefore  I 
fhall  venture  in  the  fecond  place  to  affirm. 
That  as  we  may  be  acquainted  with  our 
own  Accomplilhments,  without  being  guil- 
ty of  Pride,  fo  neither  is  it  any  Branch  of 
this  Sin  to  difcover,  that  they  are  greater 
than  fome  of  our  Neighbours  enjoy.  If 
wchavea  real  Advantage  over  another,  it*s 
no  Sin  to  be  fenfible  of  it  5  to  apprehend  o- 
therwife,  is  to  judge  contrary  to  the  Rea- 
fon  of  Things  5  when  the  Cafe  is  plain, 
we  may  believe  we  have  more  Honefty, 
Senfe,  &c,  than  fome  others  :  This  is  as 
allowable  as  it  is  for  us  to  think,  that  we 
have  better  Complexions  than  Moors,  and 
are  Taller  than  Pygmies. 

Philof.  Can  you  go  on  ? 

Philal.  Yes,  Vm  not  afraid  to  add  5 
Thirdly,  That  we  don  t  fall  into  the  Sin  of 
Pride,  by  being  delighted  with  thofe  Ad- 
vantages of  Mind,  Body  or  Fortune,  which 
Providence  has  given  us  5  thefe  things  in 
the  very  Notion  of  them  are  fuppofed  to  be 
Beneficial.  Now  it's  natural  and  neceffary 
for  us  to  be  pleafed  with  the  Enjoyment  of 
that  which  is  good  5  of  that  which  is  agree- 
able to  our  Faculties,  and  an  Advancement 
of  our  Nature  :  To  fpeak  ftriftly.  When  the 
Faculty  and  the  Objeft  are  rightly  propor- 
tioned, Satisfaftion  follows  of  Courfe  •-,  and 
it'sasimpoffibleforus  not  to  be  pleafed,  as  it 


upon  PRIDE.  ,1 

is  for  Fire  not  to  afcend.  Farther,  if  we  are 
not  allowed  to  take  any  Satisfaftion  in  our 
Condition,  we  are  not  bound  to  give  Cod 
Thanks  for  it  5  for  we  are  not  obliged  to  be 
Thankful  for  that  whiclidoes  us  no  good  : 
But  nothing  can  do  us  any  good,  except  it 
be  by  giving  us  a  Pleafure  either  in  Hand 
or  in  Profpeft.  Fourthly,  It  is  no  part  of 
Pride,  to  be  more  pleafed  with  having  au 
Advantage  ourfelves,  than  by  feeing  one  of 
the  fame  Value  poffeffed  by  another. 

Fhilot.  Make  this  out,  and  you  will  ob- 
lige me. 

Philal.  Very  well  :  I  prove  my  Propo- 
fition  thus.  Firft,  Becaufe  that  which  is  in 
pur  Poffeflion,  or  incorporated  into  our  Ef- 
fence,  is  always  in  our  Power  5  and  ready 
to  be  made  ufe  of  when  we  think  fit.  But 
that  which  belongs  to  another  is  often  at  a 
Diftance,  and  out  of  our  Reach  5  and  cant 
be  communicated  to  us,  though  the  Owner 
was  never  fo  willing.  Secondly,  It  muft 
be  more  agreeable  to  be  Mafter  of  any  Per- 
feftion  our  felves,  than  to  Contemplate  one 
of  the  fame  Nature  in  another  5  becaufe 
every  one  is  more  certain  of  the  kind  In- 
clination he  has  to  himfelf,  than  he  can  be 
of  the  AfFeftion  of  any  other  Perfon 
whatever:  That  I  will  be  always  kind  to 
my  felf,  I  am  as  well  allured  of,  as  that  I 
have  a  Being  5  but  that  another  will  be  fo, 


17         A  Moral  Essay 

is  impoflible  for  me  to  know  :  And  there- 
fore let  a  Man  be  never  fo  Good-natured^ 
it  muft  be  fomewhat  more  Satisfaftory  to 
him,  to  fee  himfelf  well  furnifhed  in  any 
kind,  than  his  Neighbour.  Thirdly,  That 
whicliisour  Own,  and  in  our  Nature,  we 
have  the  moft  intimate  and  vigorous  Senfe 
of  ^  for  thePrefenceofany  defirable  Ob- 
jcfl:,  we  know  is  more  Acceptable  ard  En- 
tertaining, than  either  the  Notion  or  Pro- 
fped  of  it :  Poffeflion  gives  us  the  Life  of 
the  Thing  ^  but  Hopes  and  Fancy  can  fur- 
nifh  out  no  more  at  the  beft,  than  a  Fi- 
gure finely  Drawn.  So  that,  for  Example, 
let  a  Man  be  of  never  fo  generous  and  dif- 
interefted  a  Spirit,  yet  it's  Natural  for  him 
to  be  better  pleafed  with  being  Rich  him- 
felf, (if  he  has  any  Value  for  Riches)  than 
in  having  the  bare  Idea  of  an  Eftatc  :  Be- 
fides,  as  lobferved,  that  which  is  our  Own, 
is  always  at  our  Difpofal,  and  does  notdc- 

Eend  upon  the  uncertain  Inclination  and 
[umour  of  Another. 

Philof.  Very  comfortably  argued  :  I 
find  then  by  your  Difcourfe,  that  a  Man 
may  without  Vanity  be  pleafed  with  his 
Circumftances  3  and  have  good  Thoughts 
of  himfelf  too  if  he  deferves  it.  Now 
fome  People  are  fo  unreafonable,  that  they 
will  neither  give  Men  leave  to  Love,  nor 
Underftand  themfelves  5  if  they  are  Con- 


upon  PRIDE.  I J 

fcious  of  any  commendable  Quality,  they 
muft  be  fiire  to  lay  it  out  of  the  Way,  that 
they  may  not  fee  it  :  Nay,  if  a  Man  has 
taken  never  fo  much  Care  to  make  himfclf 
Infignificant,  in  Order  to  the  promoting  of 
Humility ,they  will  fcarce  let  him  know  he 
is  good  for  nothing  5  for  fear  he  fliould 
grow  Conceited  of  his  Virtue.  But  I  per- 
ceive you  are  not  fo  ftrait-laced,  and  pe- 
dantick  in  your  Notions.  Therefore  if  you 
can  recover  us  no  more  Ground,  let  us 
know  direftly  what  Pride  is  5  and  be  as  fair 
as  you  can. 

Philal.  Why  Pride  in  the  plainefl:  Words 
which  I  can  think  of,  is  too  high  an  Opi- 
nion of  our  own  Excellency. 

Philot,  How  fhall  we  know  when  we 
over-rate  our  felves  ? 

PhiUl.  That  is  a  very  feafonable  Quefti- 
on,  and  abfolutely  neceflary  to  the  State  of 
the  Cafe :  Therefore  I  fliall  lay  down  fome 
indifputable  Marks  of  this  Vice  5  that  when- 
ever we  fee  the  Tokens,  we  may  conclude 
the  Plague  is  in  the  Houfe. 

PInlot.  Let  us  hear  your  Dlagnofticks. 

Philal.  Firft,  Then  we  may  be  affured 
we  have  this  Difeafe,  when  we  value  any 
Perfon  chiefly  becaufe  his  Advantages  are 
of  the  fame  Nature  with  thofe  we  Enjoy  ^ 
neglcfting  Others  who  have  an  equal  Right 
to  Regard,  only  becaufe  their  Privileges 


14-        ^MoralEssay 

are  of  a  different  Kind  from  our  own.  For 
inftance.  When  Men  who  derive  their  Con- 
fiderablenefs  from  the  Sword,  the  Gown^ 
or  their  Anceftours,  think  none  worthy 
their  Efteem  but  fuch  as  claim  under  their 
own  Pretences  ^  in  this  Cafe  it's  evident,  it 
can  be  nothing  but  Partiality  and  Conceit^ 
ednefs  which  makes  them  give  the  Prehe- 

Secondly,  We  may  certainly  conclude  our 
felves  infefted  with  this  Vice,  when  we  In- 
vade the  Rights  of  our  Neighbour  -^  not  up- 
on the  account  of  Covetoufnefs,but  of  Do- 
minion  ^  only  that  we  may  have  it  in  our 
Power  to  create  Dependencies,  and  to  give 
another  that  which  is  already  his  own. 

Thirdly,  When  Men  don  t  meafure  their 
civil  Advantages  by  the  Laws  of  their  Coun- 
try, but  by  their  own  Fancies,  and  the  Sub- 
millions  of  Flatterers  5  this  is  another  infal- 
lible Sign  they  are  Proud. 

Fourthly,  To  mention  no  more.  When 
Men  love  to  make  themfelves  the  Subjeft  of 
Difcourfe  :  To  con  over  their  Pedigrees, 
and  obtrude  the  Blazon  of  their  Exploits 
upon  the  Company  5  this  is  an  Argument 
they  are  overgrown  with  Conceit  5  and  ve- 
ry much  fmitten  with  themfelves. 

Philot.  Though  I  think  you  have  hit  the 
Symptoms  pretty  well,  yet  except  they  are 
marked  fomewhatmore  diftinftly,  'tispof- 


uponVRlDE.  15 

fible  for  a  Man  to  have  moft  of  them  with- 
out being  e'er  the  wifer.  For  unlefs  we  are 
able  to  draw  up  a  juft  State  of  the  Degrees 
of  Merit,  we  can  never  take  the  true  Height 
of  our  Pretenfions  5  and  being  in  this  Un- 
certainty, it's  odds  if  Self-love  does  not 
make  us  determine  to  the  Prejudice  of  our 
Neighbours.  Now  I  would  gladly  know 
how  we  muft  go  to  work,  to  be  fufficiently 
informed  in  this  Point. 

PhiUl.  We  muft  endeavour  to  get  right 
Apprehenfions  of  the  feveral  Excellences 
of  Humane  Nature  5  and  what  Proportion 
they  hold  to  each  other  :  In  order  to  the 
affifting  our  Judgment  in  this  Cafe,  I  ftiall 
lay  down  thefe  general  Rules. 

Firft,  Thofe  Advantages  wjiich  fpring 
from  our  felves  3  which  are  the  EfFefts  of 
our  Power  and  Courage  5  of  our  Induftry 
orUnderftanding,  are  more  valuable  than 
thofe  which  are  derived,  and  borrowed  5 
becaufe  they  are  a  Sign  of  a  Richer  and 
more  Aftive  Nature. 

Secondly,  Thofe  Qualities  which  are  moft 
ufeful  ought  to  have  the  Preference  :  For 
fince  Acknowledgments  ought  tobefuitable 
to  the  Nature  of  Benefits  received,  thofe 
who  have  the  largeft  Capacity  of  Obliging, 
may  fairly  Challenge  the  Preheminence  in 
our  Efteem  5  and  therefore  in  the  third 
place,    The   Duration   of   an  Advantage 


i6         A  Moral  Essay 

ought  to  be  confider'd  ^  and  that  which  has 
the  firmefl:  Conftitution,  and  is  moft  likely 
to  continue,  ought  to  be  preferr'd  to  Others 
which  are  brittle  and  fhort-Iived.  Thefe 
Rules  carefully  apply*d,  will  fliew  us  how 
far  our  Pretenfions  to  Regard  are  fhort  of, 
or  exceed  other  Mens  ^  and  fo  prevent  an 
over-weening  Opinion  of  our  felves.  How- 
ever, we  are  to  obferve,  that  outward  Re- 
fpeft  ought  to  be  given  according  to  the 
Diftinftions  of  Law  5  and  though  a  Man 
may  happen  to  be  very  Defcftive  in  Point 
of  Merit,  yet  we  ought  to  take  notice  of  the 
Value  Authority  has  fet  upon  him. 

Philot.  Give  me  leave  to  put  in  a  Word, 
which  is  to  tell  you,  that  though  I  am  not 
fatisfied  with  your  Inftances,  yet  I  am  glad 
to  find  you  will  allow  us  different  Degrees 
of  Worth.  I  was  almofl:  afraid  you  would 
have  fet  all  Mankind  upon  a  Level. 

PhilaL  To  deliver  you  from  fuch  Ap- 
prehenfions,  I  freely  grant  you,  that  the  Di- 
ftinftions  of  Quality  ought  to  be  kept  up  for 
the  Encouragement  of  Induftry,  and  the 
fupport  of  Government.  I  hope,  now  you 
have  the  Reafon  of  my  Conceffion,  you 
will  not  be  fo  Sufpicious  for  the  future. 

Philot.  No,  not  till  you  give  me  a  farther 
Occafion  ^  Efpecially  fince  the  Inference  of 
your  Difcourfe  is  not  unacceptable  5  from 
whence  it  foUoweth,    That  when  a  Man 


upon  PRIDE.  17 

fees  plainly  that  he  has  the  Advantage  of 
his  Neighbour,  he  may  let  him  underftand 
fo  much  without  any  Offence  to  Humility^ 
PhiUt.  No  doubt  of  it  5  efpecially  when 
his  Station  is  Publick:  But  then  the  Difco- 
very  of  his  Superiority  ought  to  be  managed 
with  a  great  deal  of  Art  and  good  Natiare  5  . 
to  which  we  are  oblig  d  not  only  in  point 
of  Complaifance,  but  Juftice  :  For  though 
there  is  often  a  real  difference  between  one 
Man  and  another,  yet  the  Party  who  has  the 
Advantage  ufually  magnifies  the  Inequality 
beyond  all  Senfe  and  Proportion.  Men  don't 
confider  that  the  great  Privileges  of  Humane 
Nature  are  common  to  the  whole  Kind  5 
fuch  as  being  equally  related  to  God  and 
Adam^  Reafon  and  Immortality,  the  fame 
Number  of  Senfes,  and  much  of  the  fame 
Perfedion  and  Continuance.     And  as  for 
thofc  Things  which  are  the  peculiar  Advan- 
tages of  a  few  ^  they  are  either  acquired  and 
enjoyed  by  the  ftrengtli  of  thofe  general 
Ones  I  have  mentioned,  or  elfe  they  are 
foreign,  and  in  a  great  Meafure  Chimeri- 
cal 5  and  therefore  can  be  no  real  Enrich- 
fnents  of  our  Nature  :  They  are  often  no 
more  than  the  Bleffings  of  Chance,  of  Flat- 
tery, and  Imagination  3   and  though  they 
may  {et  us  upon  higher  Ground,  yet  they 
tan  add  nothing  to  the  true  Stature  of  out 
Being  i  But  toCombate  this  Vice  more  fuc- 

€  cefsfully^' 

i8  A  Moral  Essay 

cefsfully,  we'll  examine  it's  mofl:  plaufible 
Pretences,  and  fee  if  we  can  difcover  the 
Weaknefs  of  them. 

Philot.  What  Pretences  are  tliofe  ? 
Philal.  I  mean  Learning,  Nobility,  and 
Power  5  for  thefe  you  know  are  accounted 
the  brighteft  and  moft  diftinguifhing  Ad- 
vantages. But  though  they  ought  all  to  be 
confidered,  yet  Ibelieve  there  is  much  more 
Weight  laid  upon  them,  than  in  ftrift  Rea- 
son they  will  bear. 

Philot.  You  talk  as  if  you  were  retained 
by  the  Mobile,  and  had  a  Mind  to  bring  us 
back  to  our  Original  State  of  Ignorance  and 

PhiUL  I  tell  you  once  again,  you  are 
much  miftaken.  I  have  no  defign  to  leffen 
the  Value  of  any  Man's  Honour,  or  Under- 
ftanding;  LetPeople  have  as  much  Senfe  and 
Quality  as  they  pleafe  5  provided  they  dont 
grow  troublefome  and  ridiculous  about  it. 

Philot.  I  fomewhat  fafpeft  you  have  a 
Mind  to  engrofs  this  Vice  of  Pride  to  your 
felf.  This  fort  of  Difcourfe  looks  like  de- 
claiming againft  Arbitary  Power  ^  where 
the  fharpeft  Invedives  are  commonly  made 
by  the  moft  enterprifing,  and  unmortified 
Men  5  who  are  only  Angry  that  they  are 
not  pofTefTed  of  that  Abfolutenefs  Them- 
felves  which  they  endeavour  to  render  Odi- 
ous in  Others. 


upon  PRIDE. 

Philal.  You  are  fomewhat  fmart !  How- 
ever let  me  tell  you,  if  I  have  any  fuch  Pro- 
jcft  as  you  Imagine,  you  have  me  upon  a 
fair  Dilemma.  For,  if  myReafonsagainft 
Pride  hold  good,  they  will  ftandupon  Re- 
cord againft  my  Self  ^  which  I  fuppofe  will 
be  no  undcceptnble  Revenge  for  you  :  If 
they  areinfignificant,  you  will  have  the  Di- 
verfion  of  Laughing  at  the  Folly  of  the  At-^ 
tempt :  And  which  is  more  confiderable, 
you  may  keep  your  good  Opinion  of  your 
Self  into  the  Bargain. 

Philot.  Pray  begin  your  Attack  as  you 
think  fit,  and  for  Difpute  fake,  I'll  try  how 
far  I  can  maintain  the  Ground  againft  you. 

Philal.  Firft  then,  Learning  ( to  begirt 
there)  and  High  Conceit  agree  very  111  to- 
gether :  For  a  Man  of  Letters  may  have  a 
clear  Notion  of  the  Stupidnc^s  and  Defor-- 
tnity  of  this  Vice  ^  and  being  better  ac- 
quainted with  the  Frame  and  Paffions  of  hu- 
mane Nature,  he  can't  choofe  but  difcover' 
how  unacceptable  it  muft  make  him  to  all 
Mankind.  Befides,  he  is  fupposM  to  know, 
that  nothing  in  ftrift  Reafon  deferves  a  true 
Commendation,  but  a  right  ufe  of  the  Li- 
berty of  our  Will  5  which  is  in  every  Ones 
Power  to  manage  to  Advantage. 

Secondly,Learning  gives  us  a  fuller  Convi- 

ftion  of  the  Imperfeftion  of  our  Nature  3 

which  one  would  think  might  difpofe  us  to 

•  C  a  Modefty. 

20         A  Moral  Essay 

Modefty.  The  more  a  Man  knows,  the  more 
he  difcovers  his  Ignorance.  He  can  fcarce 
look  upon  any  part  of  the  Creation,  but  he 
finds  himfelf  encompafied  with  Doubts  and 
Difficulties.  There  is  fcarce  any  thing  fo 
Trifling,  or  feemingly  Common,  but  per- 
plexes his  Underftanding  5  if  he  has  but 
Senfe  enough  to  look  into  all  the  Objeftions 
which  may  be  raifed  about  it.  He  knows 
he  has  a  Being,  'tis  true  5  and  fo  does  a  Pea- 
fant :  But  what  this  Thing  is  which  he  calls 
himfelf,  is  hard  to  fay.  He  has  reafon  to 
believe,  that  he  is  compounded  of  two  ve- 
ry different  Ingredients,  Spirit,  and  Matter  5 
but  how  fuch  unallyed  and  difproportioned 
Subftances  fhould  hold  any  Correfpondence, 
and  Aft  upon  each  Other,  no  Man  s  Learn- 
ing yet  could  ever  tell  him.  Nay,  how  the 
Parts  of  Matter  cohere^  is  a  Queftion  which 
it's  likely  will  never  be  well  anfwer'd  in  this 
Life.  For  though  we  make  ufe  of  the  fair- 
ed Hypothefes^  yet  if  we  purfue  the  Argu- 
ment home,  we  fliall  go  nigh  to  Difpute  a- 
way  our  Bodies,  and  Reafon  our  felves  all 
in  Pieces.  Infomuch,  that  if  we  had  no- 
thing but  Principles  to  encourage  us,  we 
might  juftly  be  afraid  of  going  abroad,  left 
we  fhould  be  blown  away  like  a  Heap  of 
Duft :  For  it's  no  Solution  to  fay,  the  greater 
parts  of  Matter  are  connefted  with  hooked 
Particles^   for  ftill  the  Difficulty  returns. 


upon  PRIDE.  21 

How  thefe  Hooks  were  made  >  ^i/h  cufto- 
diet  ipfos  Cuftodes  .■?  What  is  it  that  faftens 
this  Soder,  and  hnks  thefe  Firft  Principles 
of  Bodies  into  a  Chain  >  And  as  the  more 
refined  Underftandings  know  little  or  no- 

S"§  P^.*^^^'"^^'''^*'  ^"'^  of  tli^  material 
World ;  fo  upon  Enquiry,  we  fliall  find  them 
as  Defeftive  in  their  Skill  about  Moral 
Truths  :  (  excepting  thofe  who  are  taught 
by  Revelation  ^  which  fupernatural  Dif- 
coveries  the  unlearned  are  capable  ofunder- 
ftanding,  as  far  as  their  Happinefs  is  con- 
cerned.) Thofe  who  made  Laws  in  their  re- 
fpeaive  Countries,  we  have  reafon  to  be- 
lieve had  their  Minds  polifhed  above  the 
Vulgar  rate :  And  yet  we  fee  how  unaccount- 
ably the  publick  Conftitutions  of  Nations 
vary.  The  'Ptrfiam  and  Athemam  allowed 
Inceft  5  the  Lacedcmomans,  Stealing  ;  and 
fome  Indians  Herodotus  mentions,  ufed  to 
bury  their  beft  Friends  in  their  Stcmacbs  In 
ihort  the  Rules  of  Decency,  ofGovernmrnt 
of  Jufticeit  felf,  are  fo  different  in  onePlace 
trom  what  they  are  in  Another,  ^o  Party- 
coloured  and  contradiftious,  that  one  would 
almoft  thmk  the  Species  of  Men  Altered  ac- 
cording to  their  Climates;  and  that  they 
had  not  the  fame  Nature  in  common.  One 
would  almoft  think,  that  Right  and  Wron-^ 
Jay  rather  in  the  Fancies  of  Men,  than  in 
the  Reafon  of  Things  ;  and  was  bounded 


1?  A  Moral   Essay 

more  by  Seas  and  Rivers,  than  by  any  un- 
alterable Limits  of  Nature  5  that  Virtue  and 
Vice  were  Minted  by  the  Civil  Magiftrate^ 
and  like  Coins,  would  pafs  for  Currant  on- 
ly in  his  own  Dominions.  The  Heathen 
Philofophers  may  fairly  be  granted,  to 
have  as  good  pretences  to  Learning,  as 
any  other  fort  of  Men  among  them :  And  yet 
we  may  obferve  from  TiJ/j  and  Laertins^ 
what  a  fmall  Proportion  of  folid  Know» 
ledge  they  were  Matters  of  ^  how  ftrange- 
]y  did  they  differ  in  Matters  of  the  high- 
efl:  Import  ?  how  eagerly  did  they  Difpute, 
and  not  without  Probability  on  both  Sides: 
Whether  there  was  any  thing  certain? 
Whether  the  Criterion:!  of  Truth  and  Falfe- 
hood  were  clear  and  indubitable,  or  not? 
Whether  the  Government  of  the  World 
was  CaRial,  Fatal,  or  Providential  ?  How 
rnany  Sumtnum  Bmums  have  they  Prefen- 
ted  us  with  5  Some  of  them  only  fit  to  en- 
tertain a  Brute  \  Others  Noble  enough  for 
a  Spirit  of  the  higheft  Order  ?  It  were  te- 
dious to  recount  the  Differences  one  Seft 
liad  with  another^  their  Inconfiftences  with 
themfelves,  and  the  ridiculous  and  ill-fup- 
ported  Tenets  forne  of  the  moft  famous 
of  them  have  held  :  Infomuch  that  T;///^' 
takes  notice,  that  there  was  no  Opinion  fb 
abfur4,  but  was  held  by  fpme  Philofophtr 
pr  othero  Tis  true^  they  could  Wrangle  aqd 


upon  PRIDE.  23 

Harangue  better  than  the  Common  Peo- 
ple 5  they  could  talk  more  plaufibly  about 
that  they  did  not  underftand  5  but  their 
Learning  lay  chiefly  inFlourifh,  and  Terms, 
and  Cant  ^  for  as  for  any  real  Improve- 
ments in  Science,  they  were  not  much 
Wifer  than  the  lefs-pretending  Multitude. 
Indeed  the  more  Modefl:  of  them  would 
confefs,  That  the  chief  ufe  of  Learning 
was  to  give  us  a  fuller  Difcovery  of  our 
Ignorance  5  and  to  keep  us  from  being  Pe- 
remptofy  and  Dogmatical  in  our  Determi- 
nations. Now  one  would  imagine,  the 
more  intimate  Acquaintance  we  had  with 
thelmperfeftions  of  our  Nature,  the  greater 
Reafon  we  (liould  have  to  be  Humble.  Is 
weaknefs  a  proper  Foundation  to  Ereft  our 
Lofty  Conceits  upon?  Indeed  he  that  has 
not  theLeifure  or  Capacity  to  examine  how 
it's  with  him,  may  be  fondly  perfuaded  to 
fancy  himfelf  fome  Body  5  and  grow  Vain 
upon  the  kind  Prefnmption  :  But  for  a  Man 
to  be  Proud  who  candemonftrate  his  own 
Poverty,  is  little  lefs  than  Madnefs. 

Philot,  If  the  Cafe  (lands  thus,  to  make 
all  fure,  we  had  heft  get  an  Order  to  Burn 
the  Twenty  Four  Letters,  and  hang  up 
CadmMs  in  Effigie  5  for— 

Philal.  Pray  don  t  interrupt  me,  and  I 
will  try  if  I  can  give  you  a  little  Eafe. 
Granting  therefore^  a$  we  may,  thatLearn- 

C  4  ing 

^4-         JMoralEssay 

ing  does  give  fome  Advantage  3  and  that 
pur  Underftandings  are  really  enriched  by  it  § 
yet  in  regard  we  have  but  a  few  Principles 
to  build  upon,  the  greateft  part  of  our 
Knowledge  muft  confift  in  Inferences  § 
which  can't  be  wrought  out  without  great 
Labour  and  Attention  of  Mind  ;  And  when 
we  are  at  any  diftance  from  felf-evident 
Truths,  the  Mind  is  not  only  perplexed 
with  theConfiderationofa  great  many  Cir- 
cumftances,  but  which  is  worfe.  Forgetful- 
nefs,  or  Miftake  in  the  leaft  of  them,  fru- 
ftrates  our  whole  Defign  ^  and  rewards  us 
with  nothing  but  Errourfor  our  Trouble. 

Nov/  he  that  is  fo  liable  to  be  impofed 
ppon,  who  rifes  but  by  Inches,  and  en- 
riches himfelf  by  fuch  flow  and  infenfible 
Degrees  5  *tis  a  Sign  that  his  Stock  was  ei- 
ther very  fmall,  or  that  he  is  unskilful  in  the 
management  of  his  Bufinefs  5  and  therefore 
he  has  noreafon  to  be  proud  of  what  he  has 
gotten  :  Befides,  it's  an  humbling  Confider- 
ation  to  reflecb  what  Pains  we  are  obliged 
to  take  to  Mufter  up  our  Forces  5  and  to 
make  that  little  Reafon  we  have  ferviceablec 
How  faft  does  Obfcurity,  Flatnefs  and  Im- 
pertinency.,  flow  in  upon  our  Meditations  ? 
-Tis  a  difficult  Task  to  talk  to  thePurpofe^ 
and  to  put  Life  and  Perfpicuity  into  our 
Difcourfes  i  Thofewho  are  mod  ready  and 
Inventive^  have  not  their  beft  Thoughts 
*■'  "^""^^  ""  "  '" ''    '        wp" 

upon  PRIDE.  a5 

nppermofi:  :  No,  they  muft  think  upon  the 
Stretch  3  ranfack,  and  turn  over  the  Mind, 
and  put  their  Imagination  into  a  kind  of 
Ferment,  if  they  intend  to  produce  any 
Thing  extraordinary :  So  that  confidering 
the  Trouble,  and  almoft  Violence  we  are 
put  upon,  one  would  think  that  Senfe  and 
Reafon  was  not  made  for  Mankind  ^  and 
that  we  ftrive  againft  our  Natures  when  we 
pretend  to  it. 

Pkilof.  Well  ^  What  though  our  Minds 
were  poor,  and  unfurnifhed  at  firft  5  Is  it 
any  Difparagement  to  us  to  have  more  Wit 
than  we  were  Born  with  >  What  though  we 
can  t  ftrike  out  a  Science  at  a  Heat,  but  are 
forced  to  polifh  our  felves  by  Degrees,  and 
to  work  hard  for  what  v/e  have  >  The  lefs 
we  were  affifted  by  Nature,  the  greater  Com- 
mendation it  is  to  our  Induftry  ^    and  our 
Attainments  are  fo'muchthe  more  ourown. 
And  fince  v:q  have  thus  fairly  diftinguiflied 
our  felves  by  Merit,  why  fhould  we  feem 
unapprehenfive  of  our  Performances  ?  Since 
we  have  paid  fo  dear  for  the  Improvements 
of  our  Underftanding,  and  our  Advantages 
are  gained  with  fo  much  Difficulty,  what 
harmis  it  to  make  our  befl:  of  them  ?  Why 
fhould  we  not  oblige  the  Negligent  to  Di- 
ftance  and  Regard  5   and  make  thofe  who 
are  younger  or  lefs  knowing  than  our  felves, 
fenfible  of  their  Inferiority  > 


a6         ^  M  o  RA  L  Essay 

Phildl.  I  agree  with  you,  as  I  have  al- 
ready hinted,  That  a  Man  may  lawfully 
maintain  his  Character  and  juft  Pretences 
againft  B^udenefs  and  Ignorance  5  efpecially 
when  the  Publick  Good  is  concerned  in  his 
Reputation.  But  when  he  afts  a  Private 
Part,  and  Converfes  with  People  of  Senfe 
and  Modefty,  he  fhould  give  them  but  ve- 
ry gentle  Remembrances  of  his  Preroga- 
tive :  His  Opinion  of  his  own  Worth 
fhould  but  juft  Dawn  upon  them ;  and  at 
themoft,  give  them  but  an  obfcure  and  re- 
mote Notice,  that  heexpefted  any  fingular 
Acknowledgment  :  He  fliould  take  the  Re- 
fpeft  that  is  paid  him,  rather  as  a  Pre- 
fent  than  a  Debt^  and  feem  Thankful  for 
that  which  is  his  own  :  But  to  be  Stiff  and 
formally  referved,  as  if  the  Company  did 
not  deferve  our  Familiarity  5  to  be  Haugh- 
ty and  Contemptuous,  and  to  make  fcanty 
and  underproportioned  Returns  of  Civility  ; 
This  is  a  downright  Challenge  of  Homage  3 
and  plainly  tells  People,  They  muft  be  ve- 
ry Mannerly  :  'Tis  in  efFeft  to  fay  5  Gen- 
tlemen, I  have  more  Learnings  and  have 
done  the  Publick  greater  Service  than  you  5 
and  therefore  I  expeft  to  be  confidered  for 
it  :  You  may  poffibly  fay.  That  I  have 
more  Preferment  too,  and  am  paid  for  my 
Merit  in  Mony  5  but  that  ftiall  not  ferve 
your  Turn  :    For  except  you  (hew  your 


upon  PRIDE  27 

felves  very  Dutiful,  I  (hall  give  you  broad 
Signs  of  my  Diffatisfaftion  5  and  never  let 
you  have  the  Honour  of  Converfing  with 
me  again.  Now  fach  a  Man,  if  he  went 
much  abroad,  would  plague  Mankind  more 
with  his  Company,  than  he  could  Oblige 
them  with  his  Writings  5  though  they  were 
never  fo  confiderable.  Such  People  {eem  to 
owe  their  Parts  to  their  ill  Temper  :  Their 
Induftry  is  Malicious  .3  and  they  have  taken 
pains  not  fo  much  to  Oblige  the  World,  as 
to  get  an  Opportunity  of  Trampling  upon 
their  Inferiours.  Had  they  been  good-na- 
tur'd,  they  would  have  been  as  dull  and  in- 
fignificant  as  their  Neighbours.  But  their 
imperious  Carriage  is  jufl:  as  reafonable,  as 
it  would  have  been  for  the  old  Athlet£  to 
have  drudged  hard  in  Eating  and  Exercife, 
that  they  might  employ  their  Bulk  and  Afti- 
vity  in  bcatins;  every  one  who  was  weaker, 
and  lefs  skilful  than  themfelves. 

Phllot.  By  your  Difcourfe  you  feem  to 
mjftake  the  Matter  5  and  not  to  v/eigh  things 
rightly.  Tis  not  Superiority  that  thcfe 
Gentlemen  of  Learning  are  fo  Solicitous 
about  ^  'tis  not  Perfonal  Advantage  whicii 
rliey  chiefly  intend  by  their  Refervednefs  : 
They  have,  no  doubt,  a  more  publicfeand 
generous  Defign  :  For  you  may  obferve, 
they  ufnallybear  hardcft  upon  thofeofth(.ir 
p.wn  Order  and  Profctrion  :^  which  is  no- 

a8        A  MoR  AL  Essay 

thing  but  a  forced  and  politick  Statelinefs 
for  the  promoting  of  Knowledge  in  Others. 
The  young  Fry,  whether  you  know  it  or 
not,  muft  be  held  at  a  Diftance,  and  kept 
under  the  DifcipHne  of  Contempt.  If  you 
give  them  any  tolerable  Quarter,  you  in- 
dulge them  in  their  Idlenefs  5  and  ruin  them 
to  all  Intents  and  Purpofes.  For  who 
would  be  at  the  Trouble  of  Learning,  when 
he  finds  his  Ignorance  is  careffed  ^  and  that 
he  is  eafy  and  acceptable  enough  in  the 
Company  of  the  beft  Authors  of  the  Town? 
But  when  you  Brow-beat  them,  and  Maul 
them,  you  make  them  Men  for  ever  :  for 
Vexatio  dat  intelleUum  5  though  they  have 
no  natural  Mettle,  yet  if  they  are  fpurred 
and  kicked  they  will  mend  their  Pace,  if 
they  have  any  Feeling.  Such  rigorous  U- 
fage  will  make  them  ftudy  Night  and  Day 
to  get  oat  of  this  ignominious  Condition  5 
in  hopes,  that  it  may  come  to  their  own 
Turn  to  be  Proud  one  Day.  Take  my 
Word  for  it,  There  is  no  fuch  Way  to  make 
a  Scholar,  as  to  keep  him  under  while  he  is 
Young,  or  Unpreferred. 

FhllaL  Notwithftanding  your  Flourifli, 
I  can  t  perfwade  my  felf,  that  this  Difpen- 
fation  of  Pride  is  fo  mighty  ufeful  as  you 
pretend.  I  fhould  think  fuch  an  outward 
Management  of  any  Accomplifhments , 
fhould  rather  difcourage  Others  from  at- 


tempting  fuch  dangerous  Circumftances. 
If  Senfe  and  Learning  are  fuch  unfociable 
imperious  Things  ,  a  Good-natur'd  Man 
ought  to  take  efpecial  Gare  not  to  im- 
prove too  faft.  He  ought  to  keep  down 
the  Growth  of  his  Reafon,  and  curb  his 
Intelleftuals,  when  he  finds  them  ready  to 
out-ftrip  his  Neighbours.  I  affbre  you,  if 
I  was  of  your  Opinion,  and  thought  my 
felf  near  the  Temptation  to  fo  much  ill 
Humour,  I  would  never  look  on  a  Book 

Philot.  Come,  when  you  have  faid  all , 
there  is  no  keeping  up  the  Gredit  of  Learn- 
ing, without  that  which  you  call  a  re- 
fer ved  Behaviour.     For  if  thofe  who  are 
Eminent  this  Way,  fhould  condefcend  to 
thofe    Familiarities    which   you  feem  to 
defire  ,   the    Honour  of   their  Profeflion 
would  fuffer  much  by  it  5  if  they  (hould 
converfe  upon  the  Level,  the  Veneration 
which  their  Inferiours  have  for  them  would 
quickly  wear  off  :  And  if  the  Vulgar  ob- 
ferved  there  was  no  Diftinftion  kept  up 
amongfl:  the  Men  of  Letters  5  they  would 
fufpeft  there  was  nothing  extraordinary  in 
any  of  them.    Pray  who  are  fuppofed  to 
be  the  beft  Judges  of  Learning,  Thofe  who 
have  it,  or  Others  ? 

PhilaL  No  doubtj  Thofe  who  have  it. 


^o         ^MoralEssay 

Philof.  Thenif  they  feem  to  undervalue 
it  Themfelves,  Is  not  this  the  Way  to  bring 
it  into  a  general  Dif-repute?  I  tell  you  once 
again,  if  the  Privileges  of  Merit  are  not 
infifted  upon,  all  muft  go  to  wrack.  If  a 
Man  who  has  digefted  all  the  Fathers^  and 
is  ready  to  add  himfelf  to  the  Number, 
(hews  any  tolerable  Countenance  to  one 
who  has  fcarce  rubbed  through  Igmti^s^  ^nd 
lets  a  pure  Ef/glip  Divine  go  Cheek  by  Jole 
with  him,  the  Commonwealth  of  Learning 
will  grow  almoft  as  Contemptible  as  that  of 
the  Pigmies  ^  and  be  only  fit  to  Write  Ro- 
mances upon. 

'Ph'ilaL  I  fhall  not  enquire  how  far  this 
lofty  Method  may  advance  the  Reputation 
of  Learning  5  but  lam  pretty  fure  it's  no 
great  Addition  to  theirs  who  ufe  it  5  for  it 
only  makes  others  more  inquifitive  into 
their  Defefts,  and  more  inclinable  to  Ex- 
pofe  them.  If  they  take  them  tardy,  they 
endeavour  to  huml3le  them  by  way  of  Re- 
prizal.  Thofe Slips  and  Mifmanagements  are 
ufually  ridiculed  and  aggravated,  when  fuch 
Perfons  are  guilty  of  them  •  which  would 
be  over-looked,  or  excufcd,  in  others  of  a 
more  modeit  and  affable  Converfation.  If 
they  happen  to  be  found  inconfiftent  with 
themfelves :  If  their  Vanity  of  appearing 
fingular  puts  them  upon  advancing  Para- 
doxes, and  proving  them  as  Paradoxicallyo 


upon  PRIDE.  51 

If  a  Prefumption  upon  their  own  Strength, 
and  a  Defire  of  greater  Trinttiph  makes  them 
venture  too  far  into  the  Enemies  Quarters, 
and  take  up  a  Poft  which  they  can't  main- 
tain 5  they  are  ufually  Laught  at  for  their  Fol- 
ly, and  left  to  fhift  for  themfel  ves :  For  Pride 
never  has  any  Friends  5  and  all  Men  are  glad 
of  a  juft  Occafion  to  lefTen  his  Reputation 
who  makes  fuch  an  ill-natured  Ufcof  it. 

Philot,  I  conceive  you  harp  a  little  too 
much  upon  one  String :  Do  you  think  the 
inferiour  Clergy,  for  whom  you  are  now 
pleading,  are  difcouraged  by  none  but  thofe 
of  their  own  Profeffion  ? 

Philal.  No,  I  grant  there  is  another  Sort 
of  People  who  ufe  them  with  Neglcft 
enough  :  But  then  they  are  fomcwhat 
more  to  be  excufed.  They  have  not  fuch 
fair  Opportunities  to  underfland  the  ji-fl  Pre- 
tences of  a  liberal  Education,  and  a  fleligi- 
ous  Employment.  They  are  apt  to  fall  un- 
der unfortunate  Hands  in  their  Minority  : 
The  Vanity  of  their  Parents,  and  the  Kna- 
very of  Flatterers,  often  gives  them  a  wrong 
Notion  of  themfelves  5  and  makes  them  ad- 
mire nothing  but  Wealth  and  Grcatnefs  ; 
and  think  no  Condition  deferves  Regard 
but  that  which  refembles  their  own.  Be- 
fides,  their Negleft  looks  lefs  unaccountable 
by  reafon  of  their  Quality  5  and  their  Breed- 
ing makes  their  Pride  fit  more  decently  up- 

^2        A  MoR  AL  Essay 

on  them.  They  ufually  Contemn  with  a  bet- 
ter Grace  than  others  :  For  there  is  a  great 
deal  of  Art  and  Myftery  in  Pride,  to  man- 
age it  handfomely  :  A  Man  might  almoftas 
foon  learn  a  Trade :  And  if  we  obferve,  we 
fhall  find  that  thofe  who  were  not  brought 
up  to  it,  feldom  prove  their  Crafts-mafter  ^ 
or  praftife  with  any  fort  of  Addrefs.  To 
which  I  may  add,  That  fuch  Perfons  are 
ufually  willing  to  pay  for  their  Imperiouf- 
nefs  ^  fo  that  a  Man  is  not  made  a  Fool  for 
nothing.  But  when  this  lofty  Humour  is 
clumfily  and  inartificially  managed,  when  it's 
affefted  by  thofe  of  afelf-denyingand  mor« 
tiffed  Profeffion  5  and  who  get  their  Living 
by  declaiming  againft  it  :  When  it's  taken 
up  by  Men  of  Senfe,  who  may  well  be  ex- 
pefted  to  fee  through  the  Folly  of  this  Vice  3 
and  who  generally  have  not  thofePretences 
of  a  byaffed  Education  to  mifguide  them  2 
Efpecially  when  they  play  it  upon  Perfons 
of  their  own  Order,  who  were  Born  and 
Bred  to  as  fair  Expectations  ofPvegard  as 
themfelves  5  and  are  fometimes  their  Inferi- 
ours  in  nothing  fo  much  as  in  Succefs  5  This 
is  fuch  a  fingular  Praftice,  that  I  had  rather 
leave  itundefcribed,  than  be  forced  to  give 
it  it's  proper  Charafter. 

Ph'ilot,  I  believe  you  v/ill  be  willing  t6 
abate,  if  not  toretrad  your  Cenfure,  when 
you  confider  that  thefe  Gentlemen  of  the 


upon  VRIDE.  3^ 

Gown,  whom  yon  think  too  much  depref- 
fed,  are  many  of  them  Curates :  And  is  it 
not  very  reafonable  there  (hould  be  a  Di- 
fiance  obferved  between  Mafters  and  Ser- 
vants? If  you  Confound  thefe  two  Relati- 
ons by  lavifh  and  indifcreet  Familiarities, 
you  deftroy  the  Refpeft  3  and  by  degrees, 
the  very  Notion  of  Superiority.  If  there  is 
is  not  a  due  Homage  Paid  in  Converfation, 
thofe  who  are  in  a  ftate  of  Subjeftion,  will 
neither  know  their  Condition,  nor  their 
Duty:  They  will  be  apt  to  forget  they 
hold  by  a  Servile  Tenure  5  and  think  them- 
felves  enfranchifed  from  all  maimer  of  Suit 
and  Service.  Befides,  if  the  Parfon  ftiould 
ufe  his  Curate  with  that  Freedom  which  you 
infinuatc,  as  if  there  was  neither  Depen- 
dance  nor  Obligation  between  them  ^  thisi 
might  be  of  very  ill  Example  to  the  Parifh, 
and  make  all  other  Servants  challenge  ths 
fame  Liberty^  and  grow  pert  upon  their 
Mafters :  And  When  this  Sawcinefs  became 
univerfal,  as  it's  likely  it  might  do  in  a  fhort 
time^  what  lefs  Mifchief  could  be  expefted 
from  it,  than  an  old  Scj/thi  in  Rebellion  ? 

Bhilai .  I  confefs,  I  was  not  aware  tha 
Being  cf  Government  depended  fo  m.uch 
upon  the  Dlftinftion  between  R.e6bor  and 
Curate^  and  that  if  the  modern  Wayof  Di- 
ftance  and  Subordination  Wc?s  not  kept  up^ 
we  muft  prefently  return  to  Hohs^  State  of 

54-         ^  Moral  Essay 

Nature.  If  a  Curate  be  fuch  a  dangerous 
thing,that  a  little  Civil  Ufage  to  him  is  rea- 
dy to  make  the  World  fall  about  our  Ears, 
I  wonder  why  fo  many  of  them  are  fufFer- 
ed.  Now  without  raifing  the  Pojfe  Comita- 
tus^  if  the  Plpiralijls  would  but  do  their  beft 
to  fupprefs  them  ,  their  Number  might 
quickly  be  fo  retrenched,  that  they  would 
not  be  in  the  leafl:  Formidable.  But  you 
feem  to  argue  all  this  while  upon  a  wrong 
Principle  5  you  take  it  for  granted,  that 
Curates  are  Servants  5  Now  if  this  proves  a 
Miftake,  you  will  own  they  may  be  treated 
with  a  little  more  Freedom,  without  any 
Danger  to  Authority. 

Philot.  Who  doubts  their  being  Ser- 
vants > 

Philal.  I  do  5  and  for  very  good  Rea- 

Philot.  See  how  a  Man  may  be  miftaken ! 
I  thought  the  Englijh  of  Curate,  had  been 
an  Ecclefiaftical  Hireling. 

PhiUL  No  fuch  matter  3  the  proper  Im- 
port of  the  Word  fignifies.  One  who  has 
the  Cure  of  Souls :  Therefore  in  i^r^z^^e,  all 
Parochial  Priefts  are  called  Curates  ^  as  they 
are  likewife  in  our  Rubrick  and  Common- 

Philot.  I  find  then  there  lies  no  Servitude 
in  the  Name  ^  fo  that  it  muft  be  either  the 
Deputation^  or  Salary  which  they  receive 


upon  PRIDE.  55 

from  the  Inftituted  Prieft,  which  finks  them 
into  this  Condition. 

Phil  J.  That  there  is  no  Servitude  in  ei- 
ther of  thefe,  I  am  ready  to  make  good* 
I.  Not  in  the  Office :  And  here  I  mufl:  crave 
Leave  to  ask  you  a  few  Queftions. 

Philot.  Take  your  Method. 

Philal.  What  in  your  Apprehenfion  is  a 
Curate's  Employment  ? 

Philot.  To  ferve  God  in  the  Publick  Of- 
fices of  Religion  5  and  to  take  Care  of  the 

PhilaL  Then  he  is  not  entertained  to 
ferve  the  Redor. 

Philot.  Go  on. 

PhilaL  In  the  next  place,  I  defire  to 
know  whether  Authority  is  not  EfTential  to 
a  Mafter. 

Philot.  Who  Qjeftions  it> 

Philal.  Has  the  Curare  his  Authority  to 
Preach,  and  Adminifter  the  Sacraments, 
from  the  Reftor  ? 

Philot,  No  ^  from  the  Bifiiop. 

Philal.  May  not  a  Mafter  turn  away  his 
Servants  when  he  pleafes? 

Philot.  I  think  Co. 

PhilaL  But  ihe  Fvcftor  has  no  Power  to 
remove  the  Curate,  after  he  is  Licenfed  and 
Fixed  by  the  Bidiop.  To  fum  up  the  Evi- 
dence therefore  :,  if  the  Curate  was  nor  en- 
tertained to  wait  upon  i\\z  Ri^clor,  nor  has 
D  2  his 

36  A  MoR  AL  Essay 

his  Authority  from  him,  nor  can  be  re- 
moved from  his  Employment,  I  think  it  is 
pretty  plain,  he  is  none  of  his  Servant. 

Philot.  Well  5  but  does  not  the  Parfon 
make  Choice  of  him,  and  Pay  him. 

PhilaL  Don  t  a  Corporation  choofe  a 
Mayor  ? 

Philot.  What  then  ? 

PhilaL  Pray  whofe  Servant  is  he  after  his 
Eleftion  > 

Philot.  None  but  the  Kings,  that  I 
know  of  :  But  you  have  not  anfwered  the 
later  Part  of  my  Objedion,  about  his  being 
paid  by  the  Reftor. 

PhilaL  If  you  had  not  called  for  my  An* 
fwer,  I  had  waved  it  for  your  fake  5  be- 
caufe  I  think  your  Objeftion  borders  fome- 
what  upon  Treafon. 

Philot.  How  fo  ? 

PhilaL  Why  5  Is  it  not  of  kin  to  Trea- 
fon to  fay,  the  Subjefts  are  Mafters  over 
the  Supreme  Authority? 

Philot.  If  Nonfenfe  will  not  excufe  a 
Man,  I  think  it  is. 

PhilaL  But  your  Argument  proves  the 
Kins^  a  Servant  to  the  People. 

Philot.  How? 

PhilaL  Becaufe  they  pay  him  Taxes  5 
and  that  among  other  Reafons,  by  way  of 
Acknowledgment  of  the  Benefits  of  his  Go- 
vernment^ and  that  they  may  fnew  them- 


upon  PRIDE.  57 

felves  willing,  if  it  was  in  their  Power,  lo 
requite  him  ior  his  Care  of  the  State. 

Philot.  Pray  why  fo  much  Concern  to 
prove  Curates  no  Servants  ? 

PhiUl.  Becaufe  I  am  willing  to  refcne 
them  from  that  Contempt  which  they  will 
certainly  fall  into,  as  long  as  they  pafs  un- 
der this  Notion:  Which  confidering  the 
Number  of  Perfons  Officiating  this  Way, 
muft  be  very  Prejudicial  to  Religion.  Be- 
fides,  it  makes  fome  Perfons,  who  are  fit 
to  do  the  Church  Service,  f^^fpcnd  them- 
felves :  and  (hew  their  Priefthood  only  by 
their  Habit,  rather  than  ferve  God  under 
fuch  uncreditablc  Circumftances :  And  for 
the  fame  Reafon,  Others  are  tempted  to 
grow  too  fond  of  a  Prefentation  5  and 
choofe  rather  to  court  it  by  Flattery,  or 
other  indireft  Praftices,  than  be  condem- 
ned to  the  fervile  Condition  of  a  Curate. 
For  let  me  tell  you,  it  is  no  ordinary  piece 
of  Self-Denial,  for  aMan  of  a  generous  Edu- 
cation, who  has  been  trained  up  all  along 
to  Freedom  and  good  Ufage,  to  be  degra- 
ded in  his  Manhood,  when  the  Mind  is 
moft  in  Love  with  Liberty,  and  to  enter 
wpon  Bufinefs  with  Marks  of  Difadvantage, 
when  he  (lands  mofl:  in  need  of  Reputation. 
To  my  thinking,  this  is  a  very  difcourag^ 
ing  and  prepofterous  Way  of  Educating 
the  Clergy.     If  a  Man  mufl  go  to  Service, 

D  :^  he 

38  A  Moral  Essay 

he  had  better  begin  with  it  as  they  do  in 
Trades,  and  not  be  Mafter  at  firft,  and 
then  be  forced  to  turn  Apprentice,  or  Jour- 
ny-man  afterwards.  Of  fuch  ill  confe- 
quence  it  is  to  mifcall  Things  5  and  as  Plato 
obferves,  That  an  Alteration  of  the  Notes  in 
Mufick  is  apt  to  produce  an  Innovation  in 
the  Laws  and  Cuftoms  of  a  Country  :  S3 
by  changing  the  Names  of  Offices  for  Others 
of  lefs  Repute,  we  change  the  Ufes  and 
Defignsof  thcm^  and  make  them  lefsSatis- 
faftory  co  thofe  engaged,  and  lefs  Servicea- 
ble to  the  Publick,  than  they  would  have 
been  if  the  Charafter  of  their  Inftitution  had 
been  kept  up. 

Phiiot.  Granting  at  prefent  what  you 
fay  to  be  true,  yet  aCurate  feems  to  lie  un- 
der another  Difadvantage  -^  which  makes 
him  confidered  with  Abatement. 

Philal.  What  is  that  > 

PbHot.  Why,  People  are  apt  to  Fancy, 
that  it  is  the  Want  either  of  Parts  or  Con- 
duft,  which  keeps  him  without  a  Patron. 

PhilaL  If  People  think  fo,  I  am  forry 
their  Senfe  and  Charity  is  no  greater  5  for 
if  they  examined  Things  fairly,  they  would 
find  that  the  being  a  Curate  is  no  Argument 
of  a  Man's  Infignificancy  ^  nor  any  juft  Ble- 
mifli  to  his  Reputation.  For  it  is  ofren  the 
Integrity  and  generous  Temper  of  his  Mind, 
wliich  hinders  him  from  a  better  Provifion ; 


upon  PRIDE.  29 

it  is  becaufe  he  will  not  flatter  the  Pride  of 
Some,  nor  keep  pace  with  the  Bigotry  of 
Others 5  becaufe  he  will  neither  court  Great- 
nefs  nor  Faftion  ^  nor  make  himfelf  Popu- 
lar to  the  Difadv^ntage  of  his  Audience. 
Becaufe  he  cannot  digeft  aSimoniacal  Con- 
trad  ^  nor  charge  through  Perjury  with  the 
Courage  of  an  Evidence.  In  fhort  5  it  is  bis 
plain  and  impartial  dealing  with  the  Peo- 
ple, hisRefolution  to  preferve  the  Decency 
of  his  Charafter,  and  the  Innocence  of  his 
Confcience,  which  bars  his  Promotion :  So 
that  if  he  was  Mean  enough  to  Complain, 
he  might  have  the  Satisfaction  to  apply  this 
Sentence  of  T////)/ to  himfelf,  Non  nos  vitia 
fed  virtutes  afflixcrimt, 

Philot.  What  a  broad  Inaendo  is  here  up- 
on the  Beneficed  Clergy  ? 

PhiUL  1  am  glad  you  have  given  me  an 
Opportunity  of  Explaining  my  felf.  My 
meaning  is  not,That  thofe  who  are  poiTefTed 
of  Livings,  have  gained  them  by  fuch  indi- 
reft  Courfes :  God  forbid  !  I  only  fay. 
That  all  Men  are  not  Co  lucky  as  to  have  the 
Offer  of  fair  Conditions  ^  and  thofe  who 
have  not,  muft  be  Curates  if  they  will  be 
honefl:  5  or  clfe  lay  by  the Ufe  of  their  Prieft- 
hood  ^  which  I  am  afraid  is  not  very  ac- 

Philot.  I  confefs  you  have  brou g;ht  your 
felf  off  well  enough  :  But  now  I  think  on*t, 

D  4  you 

40         ^IMoralEssay 

you  muft  try  to  maintain  the  Liberty  of 
3^our  Curate  a  little  more  convincingly. 
For  fome  fay,  there  lies  Prefcription  and 
immemorial  Cuftom  againft  it  ^  and  then 
you  know  he  is  a  Servant'by  Common  Law. 

Philal.  Not  at  all  5  For  as  we  are  lately 
told  by  a  great  Lawyer,  Prefcription  is  good 
for  nothing  where  there  are  any  Records  to 
the  contrary. 

Philot.  What  Records  can  you  produce? 

Philal.  Why,  to  mention  no  more,  the 
i^th  of  the  Apoftles  Canon,  and  the  80^^ 
of  the  Council  of  Eliherk^  are,  I  think,  con- 
fiderable  Evidence  ^  the  firft  of  which,  for- 
bids the  Ordaining  of  thofe  who  had  Mar- 
ried a  Servant  ^  and  the  other,  excludes 
manumized  Perfons,  while  their  Patrons 
were  Living,  from  the  Priefthood. 

Philot.  Say  you  fo  ?  Then  I  fancy  thofe 
who  drew  up  Qufen  Elizabeth's  Injunfti- 
pns,  knew  nothing  of  this  Piece  of  Antiqui-r 
^y  you  mention. 

Philal.  YourReafon? 

philot.  Becaufe  by  thofe  Injunftions,  ^ 
Clcrgy-mari  could  not  lawfully  Marry  till 
he  had  gone  and  made  his  Complaint  againft 
Celibacy,  before  two  Jufticesof  the  Peace  :^ 
and  gained  their  Confent,  and  the  good  Wili 
ff  the  Majler^  or  Mijlrefs  where  the  Damfel 


upon  PRIDE.  41 

PkilaL  And  then  I  fiippofe,  if  he  could 
not  prevail  by  hisRhetorick,  they  gave  him 
a  Warrant  to  Diftrein. 

Philot.  Or  poffibly,  if  he  courted  in  y^r-f 
ma  pai:pcris^  they  affigned  him  2iV^iiQ gratk 
our  of  an  Hofpital. 

PhilaL  Upon  my  Word,  this  Order, 
t:?kc  it  which  Way  you  will,  has  afingular 
Afpeft  ^  and  looks  as  if  intended  to  put 
the  Clergy  in  Mind,  that  they  ought  not 
to  afpire  above  an  Abigal.  Certainly,  Dif- 
cretion  and  Merit  ran  very  low  in  the 
Church  at  that  Time  ^  or  elfe,  fome  Peo- 
ple were  willing  to  make  the  Nation  believe 
fo.  But  to  return  to  the  Canans  5  the  De- 
fign  of  v/hich  was  to  fecure  the  R  eputation 
of  the  Clergy  5  but  according  to  the  modern 
Opinion,  this  Provifion  fignifies  nothings 
for  if  a  man  muft  go  to  Service  after  he  is  in 
Orders,  had  he  not  as  good  do  it  before?  In 
your  Senfe,  he  often  only  changes  his  Lay 
for  an  Ecclefiaftical  Mailer^  which  fome- 
times  might  be  fo  far  from  an  Advantage, 
that  it  would  make  the  Servitude  the  more 
uneafie  5  by  being  fubjefted  toOne,uo  rnore 
than  Equal  to  himfelf. 

Philot.  I  grant  you  ;  in  the  Primitive 
Times,  the  Advantage  of  Priefthood  was 
equally  (hared  among  all  the  Order  ^  and 
none  of  that  Charafter  had  any  Superiority 
pver  another.    For  then  the  Revenues  of 

4^         A  Moral  Es  say 

the  Church  confifted  only  in  the  voluntary 
Offerings  of  the  People  5  which  were  all 
depofited  with  the  Bilhop^  who  afligned 
every  one  his  refpeftive  Portion  5  fo  that 
no  Pried  had  any  Dependance  upon  Ano- 
ther for  his  Maintenance  :  But  now  the 
Cafe  is  otherwife  3  and  a  Man  ought  to  be 
Subjeft  to  him  that  Supports  him. 

PhiUL  'Tis  fomewhat  hard,,  that  the 
bare  Alteration  of  the  Church  Revenues, 
(hould  make  fo  wide  a  Difference,  between 
thofe  who  were  Equal  before  ;  that  a  Man 
mud:  lofe  his  Freedom  only  for  want  of  a 
Prefentation  5  and  be  made  a  Servant  be- 
caufe  he  doth  not  take  Tithes  5  though  he 
has  as  much  fpiritual  Authority  as  if  he  did : 
But  I  perceive,  you  think  there  is  no  Con- 
fideration  equivalent  to  a  little  Money  5 
and  that  he  who  receives  it  muft  be  no  lon- 
ger at  his  own  Difpofal  5  though  he  makes 
never  fo  valuable  a  Return.  Since  there- 
fore, youinfift  fo  much  upon  Maintenance, 
what  if  it  appears  that  the  Curate  maintains 
the  Parfon  > 

Philof.  That  would  be  ftrange  indeed. 

Pkilal.  To  what  End  were  the  Church 
Revenues  intended  > 

Philot,  To  keep  up  the  Worfliip  of  God. 

PhiUL  Which  Way  > 

Philot.  By  fetling  a  competent  Mainte- 
nance upon  the  Minifters  of  Religion,  that 


upon  PRIDE.  4^ 

they  may  be  in  the  better  Capacity  to  dif- 
charge  their  Office  5  and  not  be  obliged  to 
lofe  their  Time,  and  leffen  their  Charafter, 
by  engaging  in  Laborious  or  Meclianical 

PhtlaL  By  your  Arguing  there  fhould  be 
fomething  for  them  to  do. 

Philot.  Yes,  They  are  to  take  Care  of 
that  Precinft  to  which  their  Endowment  is 

PhiUl.  I  hope  you  don't  mean,  not  to 
come  at  it. 

Philot.  I  mean,  they  are  to  take  Care 
of  the  Performance  of  the  Duties  of  their 

Philal.  Then  ought  not  he  to  have  the 
Revenues,  who  Performs  thefe  Duties? 

Philot.  I  am  not  willing  to  grant  that. 

Philal.  Have  a  care  of  denying  the  Con- 
clufion  ^  you  grant,  the  Revenues  of  the 
Church  were  defigned  for  the  Support  of 
the  Clergy. 

Philot.  Yes. 

PhiUl.  Of  what  Clergy?  Thofe  who 
live  many  Miles  diftant  from  the  Pre- 
mifes  ? 

Philot.  No^  Vm  afraid  they  were  in- 
tended for  thofe  who  live  upon  the  Place  ^ 
otherwife  ,  methinks  Endowments  are  a 
very  (lender  Provifion  for  the  Benefit  of  the 


44-         ^MoralEssay 

Philal.  Then  if  the  Curate  does  all  the 
Work,  ought  he  not  to  have  the  Reward 
for  his  Pains?  In  ftiort,  either  he  is  qualified 
to  undertake  the  Parifii  or  not  3  if  not, 
with  what  Sincerity  can  he  be  employed  > 
If  he  is  qualified,  why  is  he  barred  the  Pro- 
fit, when  be  only  performs  the  Conditions 
upon  which  they  were  fettled  5  when  none 
but  himfelf  anfwers  the  Defign  they  were 
intended  for  ?  To  fpeafc  properly,  the  Re- 
ftor  feems  to  live  out  of  the  Labours  of  an- 
other ^  He  is  maintained  by  the  Perquifites 
of  the  Curate's  Office  5  and  therefore  is  in 
effeft,  but  a  kind  of  Penfioner  to  him. 

Philot.  I  fee,  you  are  an  everlafting  Le- 
veller 5  you  won't  allow  any  Encourage^ 
ment  to  extraordinary  Induftry  and  Me- 

Philal.  You  miftake  me.  I  would  have 
the  beft  Men,  have  the  beft  Livings  5  but 
then  before  we  go  to  doubling  of  Prefer- 
ments, poffibly  it  were  not  amifs  to  ex- 
amine, whether  the  number  of  Benefices 
exceeds  the  Perfons  who  are  capable  of 
them.  Let  us  firft  examine,  whether  they 
will  hold  out  one  a  piece  ^  and  when  every 
Man  has  One,  then  the  Supernumerary 
Livings  may  be  divided  amongft  thofe  who 
are  moft  Deferving. 

Philot.  In  good  time  ^  when  it*s  likely 
there  will  be  none  left !  Now,  do  you  Ima- 

uponFRlDE.  45 

gine  the  Church  can  be  defended  againfther 
Adverfaries  by  the  ftrengh  of  a  fingle  Par- 
fonage?  But  it  maybe  you  will  fay,  all  our 
Plurality-Men  are  not  Writers. 

Pktlal.  No^  nor  Readers  neither.  Be- 
fides.  We  may  obferve,  that  Herefie  and 
Schifm  were  very  fuccefsfully  Combated 
before  Unions,  Difpenfations,  and  Confo- 
Hdations  were  heard  of.  If  you  Confult 
Father  Paul's  Hiftory  of  the  Council  of 
Trent,  (p.  216.)  he  will  inform  you,  that 
Non-refidence  and  Pluralities  are  Things  of 
no  very  Primitive  Eftabliftimcnt.  I  con- 
fefs,  fome  of  the  Lay-managers  of  our  Re- 
formation have  not  been  over-kind  to  the 
Church  5  fo  that  Affairs  are  not  in  fo  good 
a  Pofture  as  they  might  have  been  :  But 
God  be  thanked,  there  is  ftill  fome  Provi- 
fion  left  for  the  Ornament  and  Defence  of 

Pf}ilot.  What  Provilion  do  you  mean  > 

PhiUL  Why,  to  fpeak  to  your  Cafe  ^ 
there  are  Dignities  to  which  thofe  Gentle- 
men who  are  prepared  to  engage  in  the 
Controverfie,  have  a  good  Right  :  And 
with  Submiffion  to  better  Judgments,  I  think 
it  would  not  be  amifs,  if  all  dignified  Perfons 
held  thei^  Preferments  by  a  new  Tenure  > 

Philot.  What  Tenure? 

PhiUL  By  Knights  Service  2;  purfuant  to 
which,    they  (hould  be  obliged  to  draw 


46         ^MoRAL  Essay 

their  Pens  in  the  Caufe,  whenever  their 
Superiours  required  them  5  to  appear  in 
the  Field  upon  an  Invafion,  with  thdr^w 
tax,  andinfhort,  to  Maintain  any  Poft  that 
fliall  be  affigned. 

Vhilot.  What  if  a  Man  has  not  a  Mind 
to  Quarrel,  muft  he  be  turn  d  out  of  his 
Dignity  for  being  of  a  peaceable  Difpofition? 

Vhilal.  Thofe  peaceable  Men  you  fpeak 
of,  are  none  of  the  moft  ufeful  in  a  time  of 
War  5  and  therefore  a  fmaller  Gratification 
(hould  content  them.  However,  I  don't 
pretend  to  make  any  general  Rules  5  for 
there  may  be  other  Qualifications  Equiva- 
lent to  Writing. 

Philot.  What  if  they  are  difabled  by  Age  > 

Pkilal.  Then  they  Ihould  be  continued 
for  their  paft  Services. 

Philot.  Truly,  this  is  a  good  probable  Ex- 
pedient to  keep  the  Church  Militia  in  Dif- 
cipline  ^  and  might  for  ought  I  know,  ve- 
ry much  improve  the  noble  Science  ofContro- 
verfie.  But  to  return  to  the  Old  Argument  ^ 
if  you  intend  to  bring  me  over  to  your  Opi- 
nion of  the  Curate,  you  muft  clear  the  bu- 
finefs  of  his  Salary  a  little  better  5  for  I  am 
afraid,  where  he  has  his  Money,  he  ought 
to  own  he  has  his  Mafter  too. 

PhilaL  I  confefs  there  would  be  a  great 
deal  in  what  you  fay,  if  theReftor  had  the 
Right  of  Coinage.     If  the  Money  had  his 


upon  PRIDE  47 

Image  and  Superfcription  upon  it,  the  Cu. 
rat's  taking  it  for  Currant^  would  conclude 
him  under  his  Jurifdiftion  :  But  that  the 
bare  receiving  a  Sum  (hould  fink  a  Man  in- 
to a  fcrvile  State,  is  paft  my  Comprehenfi- 
on.  For  confidering  that  Money  is  a  Thing 
of  fuch  Quality,  and  fovereign  Sway  in  the 
World,  one  would  imagine  it  fhould  bring 
Power  and  Reputation  along  with  it  5  and 
rather  enlarge,  then  abridge  a  Man  s  Liber- 
ty by  receiving  it.  And  to  mention  nothing 
farther,  the  Nature  of  the  Contraft  be- 
tween the  Redor  and  Curate,  is  fufficient 
to  give  you  Satisfaftion  5  for  there,  as  has 
been  obferved,  the  Curate  undertakes  no 
other  Employment,  but  the  Inftruftion  and 
Government  of  thePariOi.  There  is  no  At- 
tendance upon  the  Parfon,  no  running  up- 
on his  Errands,  nor  Subjeftion  to  his  Hu- 
mour indented  for. 

Philot.  Methinks  it  is  a  little  hard,  a  Cu- 
rate  muft  not  be  called  a  Servant,  as  well  as 
a  Cook  or  a  Footman  ^  fince  he  has  Wages 
as  much  as  the  other. 

PhiluL  Poffibly  not  always  fo  much  nei- 
ther ^  but  waving  that,  if  you  had  remem- 
bred  what  1  urged  to  you  before,  thisOb- 
jeftion  would  have  been  no  Difficulty. 

Philot.  What  was  that? 

PhiUl  Why,  that  the  Curate  is  to  wait 
upon  none  but  God  Almighty  ^  T'lat  the 


4-8         JMoralEssay 

Manage  of  his  Employment  is  not  prefcribed 
by  the  RcQ^or  5  but  by  the  Rabrick  and 
Conflitutions  of  the  Churchy  And  that  he 
is  not  renioveable  at  Plcafure.  I  fuppofe 
by  this  time,  you  apprehend  there  is  a 
Difference  between  him  and  z  Footman  5  or 
a  Steward  either. 

Philot.  Well !  Notwithftanding  your 
fubtlety,  this  Notion  of  Wages  fticks  in 
my  Stomach  ftill. 

Pfjilal.  I  wonder  the  glitter  of  a  little 
Money  (hould  dazle  your  Eyes  at  that  rate, 
that  you  cannot  fee  fo  plain  a  Diftinftion^ 
You  don*t  feem  to  underftand  Commerce, 
if  you  think  that  fomething  of  Authority 
and  Dominion  is  alway  given  in  Exchange 
for  Money.  Now  t  am  of  D'wger/es  his 
Mind,  and  believe  it  poffible  for  one  to  buy 
a  Mafter,  as  well  as  a  Servant. 

Phi  I  of.  As  how? 

PhilaL  Why,  for  the  purpofe^  if  a  Pef- 
fon  of  Twenty  One  puts  himfelf  Apprentice 
to  another,  you  know  this  is  feldom  done 
without  Cbarse  :  Now  what  does  a  Man 
do  in  this  Cafe,  but  purchafe  hisSubjedion, 
and  hire  himfelf  a  Drubbing  upon  occafion? 
To  give  one  Inftance  more.  When  a  Wo- 
man of  Fortune  Marries  a  Man  with  No- 
thing, does  fhe  not  give  him  Meat,  Drink, 
and  Wages  to  Govern  her  ?  And  to  end  this 
Difpute,  you  know,  Phyficians,  and  Law* 


upon  PRIDE.  49 

yers,  and  Judges,  have  Fees,  or  Wages, 
either  given  or  afligned  them  by  Law,  with- 
out being  thought  Servants  to  thofe  they 
are  concerned  with :  Now,  what  Reafon  is 
there  a  Curate  ftiould  have  worfc  Luck 
with  his  Mony  than  other  People  ? 

Fhilot.  To  deal  plainly  ^  I  fuppofe  it  is 
becaufe  he  does  not  get  enough  of  it.  If  hi^ 
Fees  were  as  confiderable  as  any  of  thofe 
Gentlemen  you  fpeak  of,  I  queftipn  not  but: 
his  Office  would  be  much  more  Reputable^ 
,  PhiUl.  Well  gueffed  ^  and  therefore  what 
Charafter  do  they  deferve  who  Confine  hirai 
to  this  fcandalous  Pittance?  Ibelieveyou  can 
fcarcely  name  any  fort  of  Injufl:ice,which  haS 
a  more  malignant  Influence  upon  Religion^ 
than  this  Oppreffion  of  Curates; 

P/)/7^f.  Why. fo Tragical? 

l^/>/7^/ .Becaufe  their  Poverty  expofestlieni 
to  Contempt  5  which  renders  their  Inftru- 
dions  infignificant !  and  which  ii)  worfe^ 
makes  them  lefs  Confiderable  in  themfelve^^ 
as  well  as  in  the  Opinion  of  others. 

Philot.  I  hope  Poverty  is  no  Crim^.  , 
,  Philal.  No  ^  but  it's  a  fcurvy  Temptatldri  5 
efpecially  to  thofe  who  have  lived  freely, 
and  been  bred  to  better  Expeftations:  For 
when  a  Man  finds  his  Hopes  difappdinted^ 
himfelf  unfupported,  and  toppM  upon  by 
Perfons  of  meaner  Pretences  and  Employ^ 
hierits^  this  is  apt  to  pall  his  Spirits;  and 
E  check 

5^         A  MoR  A  L  Essay 

check  the  Courage  of  his  Thoughts  ^  fo  that 
his  Compofitions  and  Fortune  will  feem  to 
be  much  of  a  piece. 

Philot.  I  thought  ftrait  Circumftances 
had  been  none  of  the  worft  Promoters  of 
Learning  5  according  to  the  old  Saying,  In- 
gemi  largitor  Venter. 

Philal.  I  grant  there  is  fome  Truth  in 
your  Obfervation^  and  that  it  is  Want 
which  often  reconciles  Men  to  Labour  and 
Letters^  butthis  is  at  their  firftfetting  out 5 
when  though  they  have  not  gained  their 
Point,yet  they  are  full  of  Hopes  5  which 
pricks  them  on,  and  puts  them  upon  their  ut- 
moft.  But  after  they  are  once  qualified  for 
Succefs,and  find  their  Induftry  difcouraged, 
this  makes  them  fink  in  the  Socket,  and  fret 
away  their  Strength  and  Spirits  5  fo  that 
either  out  of  Impotence,  or  Difguft,  or 
Defpair,  they  give  over  the  fruitlefs  Pur- 
fuit^  and  feldom  make  any  generous  At- 
tempt ever  after.  Tis  true,  there  arc-  fome 
hardy  Souls  that  won't  be  beaten  off  by  ill 
Ufage  3  but  thefe  are  very  rarely  to  be  met 

Philot.  Then  you  think  there  would  be 
a  ftrange  Improvement  in  the  unbeneficed 
Clergy,  if  they  had  a  better  Salary. 

Philal.  Yes^  I  think  they  would  have 
more  Books,  and  more  Learning,  and  more 
Credit,    They  would  not  be  fo  eafily  ob- 

upon  VRIDE.  51 

]jged  to  improper  Complknces:;,  nor  fo  lia- 
ble to  feveral  other  Mifcarriagts  in  their 

Phllot.  By  your  Difcourfe,  the  (lender 
Provifion  which  is  made  for  them,  fhould 
be  very  Criminal. 

P/jilal.  Doubtlefs  fo  it  is.  For  pray  con- 

Philot.  Pray  be  as  Brief  as  you  can. 

Philal.  I  fay  then,  for  a  Clergv- TVf 2t«  t;o 
enrich  himfelfby  the  L&!x)ur  and  '^eLCAii- 
ties  of  One  of  his  ov/n  Order^and  make  his 
Figure  out  of  the  Church, without  perform- 
ing the  Services  required.  Is  a  dircfl:  tran- 
flating  the  Holy  Revenues  to  a  Foreign  and 
Secular  Ufe  5  and  confequently,  befides other 
Aggravations,  is  no  better  than  Sacrilege  ^ 
which  is  a  very  imcanonical  Sin  3  And  unlefs 
we  are  very  much  in  the  dark,  vv^ill  be  ac- 
counted for  afterwards.  In  (liort,  this  pra- 
ftice  has  been  the  main  ground  of  the  Con- 
tempt of  the  Clergy  5  making  one  Part  of 
them  grov/  Ch  :ip  by  their  Poverty.and  the 
Other  by  their  Covetoufnefs. 

Philct.  Pray,  Vv^hat  Allowance  would 
you  oblige  the  Reftor  to,  if  you  had  the 
Regulation  of  that  Affair? 

PhiUL  To  fpeak  within  Ccrapafs,  in  my 
Opinion  the  Curate  ought  to  have  half  the 
Profits,  let  the  value  of  them  be  never  fo 
confiderable  3  for  if  the  Parfon  has  the  other 

E  2  Moiety 

5^       AMoRAL  Essay,  ^c. 

Moiety  for  doing  nothing,  I  think  he  has 
no  reafon  to  Complain.  But  if  the  Living 
be  Small,  then  he  that  fupplies  it,  ftionld 
have  two  Thirds  affigried  him  ^  becaufe  he 
cannot  be  decently  Supported  under  that 

Pkilot.  Well,  I  am  not  difpofed  to  exa- 
mine that  Matter  any  farther.  But  I  be^ 
feech  you,  what  is  all  this  to  the  Bufinefs  of 
Pride?  I  think  your  Zeal  for  the  Curates 
has  tranfported  you  a  little  out  of  your 

Philal,  No  fuch  matter^  for  it  is  gene- 
rally nothing  but  Ambition  which  makes 
Men  Covetous  and  Mean :  Befides,  if  it  is 
a  Digreffion,  it  is  a  very  feafonable  one. 
However,  I  am  willing  to  take  my  leave  of 
this  Part  of  the  Argument  5  therefore,  if 
you  pleafe,  we  will  call  a  new  Caufe. 

Philot.  I  think  it  beft  to  Adjourn  at  pre- 
fent^  and  when  we  meet  again,  I  will  ven- 
ture the  other  Brufh  with  you. 

PhiUL  Till  then  farewel 





Vhilottmus  and  Vhilalethe^. 

Fhllal.  -^"T"  T  E  L  L  met!  I  am  glad  the 

\I\I     Opportunity  you  menti- 

^     ^     onedisfoquicklyreturned. 

Vhilot*  So  am  I  •  and  therefore  if  you 
pleafe,  without  any  further  Ceremony,  let 
us  purfue  the  Argument  we  were  laft  upon. 

PhilaL  With  all  my  Heart,  and  fince  (as 
has  been  (hewed)  Learning  and  Conceit, 
make  fo  odd  a  Figure  5  let  us  proceed  to 
examine  the  Pretences  of  Nobility,  for  I 
am  afraid  the  Vulgar  Notion  of  it  is  fcrew- 
ed  fomewhat  too  high,  and  that  it  has  not 
Ballaft  enough  to  carry  all  the  Sail  which  is 
commonly  made  out. 

Philot.  I  muft  tell  you,  you  are  upon  a 
touchy  Point,  and  thcreforel  hope  you  will 
treat  fo  nice  a  Subjsd  as  this  is  with  propor- 
tionable Caution. 

PhilaL  I  am  fenfible  of  what  you  fay, 
and  (hall  manage  my  Enquiry  with  all  the 

E  5  Fair. 

54  ^  Moral  Essay 

Fairnels  and  Decency,  the  free  Difcaffion 
of  the'Qneftion  will  allow.  To  begin,  you 
know  all  Men  were  equally  Noble,  or,  if 
you  will,  cc)' ally  Plebeian  at  firft:  Now  I 
would  gladly  underfVand  how  they  came  to 
be  fo  much  Diftinguifh'd  afterwards,  for 
there  are  different  Reafons  affigncd. 

Pfji't.  I  fuppofe  the  Diftinftions  you 
mentioued  were  founded  upon  extraordi- 
nary Performances,  and  won  at  the  Expence 
of  Induftry  and  Merit :  For  how  can  you 
imagine  any  Perfons  fhould  Emerge  out  of 
the  common  Mafs  of  Mankind,  unlefs  by 
the  Advantages  of  Capacit;.^,  Labour,  and 
Refolution?  Their  mounting,  argues  that 
Fire  was  the  ruling  Element  in  their  Compo- 
iition  5  and  that  they  were  of  a  more  vigo- 
rous and  enterprizing  Spirit  than  their 

P/jilaLl  am  willing  to  fuppofe  with  you, 
that  they  made  a  generous  Ufe  of  thefe  Ad- 
vantages, and  employed  them  for  the  Be- 
nefit of  Mankind  ^  being  as  remarkable  for 
their  Juftice,  Fidelity,  and  good  Humour, 
as  for  their  Conduft  and  Courage  5  and 
riierefore  I  am  not  willing  to  believe  the 
/S^ount  which  fome  pretend  to  give  con« 
cerning  the  Original  of  Nobility. 

P/jilof.  What  is  that  ? 

Pf>ilaL  They  will  tell  you  that  it  has 
|)^ea  often  founded  upon  Fvapine  and  In- 


upon  PRIDE.  55 

Juftice.  It  feems  they  have  obferved  out 
oiThucydides^  that  in  ancient  Times  it  was 
coLinted  an  Heroick  Atchievement  to  Plun- 
der luCtily  5  and  he  was  a  Man  of  the  beft 
Quality,  who  was  able  to  Steal  moft  Cattle. 
Thcfe  Nimrods  (fay  they)  grew  great  by 
the  Strength  of  their  Limbs  and  theirVices, 
engraved  their  Murthers  upon  their  Shields, 
and  Heftored  all  the  Little  and  Peaceable 
People  into  Peafantry. 

Philot.  This  looks  fo  like  a  Chimerical 
and  ill-natur'd  Opinion,  that  I  (hall  not  do 
it  the  Honour  of  a  Confutation. 

Philal.  I  have  no  Exceptions  to  your  Re- 
fentment  ^  but  to  go  on,  for  the  more  di- 
ftinft  Confideration  of  the  Argument,  ;7e 
will  divide  Nobility  into  two  Kinds,  Here- 
ditarj,  and  Acquired,  The  firfl:  is  tranf- 
mitted  to  us  from  our  Anceftors,  the  other 
is  immediately  conferred  by  the  Favour  of 
the  Prince. 

Philot,  Proceed  upon  the  feveral  Parts  of 
your  Divifion. 

PhilaL  I.  Then,'  Hereditary  Nobility 
feems  no  juft  Ground  for  a  high  Opinion, 
becaufe  it  is  borrowed.  Thofe  Great  A^;^ 
ons  whicli  we  had  no  Share  in,  cannot  pTO- 
peHy  be  any  Part  of  our  Commendation, 
efpecially  if  we  v/ant  Abilities  to  imitate 
them.  Tis  true,  they  ought  to  be  taken 
Hptice  of  by  others  for  the  Encouragement 

E  4  Pf 

5^  Jfi    MpR  AL    ES  S  AY 

pf  Virtue,  and  the  Ornament  of  Society. 
But  then  he  that  depends  wholly  upon  the 
Worth  of  Others,  ought  to  confider  that  he 
has  but  the  Honour  of  an  Image,  and  is 
Worfliiped  not  for  his  own  fake,  but  up- 
pn  tjie  Account  of  what  he  Reprefents.  To 
f)e  plain  c,  it  is  a  fign  a  Man  i?  very  Poor, 
when  he  has  nothing  of  his  own  to  appear 
in  ^  but  is  forced  to  patch  up  his  Figure  with 
the  Relicks  of  the  Dead,  and  rifle  Tomb- 
Stones  and  Monuments  for  Reputation. 

Plnlo^  Notwithftanding  your  Rallying, 
I  cannot  conceive  what  Crime  it  is  to  Pof- 
fefs  t|]e  Inheritance  of  our  Forefathers.  Now 
Honour  |s  part  of  their  Eftate,  which  was 
raifed  on  purpofc  th^t  we  might  be  the  Ipet- 
tQv  for  ir.  And  fince  their  Children  were 
fheOccafionoftheirMerit,  and  pufned  thern 
pn  tQ  generous  Undertakings,  ought  they 
not  to  ftare  in  the  Glory  of  the  Succefs  > 

PhiUL  Yes.  But  it  fhould  be  managed 
with  great  Modefty,  becaufe  though  an 
honourable  Title  may  be  conveyed  to  Pg- 
(lerky  ;  yet  the  ennobling  Qualities,  which 
are  the  Soul  of  Greatnefs,  are  a  fort  of  lu- 
-comrpunicable  Perfcftions,  and  cannot  be 
transferred.  Indeed,  if  a  Man  could  Be- 
fjueatli  his  Vertqes  by  Will,  and  fettle  his 
5enfe,  and  Learning,  and  Refolution,  upon 
hh  Children,  as  certainly  as  he  can  his 
|!.inds,  a  brave  Anceftor  would  be  a  mi.2;h- 
ry  privilege,  Thiht,^ 

upon  PRIDE.  5  7 

Vhilot.  I  liopc  thofe  fine  Qualities  are  not 
fo  Incommunicable  as  you  fuppofe^  for  me- 
thinks,  there  is  a  "[je  ncfcay  quou  in  Perfons 
well  born  :  there  is  a  peculiar  Noblenefs  of 
Temper  in  them,  their  Converfation  is 
inimitably  Graceful,  and  a  Man  may  di- 
ftinguifh  their  Quality  by  the  Air  of  their 

PhiUL  I  wifh  that  Spirit  of  Honour  and 
Bravery  you  mention,   was  infeparable  to 
their  Quality  ^  but  it  is  too  plain  that  great 
Minds,  and  great  Fortunes  don't  always  go 
together  ^  however,  I  grant  there  is  fome 
Truth  in  your  Obfervation,  but  am  afraid 
the  Diftinftion  does  not  always  fpring  from 
the  Caufe  you  affign.   For  by  the  Grace- 
fulnefs  of  Converfation,  I  fuppofe  you  mean 
a  decent  Affurance,  and  an  Addrefs  in  the 
Modes,  and  Geftures,  of  Salutation.  Now 
thefe  are  pretty  Accomplifhments  I  confefs, 
and  recommend  a  Man  to  Company  with 
fome  Advantage  ^    but  then  they  are  cafily 
gained  by   Cuftom    and    Education,    and 
therefore  we  need  not  fetch  them  ex  Tra- 
duce. And  moreover,  thefe  little  Formali- 
ties are  often  rnagnificd  beyond  all  Senfe 
and  Reafon  5  And  fome  People  are  foTan- 
taftically  fond  of  them,  as  if  they  were  the 
top  Perfections  of  Humane  Nature  ^  and 
that  it  were  in  reality  a  more  valuable  and 
gentle  Quality  to  Dref>  well,  and  come 


58  ^MoralEssay 

handfomely  into  a  Room,  thin  to  take  a 
Town,  or  to  be  fit  to  difcharge  the  Office 
of  a  Privy  Counfellor.  Now,  with  Sub- 
niiffion  to  thefe  Ceremonious  Gentlemen, 
I  am  not  of  their  Mind  in  this  Matter,  but 
think  it  much  better  for  a  Man  s  Parts  to  lie 
in  his  Hirad,  than  in  his  Heels. 

Philot.  I  think  fo  too^  but  you  have  not 
anfwered  the  whole. 
PhiUL  True !  Yonr  Air  wis  Omitted ;  Now 
if  this  was  a  conftant  Privelege  of  Birth, 
which  you  know  it  is  not,  yet  in  this  Jeceit- 
ful  Age  of  ours,  there  is  no  Arguing  f-om 
an  Out-fide.  Befides,  I  doubt  this  Ad-  an- 
t^^Q  is  fometimes  the  effed*  of  a  Slothful  and 
Effeminate  Lifeo  When  Men  will  Attempt 
nothing  either  in  the  Field,  or  in  their  Clo- 
fets  :  When  they  will  neither  trouble  them- 
felves  with  Thinking,  nor  endure  to  be  ex- 
pofed  to  the  Weather  :  This  N'cenefs, 
though  it  renders  them  Infignificant  to  the 
great  Purpofes  of  Life,  yet  it  Polifhes  their 
Complexion,  and  makes  their  Spirits  feem 
more  moving  and  trafparent.  Sometime 
this  Sprightlinefs  and  Grandure  of  Face,  is 
Painted  by  Flattery  5  for  when  Men  arc 
once  made  to  believe  they  are  very  Confi- 
derable,  they  are  prefently  for  trying  to 
Write  the  Infcription  of  their  Quality  upon 
their  Forehead.  Now  Conceit,  when  it  is 
Correded  with  a  Mi^^ture  of  Qravity,  is  an 


ifpon  PRIDE.  59 

admirable  ir^/i^,  and  will  make  one  look  as 
Wife,  and  as  Great  as  yoa  would  wifh. 

Phllot.  This  Grandureof  Face.asyoucal! 
it,  may  poflibly  be  explaired  upon  kinder 
Principles  ^  for  I  am  apt  to  believe  that  a 
quick  Senfe  of  Honour,  a  Confcioufnefs  of 
Vv'orth,  an  Elevation  cf  Thought,  will 
fometimes  b^eak  out  irco  a  Luftre,  and 
make  the  great  Soul  fparkle  in  a  Man's 

PhiUK  I  cannot  d  ny  what  you  fay,  and 
therefore  the  bcft  Conftruftion  ought  to  be 
made,  where  the  known  Charafter  of  the 
Perfon  does  not  difallow  it. 

Philot,  I  fee  you  can  be  fair  when  you 
lift,  therefore  I  (hall  venture  to  go  on  with 
you  to  another  Advantage  of  Nobility, 
2jiz.  Antiquity.  Now  to  begin  in  your  own 
way.  Don't  you  think  it  is  a  great  Addition 
to  ones  Birth,to  ftand  at  the  bottom  of  a  long 
Parchment  Pedigree,  and  be  fome  Yards 
removed  from  the  firft  Efcutcheon?  Is  not 
that  Family  fnbftantially  Built  which  can 
ftand  the  Shock  of  Time,  and  hold  out 
againft  all  Varieties  of  Accidents?  How  ge- 
nerous muft'that  Blood  be,  which  has  been 
fo  long  Refining,  and  run  through  the 
Channels  of  Honour  for  fo  many  Ages, 
whereitisfometimes  as  hard  to  come  to  the 
Plebeian  Fountain,  as  to  find  out  the  Head 
of  Nil ^} 


6o        ^IMoralEssay 

P/jflaLNot  fo  hard  neither  3  For  if  you  go 
but  one  Inch  farther  than  the  Gentleman  at 
the  Top  you  fpokc  of,  it  is  ten  to  one  but 
you  take  old  Goodman^  &c.  by  the  Lea- 
thern Breeches.  And  as  for  the  Antiquity 
of  a  Family,  though  it  looks  prettily  at  firft 
fight,  yet  I  fear  it  will  abate  upon  Exami- 

Philof.  Pray  try  your  skill  upon  it,  for  I 
am  not  of  your  Mind. 

PhilaL  Then  to  deal  plainly  with  you,  I 
conceive  the  Antiquity  you  talk  of,  iscom^ 
monly  nothing  but  ancient  Wealthy  and 
therefore  the  chief  Commendation  of  this 
Privilege  canfifts  in  the  long  continued  Fru- 
gality of  the  Family  3  who  after  they  were 
once  pcffefTed  cf  an  Eftate,  had  the  Difcre- 
tion  to  keep  it. 

Philot.  Is  it  nothing  then  for  a  Man's  An- 
cefcors  to  have  1  • 'cd  in  Reputation,  and  to 
have  had  Intereft  and  Command  in  their 
Country,  for  ^o  many  Generations? 

Phfld.  I  fuppofe  the  Efiglij7j  of  all  this  is 
no  more  than  that  they  have  lived  in  good 
Houfes,  Eat  and  Drank  better,  and  born 
hig^her  Offices  than  thofe  who  have  wanted 
a  Fortune.  Now  Money,  and  a  moderate 
Share  of  Senfe,  will  furnifh  any  Man  with 
all  thefc  Advantages.  And  as  to  the  hol'd- 
ins;  out  againft  fo  many  Accidents,  and 
Alterations  of  State,  I  am  afraid  it  fome- 


upon?RlDE.  6i 

times  proceeds  from  Shifting  and  Indifferent 
Principles  5  and  from  a  fervile  Compliance 
with  whatever  is  Uppermoft.  So  that  what 
my  Lord  Bacon  mentions,  in  reference  to 
Notions  and  Inventions,  may  be  fomctimes 
applicable  to  Families  ^  where  he  tells  us. 
That  time  is  like  a  River,  in  which  Metals 
and  folid  Subftances  are  funk,  while  Chaff 
and  Straws  fwim  upon  the  Surface. 

Secondly,   You  are  to  confider  that  an 
ancient  Gentility  does  not  necelTarily  con- 
vey to  us  any  Advantage  either  of  Body  or 
Mind:    And,   to  fpeak  like  Philofophcrs, 
thefe  are  the  only  two  Things  in  which  we 
are  capable  of  any   real  Improvement.     I 
confefs,   if  every  Generation  grew  Wifer, 
Stronger,  Handfomer,  or  longer-Lived  thari 
the  other  ^  if  the  Breed  of  a  Man's  Family 
was  thus  Improved,  the  farther  it  was  con- 
tinued 5  then  indeed  the  Quality  of  an  Ef- 
cutcheon  would  be  exadly  contrary  to  that 
ofCloaths,  and  theOne  would  always  grow 
better,  as  the  Other  does  worfe,  by  wear- 
ing.    From  whence  it  would  follow,  that 
if  the  Seven  Sleepers  had  been  made  Gentle- 
men immediately  before  they  entered  theit 
Cave,  and  had  held  on  their  Nap  from  Se- 
venty to  Seven  hundred  Years,  they  had 
moft  undeniably  flept  themfelves  itito  a  con-^ 
(iderable  Degree  of  Quality. 


6i  A  Moral  Essay 

Philot.  You  may  talk  as  Subtilly  as  voii 
pleafe,  but  you  muft  not  think  to  baffle 
Eftablifhed  and  Uncontcfted  Opinions,  with 
a  few  Logical  Quirks. 

Philal.  Pray  don't  grow  warm  and  I 
will  endeavour  to  fatisfy  yon  •  and  ^:  crder 
to  it,  I  obferve  in  the  third  Place,  Th^t  an 
ancient  Gentility  makes  a  Man  Superionr  on- 
ly to  thofe  of  the  fame  Quality,  (j;^^.  in 
Efquire,  to  anEfquire,  and  fo  in  th':  reft) 
and  that  in  nothing  but  in  Point  of  Prece- 
dency. TheReafon,  I  fuppo'^e,  why  thofe 
which  are  placed  in  any  Degree  of  Honour, 
precede  others  who  are  afterwards  raifed  to 
the  fame  Height,  is  for  the  Encouragement 
of  Induftry.  To  make  Men  forward  to  ex- 
ert their  eariieft  Endeavours,  to  deferve 
well  of  the  State  ^  for  this  Reafon  there  is  a 
Diftinftion  made  between  Merit,  other- 
wife  equal,  only  upon  the  account  of  the 
Priority  of  Time. 

Philot.  Is  this  all  vou  can  afford  ? 

PhiUl.  Look  you !  We  that  pretend  to 
be  Subjeft  to  a  Conftitution,  muft  not  Carve 
out  our  own  Quality:^  for  at  this  r^te  a 
Cobler  may  make  himfelf  a  Lord. 

.Philot.  And  what  then  > 

Philal.  Why,  then  I  fay,  it  is  Vanity  for 
any  Man  to  have  a  better  Opinion  of  his  Fa- 
mily than  the  Law  allows  :  My  Reafon  is, 
becaufe  the  Law  is  the  oieafure  of  Honour, 


uponVRlDE.  65 

as  well  as  of  all  ether  Civil  Rights.  Befides, 
I  mtift  tell  you,  that  it  is  both  Reafonable, 
and  the  Intereft  of  the  State,  that  Merit 
fhould  be  confideied,  of  what  date  foever 
it  is.  A  Worthy  Aftion  ought  to  be  as 
much  Rewarded  now,  as  one  of  the  fame 
Kind  w^as  a  Thoufand  Years  fince.  The 
profpeil  of  Honour  to  a  generous  Mind,  is 
the  chief  Incitement  to  all  great  Underta- 
king's. This  Confideration  Poh'fhes  Arts 
and  Sciences,  makes  Men  Induftrious  in  im- 
proving their  Underftandings,  and  Refo- 
lute  in  expofing  their  Perfons  for  the  Pub- 
lick  Service.  If  therefore  we  dote  upon 
Antiquity  fo  far,  as  to  undervalue  the  Me- 
rit of  the  prefent  Age,  the  Government 
mufl:  neceffarily  fuffer  bv  it  5  for  fuch  a  Par- 
tiality will  (lacken  the  Nerves  of  Induftry, 
and  occafion  aNegligence  both  in  thofe  v/ho 
have  an  ancient  Title  to  Honour,  and  in 
thofe  who  have  not.  The  firft  will  grow 
fluggifti,  becaufe  they  have  a  fufficient 
Share  of  Reputation  already  5  and  therefore 
need  not  run  any  hazards  about  getting 
more.  The  htier  will  abate  in  their  for- 
v/ardnefs  to  oblige  their  Country,  becaufe 
they  know  their  Service,  though  never  fo 
great,  will  be  contemned^  and  for  that  ve- 
ry Reafon  w^hich  ought  to  make  them  the 
more  valued 5  that  is,  becaufe  their  Con- 
fiderablenefs  camx  from  themfelves.  More- 

^4  A    MORAL^SSAY 

over,  if  the  Inheritors  of  ancient  honour, 
have  not  by  perfonal  Additions  improved 
that  Stock  which  was  granted  to  their  An- 
ceftors^  there  is  no  Reafon  it  ftiould  be 
Rated  above  the  fame  Degree  (  Precedency 
excepted  )  which  is  given  nov/.  For  to  af- 
firm that  a  Family  raifed  to  Nobility  by  this 
King,  is  not  as  good  as  one  raifed  by  the 
Conquerour,  is  a  Reflexion  upoii  hisPrefent 
Ma jefty :  It  fuppofes  his  Judgment,  or  hi^ 
Authority^  lefs  Confiderable  than  that  of 
his  PfedecefTbrs  ^  and  that  the  Fountain 
of  Honour  is  almoft  dried  up,  and  runs 
more  muddy  than  in  former  Ages. 

Phitot.  How  Piaufibly  foevef  you  may 
itiake  your  Opinion  look,  Tm  fure  it  has 
the  Difadvantage  of  being  Singular.  For 
you  know  a  plain  Gentleman  of  an  ancient 
Family  is  accounted  a  Perfon  of  better  Qua- 
lity than  a  new  made  Knight  5  though  the 
reafon  of  his  Dubbing  was  never  fo  Meri- 
torious. Honour,  like  Ch'wa  Difhes,  muft 
lie  fome  Ages  under  Ground  before  it  comes 
to  any  Perfedion.  And  to  carry  on  your 
own  Figure,  the  greater  Diftance  from  the 
Spring,  always  makes  the  Stream  the  more 

Phital.  This  it  is  to  be  Wifer  tlian  the 
Laws?  And  fince  you  are  for  Illuftration^, 
I  reply,  that  to  fuppofe  an  ancient  Title 
(though  leffer  in  Degree)  is  preferable  to  a 


upon  PRIDE. 65 

greater  of  late  Creation,  is  as  if  one  (hould 
afSrm  that  an  old  Shilling  is  better  than  a 
new  Half-Crown,    though  the  Alloy  and 
Impreflion  are  the  fame  in  both.    Nay^ 
from  your  Argument  a  Man  may  conclude, 
that  a  coarfer  Metal,  only  by  being  digg'd 
and  refind  in  the  Days  of  our  Great  Grand- 
fathers, (though  perhaps  it  has  contrafted 
fome  Ruft  by  lying  )  is  more  valuable  thad 
the  fame  weight  in  Gold,  but  lately  fepa- 
rated  from  the  Ore.     And  that  an  ancient 
Eftate  is  really  better  than  one  newly  Pur- 
chafed,  though  the  Lands  of  the  Latter  are 
richer,    and  the  Survey  larger  than  the 
Other.  Now  if  a  Man  (hould  prove  fo  Fan- 
ciful, as  to  demand  a  greater  Rent  for  his 
Farm,  bccaufc  it  has  been  in  the  Pofleffion 
of  his  Family  for  fome  Hundreds  of  Years, 
I  believe  the  want  of  Tenants  would  foon 
convince  him  of  his  Errour.    From  whence 
it's  evident,  that  in  taking  an  Eftimate  of 
Nobility  we  are  not  fo  much  to  confider 
it's  Antiquity,    as  the  Merit  of  the  firft 
Grantee,  and  the  Diftinftion  the  Prince  has 
put  upon  it  5  which  like  Figures  or  other 
Marks  upon  Money,  ftamp  the  Value,  and 
tell  the  Subjed  for  how  much  it  is  to  pafs. 

Philot.  Pray,  by  your  Favour,  are  not 
Medals,  and  Coins  valued  more  for  their 
Antiquity  than  their  Metal  ? 

r  VhiUl. 

66         A  Moral  Essay 

PhilaL  That  Queftion  is  to  the  Point  5 
and  therefore  I  anfwer 

Firft^  That  Coins,  &c.  though  they  are 
valuable  as  Rarities,  yet  they  fignifie  little 
in  Exchange  and  common  Ufe  5  And  if  a 
Man  has  any  Debt  to  pay,  or  Commodi- 
ties to  buy.  King  Charles  his  Image,  and 
Superfcription  will  do  him  much  more  Ser- 
vice tlYxnC^fitrs. 

Sccoftdly^  The  Reafon  why  thefe  Things 
arefometimes  fo  much  valued,  is  not  becaufe 
they  are  old,  but  ufeful :  They  often  reftify 
Chronology,  and  explain  Hiftory,  and  re- 
trieve usfeveral  material  Parts  of  Learning  3 
which  might  otherwifc  have  been  irrecove- 
rably loft. 

Thirdly^  There  is  a  Difparity  in  the  cafe 
of  ancient  Coins  and  Families;  For  in  the 
firft  you  have  the  fame  numerical  Piece,  in 
the  latter  nothin^g  but  the  Name  or  Fvelation  5 
fo  that  the  Change  andSucceffion  of  Perfons 
feems  to  deftroy  the  Notion  of  Antiquity., 
To  make  the  Inftancc  parallel,  we  muft 
fuppofe  a  Gentleman  as  old  as  Methufalcm^ 
and  then  I  confefs  he  would  be  a  great  Cu- 
riolity  5  and  ought  to  be  valued  accordingly. 

PhiiGt.  As  I  remember  you  were  faying, 
t\\Q  Pvlerit  of  the  firft  Gentleman  of  the 
Houfe  ought  to  be  conliderd. 

PhilaL  Yes:^  I  conceive  that  Circum- 
fcance  very  Material  5  and  that  if  upon  en- 

upon  PRIDE.  67 

quiry  it  proves  Unintelligible,  or  Unlucky, 
it's  no  fmall  Abatement  to  the  Family.  For 
if  he  Advanced  himfelf  by  a  voluntary  En- 
gaging in  unjuft  Quarrels,  he  has  no  better 
Pretence  to  Honour  than  what  a  refolute 
and  fuccefsful  Padder  may  Challenge.  If 
he  owes  his  Heraldry  to  a  (ervile  Flattery, 
and  a  dextrous  Application  to  the  Vices  of 
Princes  5  the  Marks  of  their  Favour  are  ra- 
ther Infamous  than  Honourable  to  his  Po- 
fterity  ^  becaufe  he  is  Ennobled  for  thofe 
Qualities,  for  which  he  ought  to  have  been 

Pifilot.  What  if  the  Gentility  vv^as  Pur- 
chafed,  I  hope  v/e  may  make  the  bed  of 
what  we  have  paid  for? 

PhilaL  By  all  means !  But  then  this  is  a 
fign  that  Worth  and  diftinguifhing  Quali- 
ties were  wanting  5  otherwife  the  Honour 
had  been  conferred  Gratis.  The  fame  may 
be  faid  when  Arms  or  Titles  are  given  at 
the  tnftance  or  Recommendation  of  a  Fa- 
vorite ^  for  this  is  down-right  begging  for 
Quality  5  and  looks  more  like  an  Alms  than 
an  Honour.  Farther,  it's  a  leflening  to  a 
Man's  Nobility  ,  when  the  Reafon  and 
Grounds  of  it  are  unknown  5  for  if  his  Rife 
had  been  derived  from  worthy  and  credi- 
table Caufes,  he  would  in  all  likelihood 
have  been  as  certainly  acquainted  with 
them,  as  ^vith  bis  Arms  ^  It  being  both  ea- 

F    2  flQ, 

68         A  Moral  Essay 

fie,  and  for  the  Reputation  of  the  Family, 
that  Records  of  this  Nature  (hould  have 
been  prefervVl ;  and  therefore  the  Lofs  of 
them  feems  rather  to  proceed  from  Defign 
than  Neglcft.  In  (hort,  if  the  firft  Princi- 
ples of  Honour  happen  to  be  thus  Coarfe, 
or  Counterfeit,  it's  not  in  the  Power  of 
Time  to  mend  them:  A  Pebble  or  Bnjiol 
Stone  will  not  change  their  Natures,  and 
improve  into  Diamonds  ^  though  they  are 
laid  up  a  Thoufand  Years  together. 

Philot.  Hark  you  Mr.  I  doubt  your  Ef- 
fefts  (if  you  have  any  )  have  lain  but  a  lit- 
tle while  in  the  Heralds  Office. 

Philal.  Probably  as  long  as  your  Wor-- 
fiiips:  But  I  take  it  to  be  much  more  a 
Gentlemanly  Quality  to  difcover  fuch  un- 
fociable  Miftakes  than  to  abett  them.  If 
we  are  capable  of  underftanding  any  Thing, 
it  muft  undoubtedly  be  more  Creditable  to 
promote  good  Humour  and  Modefty  in 
Converfation,  and  give  Men  right  Ap- 
prehenfions  of  themfelves  ^  than  to  flatter 
them  inro  Groundkfs  Conceits,  and  make 
them  believe  they  may  be  truly  Great, 
and  yet  good  for  Nothing.  To  maintain 
fueh  indefenfible  and  dangerous  Principles 
of  Honour,  which  not  only  impofe  upon 
our  Uiiderllandings,  but  emafculate  our 
Spirirs,  and  fpoil  our  Temper,  and  tend 
only  to  the  nourilliing  of  Idknefs  and  Pride  ^ 

upon  PRIDE.  69 

is,  in  my  Opinion,  no  very  Heroical  Under- 

Phiht.  Then  I  find  we  muft  come  to  the 
Merits  of  the  Caiife,  as  you  call  them  ^  and 
examine  upon  what  Foundation  the  Fami- 
Jy  ftands. 

PhiUl.  I  think  that  is  the  only  way  to 
know  what  we  have  to  truft  to  •  and  how 
far  we  may  infift  upon  the  Advantages  of 

Philot.  What  are  the  nfual  Steps  to  Ho- 
nour > 

PhilaL  I  fuppofe  one  of  thefe  Three, 
Learning,  Commerce,  or  Arms.  The  Pre- 
tences of  Learning  have  been  examined 
already  ^  To  which  I  ftiall  only  add.  That 
if  a  Perfon  whofe  Mind  is  enlarged,  and 
beautified  with  all  forts  of  ufefal  Know- 
ledge, is  notwithftanding  obliged  to  Mo- 
defty,  and  Sobriety  of  Thought,  then  cer- 
tainly thofe  who  claim  under  him,  and  arc 
wife  only  by  Proxy,  ought  not  to  erow  too 
big  upon  their  Relation  to  the  Mnfes.  To 
proceed,  ComnKvce  is  another  Expedient 
which  often  diftinguidies  a  Man  from  the? 
Vulgar.  For  Trading  raifes  an  Eiliate,  and 
that  procures  Honour  5  fo  that  in  this  Cafe 
Wealth  is  the  main  of  the  Merit  ^  and  that 
which  is  chiefl^^  infifted  on  by  thofe  who 
Inherit  it.  But  here  we  ought  to  be  verf 
Caufious  and  Meek-Spirited,  ri!l  v^e  are  af- 

F  ^  fnrej 

70         ^MoralEssay 

fured  of  the  Honefty  of  our  Anceftors  5  for 
Covet  on frefs  and  Circumvention  make  no 
good  Mottoiox  2iCoat.  And  yet  your  Men 
of  Trade  are  too  often  affifted  in  their  For- 
tunes by  thefe  Qualities. 

Philot.  I  think  you  are  too  hard  upon 
them  5  and  believe  they  may  come  into  their 
Eftates  by  more  accountable  Methods,  viz. 
hj  their  Induftry,  by  Underftanding  how 
to  make  ufe  of  all  fair  Advantages,  and  by 
the  Luck  of  a  good  Acquaintance. 

PhiUL  I  grant  there  is  a  great  deal  of 
Good  Faith,  Franknefs  and  Generofity  to 
be  Found  amongTradefmen^  and  that  fuch 
Profeffions  are  neceffary  to  the  Convenience 
and  Splendor  of  Life  5  and  being  thus  Ufe- 
ful,  ought  to  be  efteemed  Honourable.  But 
their  being  ufed  to  value  fmall  Gains  is  apt 
(  without  care  )  to  make  them  contraft  a 
Narrownefs  of  Spirit,  and  toftand  too  much 
to  the  Point  of  Intereft. 

Philot,  What  is  that  which  they  call  the 
Myftery  of  Trade  ? 

PhiUL  A  great  part  of  it  confifts  in  the 
Skill  of  over-reaching  their  Cuftomers  ^ 
v^^hich  Science,  I  fear  is  not  learned  meerly 
for  Speculation. 

Philot.  Poffibly  if  may  be  for  Caution, 
that  they  may  not  be  impofed  on  by  others. 

PhilaL  I  am  willing  to  think  fo,  how- 
f vcr  thcfc  Arc^;ia  Offici?/^.,  are  counted  fuch 


upon  PRIDE.  71 

Effentials,  that  except  an  Apprentice  is  ful- 
ly inftrufted  how  to  Adulterate,  and  Var- 
nifli,  and  give  you  the  Go-by  upon  occafi- 
on,  his  Mafter  may  be  charged  with  Neg- 
left^  and  fued  for  not  teaching  hira  his  Art, 
and  his  Trade. 

Philot.  It  feems  then  he  cannot  be  an 
Honefl:  Man,  except  he  teaches  his  Servant 
to  play  the  Knave. 

PhilaL  Granting  your  Inference,  yet  you 
know  a  Man  may  underftand  his  Weapon 
better  than  his  Neighbour  5  and  notwith- 
ftanding  be  of  a  very  peaceable  InofFenfive 
Temper.     However,  Vv^hen  the  Rife  of  the 
Family  is  owing  to  fuch  an  Original,  a  Man 
has  a  particular  Reafon  not  to  flourifh  too 
much  upon  the  Glitter  of  his  Fortune^  for 
fear  there  (hould  be  too  much  Alloy  in  it. 
For  fome  People  are  forced  to  climb  in  a 
very  mean  and  fervile  Pofture.    They  muft 
Flatter,   Deceive,    and   Pinch  %,    life  their 
Neighbours,  and  themfelves  too,  very  un- 
kindly, before  they  can  gain  their  Point. 
So  that  if  the  Anceftor  had  not  been  remark- 
ably Little,  hisPofterity  had  never  been  re- 
puted Great. 

Fhilot.  But  what  needs  all  this  Scruple  ? 
Why  fhould  I  enquire  fo  Anxioufly  how 
my  Anceftors  came  by  their  Eftatc  ?  Let 
their  Merit  be  as  fmall  as  you  picafc,  the- 
Revenue  will   not   fink  upon  this  Score. 

F  4  Now, 

7^  A  Moral  Essay 

Now,  if  you  confidercd  the  Sovereignty  of 
Money,  how  it  commands  Honour,  and 
Beauty,  and  Power  5  how  much  of  Orna- 
ment, and  Defence,  and  Pleafure  there  is 
in  it  5  you  would  allow  us  to  be  a  little  Up- 
ifli  upon  the  Matter :  For  when  a  Man  has 
fuch  an  Univerfal  Inftrument  of  Delight,and 
is  Mafter  of  that,  which  is  Mafter  of  every 
thing  elfe,  he  ought  vifibly  to  Congratulate 
his  Happineft,  and  pay  himfelf  a  particular 

PhiUl.  If  I  could  Purchafe  a  parcel  of 
new  Senfes,  and  (bme  pretty  undifcovcred 
Curiofities  to  pleafe  them  with,  I  confefs  I 
fiiould  be  more  deCrou3  of  growing  Rich 
than  I  am. 

Phihf\  What  though  you  cannot  buy 
any  New,  you  may  pleafe  the  Old  ones 
better  5  and  make  one  Senfe  go  as  far  as 
two,  with  Poverty. 

Fhilal.  lam  not  altogether  of  your  Mind  5 
befides,  if  my  Underftanding  does  not  im- 
prove proportionably,  I  am  only  in  the  fair-^ 
,£r  Way  to  be  more  a  Brute. 

Phtlot.  Underftanding !  Money  will  buy 
good  Books  5  and  though  the  Owner  fliould 
not  know  how  to  ufe  them,  yet  if  he  has 
an  Eftate,  he  will  never  want  People  to 
make  him  believe  he  has  Senfe,  which  will 
be  in  a  manner  as  well  ^  for  Pleafure  con^ 
jifts  rnqftly  ip  Fancy, 


upon  PRIDE.  j:^ 

PhilaL  I  don't  envy  fuch  a  one  the  En- 
tertainment of  his  Imagination,  though  I  be- 
lieve it  is  much  (hort  of  the  Tranfports  of 
Lunacy  :  But  vi^ithal  I  think.  That  Folly 
and  Madnefs  are  no  proper  Judges  to  pro- 
nounce upon  the  Advancements  of  Human 
Nature.  But  to  return  to  the  Argument  ^ 
no  Perfon  can  be  Great  by  being  Owner  of 
thofe  Things  which  wife  Men  have  always 
counted  it  a  piece  of  Greatnefs  to  Defpife, 
To  which  I  muft  add,  That  it  is  not  the 
Poffeffing,  but  the  right  Management  of 
any  valaable  Advantage,  which  makes  us 
Confiderable.  He  that  does  not  Employ 
his  Fortune  generoufly,  is  not  to  be  Refpe- 
cted  meerlybecaufe  he  has  it.  Indeed,  if  a 
Man  gives  me  Part  of  his  Eftate,  I  am 
bound  to  make  him  an  Acknowledgment^ 
but  I  am  not  obliged  to  Honour  him,  be- 
caufe  he  is  pleafed  to  keep  it  to  himfelf 

Philot.  Well!  SinceMerchandifeis  fome- 
times  liable  to  Exceptions ,  and  ancient 
Wealth  has  no  right  to  Challenge  Worfhip 
and  Homage,  pray  what  do  you  think  of 
Nobility  raifed  by  Arms  ?  I  hope  here  you 
v/ill  grant  the  Materials  arc  all  fliining,  and 
folid.  And  when  an  Anceflor  works  out 
his  Fortune  by  great  and  hazardous  Un- 
dertakings, by  Contempt  of  Danger  and 
Death,  and  all  the  Inftances  of  an  Heroick 
Gallantry  5  is  it  not  hi2;Iily  reafonable,  his 


74        ^  MoR  AL  Essay 

Defcendants  fhould  (hare  his  Honour,  as 
well  as  his  Inheritance  ?  Nay,  they  feem 
Obliged,  in  Juftice  to  his  Memory,  to  have 
fome  Streaks  of  Greatnefs  and  Referve  in 
their  Carriage.  They  might  better  be 
Profufe  in  their  Expences,  than  their  Fami- 
liarities. The  Wafting  his  Eftate,  and 
Razing  him  out  of  the  Heralds  Books,  is 
fcarce  more  Injurious  to  his  Name,  than 
the  heedlefs  Condefcentions  of  his  Family. 
For  by  fuch  ill  managed  Humility,  they  do 
as  it  were  Proftitute  his  Quality  5  Mingle 
his  Afhes  with  ignoble  Duft  5  and  Deface  the 
Monuments  and  Diftinftions  of  his  Merit. 

Philcil.  I  confefs,  a  Man  ought  to  be  Ci- 
vil to  his  Generation  5  but  not  to  that  De- 
gree, as  to  Plague  the  Living,  only  in  Ce- 
remony to  the  Dead.  And  I  may  fay  far- 
ther. That  a  Noble  Anceftor,  does  not  de- 
fire  his  Pofterity  fliould  pretend  to  Honour 
him  this  way  3  except  his  Qualities,  as  well 
as  his  Name,  defcend  upon  them.  A  Perfon 
truly  Great,  is  never  fond  and  unreafonable  5 
he  hates  to  fee  Folly  Idolized  5  though  it 
be  in  his  own  Children  5  and  had  rather 
have  his  Memory  buried  in  Oblivion,  than 
his  Honour  fhould  be  Ufurped  by  a  Dege- 
nerate Infignificant  OfF-fpring.  Befides,  the 
Reafonsyou  affign  why  Martial  Men  ought 
to  be  valued  by  After-Ages,  feem  to  be 
eommoti  to  other  Pretences  to  Nobility. 


"  u^on  PRIDE. 75 

Phllot.  T  am   forry   if  they  appear  fo  ^ 
fince  I  defigned  them  chiefly  for  the  Advan- 
tage of  Arms.     For  in  my  Judgment,  the 
Profefiion  of  a  Soldier  has  a  particular,  and 
paramount  Title  to  Honour.     For  can  there 
be  a  more  extraordinary  Inftance  of  Great- 
nefs,  than  for  a  Man   to  be  undifmayed, 
amidfl:  fo  many  horrible  Inflruments   and 
Images  of  Death  ?  To  expofe  his  Pcrfon  as 
freely  as  if  he  knew  himfelf  Immortal  5  and 
to  fear  nothing  butObfcurity  and  Difgrace? 
And  therefore  though  there  are  many  other 
Creditable  Employments  and  Accomplifli- 
ments,  yet  there  is  a  tranfcendent,  and  al- 
moft  an  aftonifhingGreatnefs  andGracefuI- 
nefs  in  Valour.     It  has  fomething  more  II- 
luftrious  and  Sparkling,   more  Noble  and 
Majeftick  than  the  Reft. 

Philal,  Hold!  You  are  e;oin2f  to  defcribe 
Alexdffdcr  ovC^far-^  Do  you  think  that  eve- 
ry Fields  or  Charge  inGides^  can  pretend  to 
all  thefe  fine  Things?  This  muft  be  exam- 
ined farther  by  and  by  2  At  prefent  I  fnall 
only  obferve  to  you.  That  though  I  have  a 
great  Efteem  for  a  Gentleman  of  the  Sword, 
and  don't  in  the  leaft  intend  to  Icffen  the 
juftCharafter  of  Military  Glory  ;  yet  I  con- 
ceive there  is  another  Profefiion,  vv^hich 
poffibly  does  not  Glitter  altogether  fo  much 
upon  the  Senfe^  but  for  all  that,  if  you 
touch  it,  'tvv^ill  prove  right  Sterling. 


76         A  Moral  Essay 

Philot.  What  Profeffion  do  you  mean? 

PhiUl.  That  of  Learning  5  Therefore  if 
you  pleafe,  I  will  juft  Glance  upon  the  Ad- 
vantages of  Learning  5  without  interpofing 
my  Judgment  by  way  of  Comparifon. 

Philot,  Do  fo  5  for  I  think  you  had  need 
fay  fomc  kind  Things  upon  this  Argument, 
to  make  Amends  for  the  Freedom  you  took 
with  it  in  our  former  Conference. 

Philal.  Don't  miftake  me  ^  I  am  comfci- 
ous  of  no  Injury  5  and  therefore  defign  no- 
thing by  way  of  Reparation. 

Philot,  Take  your  Courfe. 

Philal.  I.  Then  not  to  mention.  That 
Learning  is  an  improvement  of  our  Minds  5 
which  is  the  NobleftPart  of  us.  I  fay  not 
to  mention  this,  you  may  pleafe  to  take  no- 
tice 5  that  without  fome  (hare  in  this  ac- 
complifliment.  War  it  felf  cannot  be  fuccefs- 
fully  managed.  Without  the  afliftance  of 
Letters,  a  Man  can  never  be  qualified  for 
any  Confiderable  Poft  in  the  Camp.  For 
Courage  and  corporal  Force,  unlefs  joined 
with  Condudt ,  and  reach  of  Thought 
(which  are  the  ufual  EfFefts  of  Contempla- 
tion )  is  no  more  fit  to  Command,  than  a 
Tempefl  5  doing  for  the  moft  part  more 
harm  than  good  ;  and  deflroying  it  felf  by 
its  blind  and  ill  direfted  Motion.  It  is 
Learning  which  teaches  a  General  the  Suc- 
GelTcs  and  Events  of  Aftion  in  former  Ages  5 


upon  PRIDE  77 

which  makes  him  better  able  to  Judge  of  his 
prefent  Preparation.  It  Inftrufts  him  how 
to  take  Advantage  of  his  Enemies  5  and 
avoid  thofe  Mifcarriages  which  have  been 
Fatal  to  Others  before  him.  It  teaches  him 
how  to  Fortifie  and  Aflault ;  how  to  ma- 
nage the  difference  of  Ground  and  Weather. 
It  lets  him  into  the  Knowledge  of  Humane 
Nature  5  and  fhews  him  how  to  underftand 
the  Tempers  of  other  Men  5  and  to  Govern 
IiisOwn.  It  difcovers  by  what  fecret Springs 
the  Paffions  are  moved  ^  what  are  the 
moft  probable  Caufes  of  Hope  and  Fear^ 
of  Refolution  and  Cowardife  5  and  how 
ftrangely  they  are  mixed,  and  varied  accor- 
ding to  the  difference  of  Climates,  Govern- 
ments, Conditions,  and  Occupations^  efpe- 
cially  according  to  the  different  Age,  Tem- 
per, Interefl,  and  Experience  of  Thofc  who 
are  in  Power. 

Phtlof.  Yes  5  no  doubt  it  teaches  a  Man 
to  take  aSoul  inPieces,as  eafily  as  a  Watch! 
If  ever  I  lieard  fuch  Conjuring! 

PtnUL  Pray  be  not  io  fevere^  the  Dif- 
courfe  is  not  foRomantick  as  you  fuppofe. 

PhiloL  Go  on. 

PhilaL  Secondly,  I  obferve  that  the  Ad- 
vantages of  Learning  are  more  Lafling 
and  Extenlivc  than  thofe  of  Arms.  The 
Cournge  of  a  Soldier,  dees  his  Country  not 
much  Service  after  his  Death  5  the  Benefit 


78        A  MoR  AL  Essay 

of  it  being  ufually  confined  to  one  Age: 
Whereas  by  the  Knowledge  of  Men  and 
Things,  Publick  Provifions  for  Society  are 
Framed,  and  the  Confl-itution  adjufted  to 
the  Temper  and  Convenience  of  the  People  5 
of  the  happy  efftfts  of  which,  remote  Pc- 
fterity  is  often  fenfible.  And  as  the  Con- 
fequences  of  Valour,  feldom  reach  beyond 
the  Death  of  him  who  (hewed  it  5  fo  there 
are  Few  the  better  for  it,  except  thofe  a  Man 
engages  for  5  which  are  commonly  none  but 
his  Country-men.  But  Learning,  by  In- 
venting and  Improving  Arts  and  Sciences, 
fcatters  its  Favours  in  a  much  larger  Com- 
pafs^  becomes  an  univerfal  Benefactor^  and 
obliges  Mankind  in  its  niofl  Comprehenfive 
Latitude  of  Place  and  Time. 

Philot:,  I  hope  you  will  grant,  That 
Learning  mud:  fly  to  the  Protection  of  the 
Sword  to  fecure  it*s  Quiet  ^  and  all  the  Pro- 
fits accrewingfrom  tlience.  For  in  earned:. 
Notions  and  Syllogifms,  are  very  defencelefs 
Things  againfl  Violence.  If  we  had  no- 
thing but  Philofophy,  Statutes  and  Reports^ 
to  fecure  the  Peace  5  our  Memn  and  Tuum 
were  but  in  an  ill  Condition. 

PfjilaL  I  agree  with  you,  and  fhall  juft 
add  in  the  third  place.  That  the  fucceffes  of 
Learning  are  Naturally  of  a  very  Innocent 
Tendency^  and  under  good  Management, 
Prejudicial  to  None.     The  Conquefts  of 


upon?  RIDE.  79 

Arts  are'not  like  thofe  of  Arms  5  gained  by- 
Slaughter,  and  attended  with  Ruin  and  De- 
folation.  No  ^  Here  is  nothing  routed 
but  Ignorance  and  Errour  5  nothing  de- 
ftroyed  but  obftinate  Humour,  and  favage 

EmoUil:  mores  ?2ec  finit  ejfc  feros , 

But  a  Martial  Man,  except  he  has  been 
fweetned,  and  polifhed  by  a  Lettered  Edu- 
cation, is  apt  to  have  a  Tinfture  of  Sower- 
nefs  and  Incomplyance  in  his  Behaviour. 
And  therefore  if  you  obferve  your  old  He- 
roes in  Horner^  (  for  want  of  being  Book- 
Learned)  were  none  of  the  Gentileft-Men. 
What  a  rugged,  Tempeftuous,  unconver- 
fable  Mortal,  was  Achilles-^  I  could  never 
fancy  that  fame  TOoPa^  ax^V- 

Philot.  Well !  I  perceive  it  is  rcquifite 
for  a  Man  to  get  fome  Senfe  to  his  Cou- 
rage if  he  can :  But  have  we  not  loft  all  our 
Pride  :^  and  gone  fomewhat  off  from  the 
Point  ? 

Philal.  No  5  We  have  only  fetched  a 
Compafs  5  and  thrown  our  Reafoning  more 
into  a  Circle,  to  Invert  the  Place:  And 
now  v/e  will  come  on  direftly,  and  make 
a  liltle  Affault^  only  to  try  the  Strength  of 
the  Garifon, 


So         JMoRAL   Essay 

Philot.  Very  Soldier-like  !  In  plain  En- 
glifi,  I  doubt  you  are  Attempting  to  fhew, 
that  it  is  not  fo  much  the  Profeffion  of  Arms, 
as  the  unexceptionable  Management  of  that 
Profeffion,  which  makes  a  Family  honorable. 

Philal.  Yes.  Therefore  before  wc  fall  too 
much  in  Love  with  the  Buif  in  the  Ward- 
robe 5  we  fhould  examine  whether  the 
War  was  juft  5  whether  our  Anccftor 
Fought  in  Defence  of  his  Prince  and  Coun- 
try 5  or  let  himfelf  ont  to  any  Perfon,  who 
would  Hire  him  to  Murther.  We  fhould 
confider^  Whether  the  Enterprife  was  Great 
and  Dangerous^  whether  the  Advantages 
were  gained  by  open  Bravery  and  Refolu- 
tion  ^  or  were  no  more  than  the  Effefts  of 
Chance,  of  Treachery,  or  Surprife  ?  And 
though  a  Man  can  give  a  Creditable  An- 
fwer  to  all  thefe  Qneftions,  be  fhould  ftill 
remember,  there  are  a  great  many  Perfons 
who  have  ventured  as  far  as  himfelf^  and 
yet  continue  in  t  heir  firftObfcurity:  So  that, 
had  it  not  been  his  good  Fortune  to  have 
fallen  under  the  Notice  of  bis  General,  his 
Merit  had  been  unrewarded.  There  are 
many  Perfons  who  perform  fignal  Service 
in  a  Breach,  or  Scalado  ^  and  yet  their  Cou- 
rage is  often  unregarded,  and  loft  in  the 
Crowd  and  Tumult  of  the  Aftion  5  fo  that 
they  get  norhins;  but  Blows  for  their  Pains. 
To   wind  up  this  part  of  the  Difcourfe : 


uponVRlDE.  8i 

Let  the  Rife  of  the  Family  be  never  foCon- 
fiderable  ( I  mean  none  but  Subjefts  )  it 
ought  not  to  fuperfede  thelnduftry  ^  or  (top 
the  Progrefs  of  thofe  who  are  thence  De- 
fcended.  For  if  we  rely  Wholly  upon  the 
Merit  of  Others  5  and  are  great  only  by 
Imputation  5  we  (hall  be  efteemed  by  none, 
but  the  Injudicious  Part  of  the  Worlds 
To  fpeak  out  5  If  neither  the  Advantages  of 
Fortune  and  Education  (  which  often  con- 
cur in  thefe  Cafes)  the  Expeftation  of 
others,  nor  the  Memory  of  Worthy  An- 
ceftors  5  if  none  of  thefe  Motives  can  pre- 
vail with  a  Man,  to  furnifti  himfelf  with 
Supravulgar  and  Noble  Qualities  5  this  is  an 
Argument,  that  he  is  either  under  a  Natu- 
ral Incapacity,  or  elfe  has  abandoned  him- 
felf to  Sloath  and  Luxury.  And  without 
Difpute,  he  is  mofl:  emphatically  Mean, 
who  is  fo  under  the  greateft  Advantages 
and  Arguments  to  the  Contrary*  So  that 
the  Luftre  of  his  Family,  ferves  only  to  fet 
ofFhisown  Degeneracy^  it  docs  Facem  pr<e- 
ferrepiidefidk:^  and  makes  him  the  more  re- 
markably  Contemptible. 

Philot.  You  are  Smart  upon  the  empty 
Sparks !  And  I  perceive  by  your  Difcourfc, 
That  if  we  intend  to  fet  up  Strong,  wemuft 
do  fomethingfor  our  felves. 

FhJlaL  Yes  :  And  therefore  I  prefume, 
that  Women  have  moreReafon  to  infifl:  up- 

G  on 

8i         A  Moral  Essay 

on  their  Birth  than  Men  ^  Becaufe  they 
have  not  fo  fair  a  Trial  to  difcover  their 
Worth.  They  are  by  Cuftom,  made  In- 
capable of  thofe  Employments,  by  which 
Honour  is  ufually  gainM.  They  are  fhut 
out  from  the  Pulpit  and  Barr  5  from  Em- 
baffies .  and  State  Negotiations  ^  fo  that 
notwithftanding  (as  I  believe  it  often  hap- 
pens )  their  Inclinations  are  Generous,  and 
their  Abilities  Great,  to  ferve  the  Pub- 
lick  5  yet  they  have  not  an  Opportunity  of 
fhewing  it. 

Phjlot.  Truly,  I  think  you  need  not 
have  been  fo  liberal  to  the  Beau-Sex -^  you 
know  they  have  enough  to  be  Proud  of, 
befides  Heraldry. 

P/jilal.  What  do  you  mean  ? 

Pifilot.  Their  Beauty,  Man. 

Phjla!.  Right ^  I  believe  that  may  Di- 
fturb  them  fometimes  5  but  they  have  no 
great  Reafon  for  it.  For  Beauty,  though 
it's  a  pretty  Varnifh  i,  yet  it's  of  a  frail  Con- 
ftitution  5  liable  to  abundance  of  Accidents  5 
and  but  a  ftiort-lived  Blefiing  at  the  beft. 
And  waving  thisConfideration ;  it  feems  to 
be  made  chiefly  for  the  Entertainment 
of  the  Lookers-on.  Thofe  who  are  fo 
much  admired  by  Others,  can  t  (hare  the 
Pleafure  of  the  Company,  without  the 
help  of  a  Glafs  5  for  the  Eyes  which  fhew 
us  other  Objefts,  cannot  fcethemfclves.  Na- 

upon  PRIOR  83 

turc  feenis  to  have  laid  the  moft  graceful 
Parts  of  our  Fabrick  out  of  our  way  ^  to 
prevent  our  Vanity.  For  could  fome  Peo- 
ple always  Command  a  fight  of  their  Fa- 
ces 5  they  would  Narcijjus  like,  be  perpetu- 
ally poring  upon  their  Handfomenefs  5  and 
fo  be  neither  fit  for  Bufinefs,  iior  Compa- 

Philot.  To  my  thinking  you  have  not 
cleared  the  Point  5  For  why  may  we  not 
infift  upon  the  Privileges  of  Nature  ?  Why 
ftiould  a  fine  Woman,  be  fo  Prodigal  of  her 
Beauty  5  make  Strip  and  Wafte  of  her  Com- 
plexion, and  Squander  away  her  Face  for  no- 
thing ?  There  is  no  reafon  Perfons  of  a  lefs 
agreeable  Afpeft  (  except  they  have  fome 
other  Advantage  )  (hould  Converfe  with 
Beauty  upon  a  Level,  For  thofe  who  can- 
not furnifh  out  an  equal  proportion,  to- 
wards thePlcafurcofCotiverfation^  ought 
to  pay  for  their  InfufEciency  in  Acknow- 
ledgments. Beauty  without  doubt,  was 
defigned  for  fome  Advantage  5  and  if  fo,  cer- 
tainly the  Owners  have  the  beft  Right  to  it. 

PhiUL  I  grant  it  ^  and  therefore  it's  al- 
lowable for  them  to  fet  a  Value  upon  their 
Perfons  ^  for  the  better  Difpofal  of  them. 
And  farther  if  they  have  a  Mind  to  it,  they 
inay  ple^fe  themfelves  5  bccaufe  they  are 
Accept  ^ble  to  Others  ^  which  is  a  generous 
Satisfictioa  :    But  when    they   grow  Hu- 

C  2  tnourfom. 


A  Moral  Essay 

rnourfom,  they  fpoil  all  ^  For  Pride  not  on- 
ly raifes  a  Prejudice  againft  their  Beauty  5 
but  really  leffens  it.  For  if  you  obferve, 
it  Paints  an  ill-natured  Air  upon  their 
Face  3  and  fills  them  with  Spleen,  and 
Peevifhnefs,  and  Paffion^  which  exhaufts 
their  Spirits;  and  makes  their  Blood  left 
florid  ;  fo  that  their  Beauty  is  neither  fa 
agreeable,  nor  lading,  as  otherwife  it  would 
be:  And  if  the  prefent  Inconvenience  will 
not  Cure  them,  they  will  do  well  to  re- 
member, That  tliey  muft  of  neceffity,  grow 
Humble  when  they  are  Old  3  unlefs  they 
are  fo  Fanciful,  as  to  doat  upon  Rubbilh 
and  Ruins. 

P/jilot.  Pray  let  us  take  leave  of  the 
Ladies  -^  and  proceed  to  the  other  Branch  of 
your  Diviiion,  viz,  to  acquired  Nobility. 
And  heremethinks,  every  thing  looks  unex- 
ceptionable and  fine,  upon  your  owrr 
Principles.  For  here  we  are  beholden  to 
none  but  our  felves^  we  are  not  thrown  up 
the  Hill  by  anothers  Arms^  and  made  con- 
fiderable  by  Diverfion,  or  Chance-medly  ^ 
but  climb  theAfcentby  plain  Strength,  and 
indefatigable  Aftivity.  Is  it  not  a  fingular 
Commendation,  to  have  our  Circumflances 
not  only  Large  and  Honourable,  but  Inde- 
pen  ient  5  and  almoft  to  Create  the  Privi- 
leges we  enjoy  ?  Here  is  no  gilding  of  a 
coarfe  Subftance  3  no  borrowed  Glory  5  no 


upon  PRIDE.  85 

faint  Refleftion  from  an  Anceftor  ^  but  the 
Man  is  all  Bright  and  Luminous  to  the  Cen- 
ter 5  and  Shines  and  Sparkles  in  his  own 
Worth.  He  is  not  Great  by  Genealogy 
and  ancient  Tide  5  by  the  Favour  of  For- 
tune, and  the  Labours  of  thofe  he  never 
help'd  ^  but  by  Nature  and  Performances :, 
by  having  Greatnefs  incorporated  in  himfelf. 
Now,  may  not  a  Perfon  who  has  thus  di- 
ftinguiftied  himfelf  by  his  Merit,  make  ufc 
of  the  Honour  which  has  been  fo  juftly  con- 
ferred upon  him,  and  put  the  Lazy  and  lefs 
fignificant  in  mind  of  their  Defeds  ? 

Philal.  If  you  recolleft  your  (elf  you  will 
find,  that  this  point  concerning  Acquired 
Nobility  has  been  occafionally  difcourfed 
already  ^  Therefore  I  (hall  only  add,  that 
upon  fuppofition  a  Man  has  obliged  the 
Publick,  and  is  remarkable  for  great  Abili- 
ties and  a  generous  Ufeof  them  5  he  would 
do  well  to  remember  that  there  are  others 
who  have  ventured  as  far,  and  performed 
as  confiderably  as  himfelf,  whofe  Services 
all  mifcarried  as  to  any  private  Advantage, 
becaufe  they  were  not  fo  lucky  as  to  aft 
under  the  Notice  of  thofe  who  were  able 
to  reward  :  And  that  many  Perfons  well 
furnilh'd  for  Employment  and  Honour,  go 
out  of  the  World  as  obfcurely  as  they  came 
in  ^  only  for  want  of  a  proper  opportunity 
to  bring  them  into  Light,  and  publick  View, 

G  3  P/jilot. 

86  ^  Moral  Es  say 

Philot.  What  tho*  fome  People  are  un- 
lucky, ought  theirMisfortunes  to  beplead- 
pd  to  the  prejudice  of  Defert  in  others? 

PhiUL  No.  But  when  a  Man  has  re- 
ceived fo  valuable  a  confideration  for  his 
Service  as  Honour  and  Eftate,  he  ought  to 
acquiefce  5  and  not  prefs  too  arbirarily  for 
Submiffion.  He  fhould  not  fet  a  Tax  upon 
Converfation,  and  put  the  Company  under 
Contribution  for  RefpeQ:.  Bed  Jes,  a  Gen- 
tleman of  the  firft  Head  has  a  particular 
reafon  to  manage  his  Advancement  obliging- 
ly: For  by  treating  the  little  People  rough? 
ly,  he  does  in  efFc-ft  but  expofe  his  Ance- 
ftors,  and  reproach  his  own  former  Condi« 

Philot.  You  have  fo  many  fetches  with 
you!  But  what  do  you  think  of  Magi- 
ftrates?  In  my  Opinion  thofe  who  repre« 
fent  their  Prince,  and  are  the  Minifters  of 
Juilice  cannot  praftife  that  Humility  and 
Condefcenfion  you  feem  to  admire,  with 
any  manner  of  Decency,  or  Security  to  the 
Publick.  For  if  they  don't  oblige  their  In- 
feriours  to  Diftance,  their  Reputation  will 
fink,  and  the  Majcfty  of  the  Government 
will  be  leffenM  :>  and  then  it's  eafie  to  guefs 
what  the  Confequence  muft  be. 

Philal.   I  agree  with  you  2  Magiftrates 

ought  to  affert  their  Office,  and  not  make 

themfelves  Cheap  by  improper  J^amiliaritieSo 

■ -     '    «     ^  ^     |i^ 

uponVRlDE.  87 

But  their  Charafter  may  be  over-ftrain'd. 
To  prevent  which   Inconvenience  ,    they 
may  pleafe  to  remember,  That  their  Power 
was  given  them  upon  aPublick  Account, 
more  for  the  Benefit  of  others  than  them- 
felves.    They  are  deputed  by  their  Prince, 
for  the  countenancing  of  Virtue,  for  the 
Eafe  and  Proteftion  of  the  People,  and 
therefore  they  (hould  difcourage  none  who 
are  Regular  and  Fair^  they  (hould  fhew 
their  Authority  upon  nothing  but  Infolence 
and  Injuftice ,    Thieves  and  Malefaftors  3 
upon  thofe  who  Affront  the  Government, 
or  Break  the  Peace.    There  is  no  neceflity 
they  (hould  bring  the  Air  of  the  Bench  into 
common  Gonverfation,  and  wear  their  G;»- 
mijfions  always  upon  their  Faces.     To  man- 
age their  Power  thus  fingularly,  looks  like 
a  little  private  Defign  of  fetting  up  for 
themfelves:,  as  if  they  procured  their  Au- 
thority to  fright  the  King's  Liege-Subjefts  ^ 
and  to  Over-awe  the  Neighbourhood  into  a 
a  greater  Reverence. 

Philot.  But  if  they  (hould  happen  to  take 
too  much  upon  them,  are  the  People  to 
flight  them  upon  this  Account? 

PhtUU  By  no  means:  The  Authority 
ought  to  be  confider*d,  let  the  Men  be  what 
they  will.  However  in  general,  I  obferve. 
That  the  beft  way  to  fecure  Obfervance,  is 
not  to  infift  too  violently  upon  it  :    For 

G  4  Pride 

88  ^  Moral  Essay 

Pride  is  a  moft  unfortunate  Vice.  Other 
Immoralities  ufually  gain  their  Point,though 
they  lofe  more  another  Way  2  But  a  Proud 
Man  is  fo  far  from  making  himfelf  Great 
by  his  haughty  and  contemptuous  Port, 
that  he  is  ufually  puniflied  with  Negleft 
for  it :  And  that  Difdain  with  which  he 
treats  Others,  is  returned  more  Juftly  upon 
himfelf:  Which  may  be  done  without  much 
Difficulty^  in  Regard  Honour  is  not  be- 
come a  Property  fo  far,  as  to  have  all  its 
Appurtenances,  bounded  and  fix  d  by  Law. 
The  Circumftantials,  and  oftentimes  the 
moft  pompous  Part  of  Ceremony,  are  Arbi- 
trary and  Undetermined.  For  we  are  not 
told  either  by  Statute^  or  Common  Law, 
how  many  Bows  a  Superiour  of  fuch  a  De-^ 
gree  may  expeft  from  us  5  nor  how  low  we 
are  tomajce  them  ^  nor  how  often  the  Terms 
of  Refpeft  arc  to  be  ufed  in  our  Application. 

Philot,  What  do  you  mean? 

PhilaL  I  mean  that  it  is  not  fettled  by 
Aft  of  Parliament,  how  many  5/rj"  and  Mar 
dams^  z  Difcourfe  of  fuch  a  Length  is  to  be 
fprinkled  with  5  and  therefore  a  crofs-grain- 
ed  Fellow,  will  tell  you  he  has  his  Betters 
mpon  their  Good  Behaviour  :  If  he  likes 
their  Humour,  he  will  be  as  liberal  to  them 
in  Acknowledgments  as  they  pleafe  ^  if  not, 
lie  ihall  take  the  Freedom  to  hold  his  Hand  5 
^nd  let  them  help  themfelves  how  they  can. 

upon  PRIDE.  89 

Phtlot.  Well !  I  cannot  reconcile  this  Self- 
denying  Humour  you  are  Contending  for, 
to  the  Character  of  a  Gentleman.  Such  an 
untoward  management  of  Fortune  and 
Honour  as  this  is,  argues  either  that  a  Man 
wants  Senfe  to  underftand  his  Condition, 
or  Spirit  to  maintain  it.  To  throw  away 
the  Prerogatives  of  our  Birth,  or  the  Re^ 
wards  of  our  Induftry,  at  fuch  a  carelefs 
Cynical  rate,  is  a  fign  of  a  Ruftick  Inap- 
prehenfive  Meannefs^  and  that  we  have 
not  the  leaft  Inclination  to  Greatnefs  in  us. 
For  thofe  who  defire  to  be  Great,  will  en- 
deavour to  Excel  5  and  thofe  who  Excel 
will  be  fure  to  (hew  it :  For  the  Eflence  of 
Greatnefs  lies  in  Comparifon.  A  tall  Man 
lofes  the  advantage  of  his  Stature,  unlefs  he 
jftands  Streight,  and  overlooks  his  Neigh- 

PhilaL  Methinks  you  are  fomev/hat  out 
in  your  Notion  of  Greatnefs. 

Philot.  Let  us  hear  if  you  can  hit  it  better. 

'PhilaL  To  fpeak  freely,  I  conceive  it  a 
much  more  Subftantial  and  better  natured 
Thing  than  you  have  made  it.  Greatnefs 
certainly  does  not  confifl:  in  Pageantry  and 
Show,  in  Pomp  and  Retinue  ^  and  though 
a  Pcrfon  of  Quality  will  make  ufc  of  thefe 
things  to  avoid  Singularity,  and  to  put  the 
Vulgar  in  mind  of  their  Obedience  to  Au- 
thority, yet  he  dpes  not  think  himfelf  real- 

90        A  Moral  Essay 

iy  the  bigger  for  them  :  For  he  knows 
that  thofe  who  have  neither  Honefty  nor 
Underftanding,  have  oftentimes  all  this  fine 
Furniture  about  them.  Farther,  To  be 
Great,  is  not  to  be  Starched,  and  Formal, 
and  Supercilious  5  to  Swagger  at  our  Foot- 
men, and  Brow-beat  our  Inferiors.  Such  a 
Behaviour  looks  as  if  a  Man  was  confcious 
of  his  ownlnfignificancy  5  and  that  he  had 
nothing  but  Out-fide,  and  Noife,  and  ill 
Humour ,  to  make  himfelf  Gonfiderable 
with  :  But  he  that  is  truly  Noble,  has  far 
different  Sentiments  5  and  turns  his  Figure 
quite  another  way.  He  hates  to  abridge 
the  Liberties,  to  deprefs  the  Spirits,  or  any 
vays  to  impair  the  Satisfaftion  of  his 
Neighbour.  His  Greatnefs  is  eafie,  oblig- 
ing, and  agreeable  ^  To  that  none  have  any 
juft  Caufe  to  wifli  it  lefs.  And  though  he 
has  a  general  kindnefs  for  all  Men  ^  though 
he  defpifes  not  the  meaneft  Mortal,  but 
defires  to  ftand  Fair  in  the  Opinion  of  the 
World  5  Yet  he  never  courts  any  Man's 
Favour  at  the  Expence  of  Juftice  ,  nor 
ftrikes  in  with  a  Popular  Miftake  :  No, 
He  is  fenfible  it  is  the  part  of  true  Magna- 
nimity to  adhere  unalterably  to  a  wife 
Choice  :  not  to  be  over-run  by  Noife  and 
Numbers  5  but  to  appear  in  defence  of  in- 
jured Right,  of  neglefted  Truth,  not^ith- 
ftanding  all  the  Cenfure  and  Difadvantage 


upon  PRIDE,  91 

they  may  fomctimcs  lie  unden  To  con» 
elude  his  Gharafter,  A  Great  Man  is  Affa- 
ble in  his  Converfe,  Generous  in  his  Tem^ 
per  ^  and  Immoveable  in  what  he  has  ma- 
turely Refolved  upon.  And  as  Profperity 
does  not  make  him  Haughty  and  Imperi- 
ous, fo  neither  does  Adverfity  fink  him  in- 
to Meannefs  and  Dejeftion :  For  if  ever 
he  (hews  more  Spirit  than  ordinary,  it  is 
when  he  is  ill  ufed5  and  the  World  Frowns 
upon  him.  In  ftiort,  he  is  equally  remov- 
ed from  the  Extremes  of  Servility  and  Pride  5 
and  fcorns  either  to  trample  upon  a  Worm^ 
or  fneak  to  an  Emperor. 

Fhilot.  In  earneft  5  you  have  defcribed  a 
Perfbn  of  Honour :  And  I  am  fo  far  pleafed 
with  the  Charafter,  that  I  would  give  all 
I  am  Mafter  of  to  make  it  my  Own.  But 
can  we  receive  no  other  Advantages  from 
Nobility,  but  what  have  been  hinted  al- 
ready ? 

Phikal.  All  that  I  can  think  of  at  prefent 
are  thefe  following: 

Firft,  It  gives  a  fair  occafion  to  excite 
the  Generofity  of  our  Minds,  and  difpofes 
us  to  the  Imitation  of  great  Examples  ^  that 
fo  we  may  not  feem  unworthy  our  Prede- 
ceffors.  Indeed,  a  Man  is  bound  in  Jufticc 
not  to  impair  the  Reputation,  nor  fpoil 
the  Breed  of  the  Family  ;  but  to  hand 
down  the  Line  to  his  Pofterity  j  at  leaft 


91         A  Moral  Es  say 

with  the  fame  good  Conditions  he  receiv- 
ed it. 

Secondly,  ThefePriviledges  of  Birth  may 
ferye  to  Check  an  infolent  Humour  in 
others,  who  behave  themfelves  Contemp- 
tuoufly  towards  us  upon  leffer,  or  but  equal 

Thirdly,  A  Man  may  make  fome  Advan- 
tage this  way,  when  he  falls  undefervedly 
under  Publick  Difgrace :  or  is  unrighteouf- 
ly  Oppreffed.  For  in  fuch  a  Cafe,  the  men- 
tion of  his  Anceftors  feems  free  from  all 
fufpicion  of  Vanity,  and  may  fairly  be  in- 
terpreted to  proceed  either  from  felf-De- 
fence,  or  greatnefs  of  Spirit. 

Fourthly,  The  fame  may  be  done  when 
any  Office  or  Promotion,  may  Legally  be 
claimed  by  virtue  of  an  honourable  Con- 
dition. For  Example,  If  a  Man  fliould  put 
in  to  be  one  of  the  .Knights  of  Malta,  he 
might  modeftly  enough  publifh  his  Pedi- 
gree 5  and  prove  his  fix  Defcents,  againft  a 
lefs  qualified  Competitor. 

Philot.  If  you  are  at  a  flop,  I  think  I 
can  carry  your  Conceflions  fomewhat  far- 
ther. For,  as  I  remember  it  has  been 
granted  already,  that  the  common  People 
may  pay  a  Refpeft  to  Quality  5  though  you 
Mortifie  the  Pleafure  a  little  feverely  in 
thofe  who  receive  it. 

?hilaL  May  pay  a  Refpeft,  call  you  it?  I 


ufonVKlDE.  95 

fay  they  muft.  For  not  to  mention  that 
Gentlemen  have  generally  a  greater  (hare 
of  Fortune  and  Senfe  too,  thanthofe  of  Vul- 
gar Condition  5  not  to  mention  this  I  fay. 
If  they  had  nothing  to  plead  but  their  Qua- 
lity, they  ought  to  be  regarded  upon  that 
Score,  becaufe  the  State  fets  a  Value  upon 
it :  and  that  for  Publick  and  Confiderablc 

Philot.  I  perceive  if  a  Man  will  but  ftay 
and  hear  you  out,  you  are  civil  enough  at 
the  laft.    Pray  what  are  we  to  do  next  > 

PhiUL  Why,  Now  I  could  run  aDif- 
courfe  with  you  upon  the  Inconveniences 
of  Pride  5  and  (hew  you  in  particular,  what 
an  unconquerable  Averfion  it  gives  all 
Mankind  againft  us,  when  we  are  over- 
grown with  it.  How  it  multiplies,  and  con- 
ceals our  Defefts  from  us:  and  makes  us 
do  a  Thoufand  filly  Things,  without  ta- 
king notice  of  them.  How  it  makes  us  a 
Prey  to  Flatterers  5  and  puts  us  to  great 
Expences,  only  to  be  laughed  at.  I  might 
debate  with  you,  how  it  fpoils  Converfa- 
tion^  and  takes  away  the  pleafure  of  Soci- 
ety. How  often  Families,  Kingdoms,  and 
Churches  are  Embroiled  5  and  the  World 
turned  topfie-turvy  by  this  Vice.  Thefe 
and  many  other  ill  Confequences  of  Pride, 
might  be  enlarged  upon :  But  this  part  of 
the  Argument  is,  I  conceive,  more  proper 


94      A  Moral  E  s  s  a  r,  ^c. 

for  Divines  5  and  therefore  I  (hall  purfue  it 
no  farther. 

Philot.  Well  moved  t  For  now  I  think  it 
is  almoft  time  to  give  over* 

Philal.  I  v^on't  tire  you* 

Teur  Hnmbte  Servants 







Philvt.  1  \Hrlaletffef^  Vm  glad  to  meet 
1-^  you  again  ^  Where  have  you 
-^      been  this  long  time  > 

PhiUL  Sometimes  not  juft  where  I  would 
be:  But  now  Ihavenoreafon  to  complain ^ 
for  I  always  think  my  felf  Well,  when  I  am 
with  a  Friend. 

Philot.  I  mufl:  have  half  an  Hours  Con- 
verfation  with  you  before  wc  part. 

PhiUl.  You  oblige  me  extremely.  I  was 
afraid  your  Time  had  been  pre-ingaged 
to  thofe  Gentlemen  and  Ladies  you  parted 
with  at  the  Coach  5  I  heard  them  define  you 
not  to  ftay  long.  By  their  Habit  and  Equi- 
page they  feem  to  be  Perfons  of  Condition  3 
and  therefore  you  know  the  Apointment 
niuft  be  well  remembred. 

Philot.  Leave  that  to  me.  But  by  the 
Way,  I  thought  you  laid  fomewhat  of  an 


96  A  Moral  Essay 

Accent  upon  their  Habit  5  Were  they  too 
Fine  for  you? 

PkiUl.  They  may  be  fo  for  themfelves 
for  ought  I  know. 

Philot.  I  perceive  you  are  for  making 
Trize  of  me  again.  I  remember  what  mor- 
tifying Difcoveries  you  made  at  our  laft 
Meeting.  I  wifti  you  had  kept  your  Cy- 
nical Truths  to  your  felf  5  for  Tm  fure  my 
Mijiakes  were  much  more  Entertaining. 
*  PhiUL  It  feems  they  were  Truths  then. 

Fhilot.  Yes.  And  that's  it  v/hich  vexes 
me  ^  for  now  I  have  much  ado  to  keep  my 
felf  in  my  own  good  Opinion. 

VhiUL  Vm  forry  you  fliould  be  in  Love 
with  a  Delufion  5  efpecially  when  you  know 
it  to  be  fuch.  Fevers  and  Intemperance 
bring  a  great  many  gay  Fa:ncies  with  them  5 
and  yet  they  are  not  accounted  any  of  the 
Bleffings  or  Ornamentals  of  Life. 

Philot.  Happinefs  is  Happinefs  ^  whe- 
ther 'tis  founded  in  Reafon  or  Imagination,, 
'tis  all  a  Cafe  to  me,  provided  I  have  a  vi- 
gorous Senfe  of  it.  Nay,  in  my  Judg- 
ment, thofe  which  you  call  the  Satisfafti- 
ons  of  Fartcy^  are  the  better  of  the  two. 
They  are  more  at  Command  than  the 
other,  and  ftand  in  no  need  of  a  Foreign 
Supply.  The  Want  of  Tools  and  Materia 
als,  if  the  Model  is  anfwered,  is  a  Com- 
mendation to  the  Workmau.     To  make  To 


concerning  CLOATHS.        97 

fine  a  Something  out  of  Nothings  has  fome 
Rcfemblance  to  Creation:  So  that  if  this 
Way  has  as  much  Pleafure  in  the  EflFeft5 
it  feems  to  have  more  of  Magnificence  in 
the  Caufc. 

PhilaL  I  grant  you,  if  a  Man  could  be 
ahvays  dreaming  of  Paradife^  The  Dream 
would  go  a  great  Way  towards  making 
the  Thing.  But  alafs !  The  vifionary  Plea- 
fure will  quickly  difappear.  The  agreea- 
ble Part  of  the  Fit  won't  laft^  therefore  let 
us  get  rid  of  it  as  foon  as  may  be.  The 
longer  it  continues,  the  worfe  and  the 
weaker  'twill  leave  us.  We  may,  like  the 
Romdr7s,  Deify  a.  Difeafe,  if  we  pleafe^  but 
if  we  expeft  any  Return  of  the  Worfliip, 
we  (liall  be  Miftaken. 

Philot,  I  tell  you,  I  came  off  with  Lofs 
the  laft  Rencounter :  And  now  by  your 
furveying  me  from  Head  to  Foot,  I  find 
you  think  I  have  too  much  of  Expenceand 
Curiofity  about  me :  But  if  you  expeft  to 
Difpute  my  Cloaths  off  my  Back,  you  will 
be  difappointed. 

Phil  J,  I  have  no  Defire  you  fhould  turn 
cither  Adaf^itc^  or  ^laher-^  but  yet  I  be- 
lieve fome  People  throw  av/ay  too  much 
Money ,  and  Inclination  ,  upon  thefe 

Philot.  You  feem  to  forget.  That  the 
Diftindionsof  Rank  and  Condition  cannot 

H  be 

■  ■■  —  ■  ■ . i. ,        T, 

98  A  Moral  Essay 

be  kept  up,  without  fomething  Extraordi- 
nary in  this  kind  ^  And  unlefs  this  be  done, 
Government  muft  fuffcr. 

PhilaL  For  all  that,  Noah  had  large  Do- 
minions^  and,  for  ought  appears,  kept  his 
Subjefts  in  good  Order  without  any  great 
Affiftance  from  the  Wardrobe. 

Philot.  But  Princes  Subjefts  are  not  fo 
near  of  kin  to  them  now  5  and  therefore 
not  fo  eafily  Governed. 

PhilaL  We  will  Difpute  no  farther 
about  Princes  :  Befides,  I  grant  the  World 
is  aker'd  5  and  am  willing  to  make  an  Al- 
lowance upon  that  Score. 

Philot.  I  (hall  proceed  upon  your  Con- 
ceffion.     And  endeavour  to  prove  in  the 

Firft  Place,  That  Richnefs  of  Habit  is 
not  only  Lawful,  but  convenient  for  thofe 
whoarepoffeffedof  Publick  Charges 5  efpe- 
cially  when  they  execute  their  Office.  For 
the  People  generally  take  their  Meafures 
mare  from  the  Appearance,  than  the  Rea- 
fon  of  Things.  Their  Apprehenfions  are 
fo  difpofed,  that  they  think  nothing  Great 
but  what  is  Pompous  5  and  Glitters  upon 
the  Senfes.  If  their  Governours  had  not 
fome  Advantage  of  them  in  Figure  3  they 
would  be  apt  to  over-look  their  Character, 
and  forget  their  Diftance. 

PhilaL    I   have  no  Intention  to  argue 
againft  Geld  Chains^  Velvet  Caps,  or  Sables  5 


concerning  CLOATHS.        59 

or  any  Thing  of  this  Nature  :   But  granting 
this    Furniture   may   be    fomewhcit   of  a 
Guard  to  Authority,  yet  no  publick  Perfon 
has  any  Reafon  to  Value  himfelf  upon  it. 
For  the  Defign  of  this  Sort  of  State,  is  only 
to  Comply  with  the  Weaknefs  of  the  Multi* 
tude.    Tis  an  Innocent  Stratagem  to  De- 
ceive them  into  their  Duty  •  and  to  awe 
them  into  a  juft  Senfe  of  Obedience.     A 
great  Man  will  rather  Contemn  this  kind  of 
Finery,  than  think  himfelf  Confiderable  by 
it.     He  will  rather  be  Sorry  that  his  Autho- 
rity needs  the  Support  of  fo  little  an  Arti- 
fice ^  and  depends  in  any  Meafure  upon  the 
Ufe  of  fuch  Trifles.    To  ftoop  to  the  Vul- 
gar Notion  of  Things,  and  efl:ablifli  ones 
R^eputation  by  counterfeit  Signs  of  Worth, 
muft  be  an  uneafie  Task  to  a  Noble  Mind. 
Befides,  We  are  not  to  think  the  Magi- 
ftrate  cannot  Support  his  Office  without 
Fine  Cloaths:  For  if  he  is  furnifhed  with 
general  Prudence:^  with  Abilities  particu- 
lar to  his  Bufinefs  ^  and  has  a  competent 
Share  of  Power,  he  needs  not  doubt  his  In- 
fluence over  the  People. 

Philot.  Pray  what  do  you  think  of  pri- 
vate Quality  >  I  hope  you  don  t  intend  to 
fl:rike  us  out  of  all  Difl:inftion,  to  run  all 
Metals  together  ^  and  make  a  Sort  oi  Corin- 
thian Brajs  of  us. 

H  a  Philal 

loo         JMoralEssay 

FhiUL  By  no  means.  However,  your 
Argument  muft  abate  farther  upon  this 
Head.  For  Quality,  feparated  from  Au- 
thority, is  fufficiently  maintained  by  Title^ 
Arms^  and  Precedency:  This  is  enough  to 
keep  up  D/Jiin&joft^  and  to  encourage  In- 
duftry  and  Merit.  There  is  no  Neceffity 
forPerfons,  without  Jurifdiftion,  to  March 
always  with  Colours  difplayed.  It  feems 
more  agreeable  theat  thy  fhould  Conceal, 
than  make  a  needlefs  Oftentation  of  their 
Wealth.  Would  it  not  look  oddly  in  a  Souldi- 
er,  to  give  in  a  H'lftory  of  his  Valour  and 
Conduft  in  Converfation  ?  Or  for  a  Man  of 
Learning,  to  make  Harangues  upon  his  own 
Parts  and  Performances  ^  and  tell  the  Com- 
pany how  Ignorant  they  are  in  Refped  of 
him  .<? 

Philot.  That  would  be  a  little  Ful- 
fome  I  confefs^  But  is  the  Cafe  the 
fame  ? 

P/ji/al,  Much  at  one,  in  private  Perfons. 
For  them  to  appear  Pompous  in  Equipage, 
or  Habit,  is  but  a  vain  glorious  Publifiiing 
their  own  Grandeur  5  a  filent  Triumphing 
over  the  Inferiority  of  Others  5  and  is  in  Ef- 
fed:  to  proclaim  themfelves  extraordinary 
People.  Whereas  a  modeft  Man,  if  he  was 
fomewhat  Taller  than  his  Neighbours, 
would  chufe  to  fhrink  himfelf  into  the  Di- 
menfions  of  the  Company^  and  be  content- 

comer  mn  .?■  G  L  O  A  T*H  S.      I  o  I 

ed  rather  to  lofe  fomething  of  hisownSta* 
turc,  than  to  upbraid  them  with  the  Lit" 
tlenefs  of  theirs. 

Philot.  What,  becaufe  a  Lord  of  a  Man- 
ner has  not  always  a  Commi\Jion^  muft  he 
be  allowed  no  better  Cloaths  than  a  Cot- 
tager ? 

PhiUL  Yes.  There  may  be  fome  Diffe- 
rence 5  and  yet  it  need  not  be  very  Expen- 
five.  A  Gentleman's  Mien  and  Behaviour 
is  fuflScient  to  difcover  him,  without  any 
great  Dependance  upon  Shops  and  Taylors. 
After  all,  the  beft  way  of  diftinguifhing,  is 
by  the  Qualities  of  the  Mind :  Let  Perfons 
of  Condition  ftrive  rather  to  be  richer  in 
their  Difpofition  than  the  Vulgar :  Let 
them  put  on  a  better  Humour,  wear  a  finer 
Underftanding,  and  (lievv  a  more  (hining 
Fortitude:  Let  them  appear  remarkably 
Jufty,  Inoffcnfive,  and  Obiisring.  This  is 
the  Way  to  be  nobly  Popular,  and  gives 
them  the  Hearts,  as  well  as  the  Ceremony, 
of  their  Inferiours. 

Philot.  How  muft  they  fpend  their 
Eftates5  they  cannot  Eat  and  Drink  them 

P/jilal.  However,  they  feem  willing 
enough  to  try  their  Skill  5  and  I  believe  the 
Experiment  fucceeds  fometimes.  But  to 
your  Queftion:  Was  the  SurpluGige  of 
Wealth  emploved  in  Charitable  IJfes,  and 

H  2  En- 

lo^  tIMoralEssay 

Entertainments  foberly  Hofpitable,  I  con- 
ceive it  would  run  in  a  more  proper  Cha- 
nel :  Did  Men  lay  out  their  Abilities  in  the 
Service  of  Religion,  and  for  the  Promoting 
of  Arts  and  Knowledge,  Jiow  might   they 
Advance  the Profperity  and  Glory  of  aNa- 
tion  this  Way  ?    How   much  \Vifer,  and 
Eafier,  and  Richer,  might  they  make  their 
Inferiors  ^    And  as  they  would   be  more 
Beneficial  to  their  Country,  fo  chey  would 
ferve  the  Defigns  of  Greatnef)  much  more 
EfFeftually.    Such  a  generous  Ufe  of  For- 
tune, would  give  Luftre  to  their  Repurac 
tion  5    and   make    the  World   look  with 
Wonder  and   Regard  upon  them.      How 
would  it  Raife  a  declining  Inrerefl:  to  its 
former  Height;    and    with   what  advan- 
tage convey  their  Memories  to  Pofterity? 
But  to  Return  5  Pvichnefs  of  Habit  is  not  on- 
ly unneceffary  to  keep  up  the  Diftinftionof 
Degrees,  but  infufficient :   For  where  there 
are  no  Sitr^ptnary  Laws  to  confine  the  con- 
dition of  Perfons,  and  afcertain  the  Heral- 
dry oi  the  Wardrobe^   every  one  has  the  Li- 
berty of  being  as  Expenfive,  and  Modifh  as 
he  pleafes.     And  accordingly  you  may  ob- 
ferve,  that    ordinary  People,  when  they 
happen  to  abound  in  Money  and  Vanity, 
have  their  Houfes  and  Perfons  as  richly 
Furnifhed,   as  thofe  who  are  much  their 
Superiours.     There  are  other  Inftances  in 


concerning  CLOATHS.        105 

which  methinks,  thefe  Things  are  a  little 

Philot.  As  how  ? 

Philal  Why,  to  fee  Gold  and  Scarlet 
condemned  to  Liveries^  the  Coach-box  fur- 
nifh*d  like  the  Council  Chamber^  and  the 
Horfes  wear  as  good  Velvet  as  xh^  Company  ; 
is  methinks  not  very  agreeable.  This  Pro- 
ftitution  of  Finery,  is  enough  to  make  it 
Naufeous  5  and  to  ruin  its  Reputation  to  all 
Intents  and  Purpofes. 

Philot.  When  you  have  faid  all,  A  good 
Suit  does  a  Man  Credit  5  and  puts  People  in 
Mind  of  paying  him  a  proper  Refpeft. 
And  fince  others  efteem  me  upon  this  Ac- 
count, I  ought  to  follow  their  Opinion* 
For  why  fhould  I  think  my  felf  Wifer  than 
the  Majority  of  Mankind  ?  Singularity 
fcems  to  iiave  always  a  Spice  of  Arrogance 
in  it. 

Philal.  You  are  wonderfully  refigned  in 
your  Underftanding  3  I  guefs  the  Occafion^ 
and  (hall  endeavour  to  difappoint  your  Hu- 
mility. For  notvvithftanding  your  Majori- 
ty^ I  conceive  the  Reafons  of  Things  are  ra- 
ther to  be  taken  by  Weia^ht  thanT^/e:  And  if 
fo,  fine  Cloaths  will  fignify  nothing  in  the 
Value  of  a  Man,  becaufe  they  are  but  Signs 
of  Wealth  at  the  beft^  which  generally 
fpeaking,  is  no  more  an  Argument  of 
Worth,    than  of  the  Contrary.     And   as 

H  4  '       Cloaths 

104         JMoralEssay 

Cloaths  don't  fuppofe  a  Man  Confiderable, 
fo  neither  can  they  make  him  fo.  This  will 
appear,  if  we  examine  either  the  Materials 
of  which  they  confift,  or  the  Art  and  Curi- 
ofity  which  is  (hewn  in  the  Fafliioning  of 
them.  The  Matter  of  which  a  Rich  Habit 
confifts,  is  either  the  Skins  of  Beafts,  the 
Entrails  of  Worms,  the  Spoils  of  Fifhes, 
fome  fliining  Sand  or  Pebbles,  which  owe 
their  humble  Original  to  the  Dirt:  And  is 
it  not  a  ridiculous  Vanity  to  Value  our  fe!  ves 
upon  what  we  Borrow  from  Creatures  be- 
low Reafon  and  Life}  In  fhort.  Either 
they  are  a  real  Advantage,  or  not:  If  they 
are,  they  prove  our  Dcpendance  upon  infe^ 
riour  Things^  which  ought  to  be  a  morti- 
fying Confideration  :^  unlefs  we  can  be 
proud  of  Beggary  .•  If  they  are  not,  then  to 
dote  on  them,  is  a  Sign  we  are  funk  beneath 
our  proper  Level  5  that  we  admire  Trifles, 
and  difgrace  the  Dignity  of  our  Nature. 
To  fee  thefe  infignificant  Ornaments  valued 
at  fo  crreat  a  Rate,  and  preferred  to  the  Ne- 
celTaries  of  Life,  is  no  fmall  Difparagement 
to  the  LTnderftandings  of  Men  5  and  is  an 
Argument  of  the  Littlenefs,  and  Degene- 
racy of  our  Kind.  One  v/ould  think.  He 
that  has  the  Liberty  of  looking  upon  the  Sun 
and  Moon  for  Nothing,  would  never  pur- 
chafe  the  Glinimcrings  of  a  Peble  at  fo  high 
a  Price. 


concerning  CLOATHS.      105 

Philot.  I  find  you  imagine  Pearls  were 
made  only  for  Cordials -j  and  that  Diamor?ds 
are  fit  for  nothing  hut  Bartholomew-Babies 
to  fparkle  in :  But  I  believe  the  Jewellers 
would  do  well  enough  if  they  had  nothing 
but  your  Philofophy  to  damp  their  Trade. 

Philal.  That  may  be  ^  But  what  if  I  can 
prove  that  the  Price  of  them  is  kept  up  by 
Imagination,  and  III  Humour  5  and  that  the 
very  R.eafon  which  makes  them  Dear^  ought 
to  make  them  Cheap. 

Philot.  Let's  hear. 

Philal.  You  may  obferve  then.  That 
mofl:  of  thefe  Ornaments  owe  their  Value  to 
their  Scarcity  5  For  if  they  were  Common, 
Thofe  who  moft  Admire  them,  would  be 
ready  to  throv/  them  away .Ter/;////W/  {de  Ha- 
bit. Mnliebr)  Obferves,  That  fome  People 
bound  their  Melefaftors  in  Chains  of  Gold  ^ 
And  if  a  Man  s  Crime  was  very  Notorious, 
they  would  make  him  as/;/e  as  2iGencral  Of- 

Philot.  I  fuppofe  they  were  Sir  Thomas 
Moors  Vtopians.  A  pretty  Device!  Tis 
pitty  Whitehall  was  not  plundered  to  Orna- 
ment- Newgatcl 

Philal.  Tertullian  Obferves  farther,  That 
Diamonds  and  Rubies  were  little  efteemed 
by  the  Eaftern  Nations 5  where  they  were 
the  Growth  of  the  Country.  So  that  I  fup- 
pofe,   when    the  Parthian  Children,    and 


io6  JMoralEssay 

Milk-Maids^  had  worn  them  till  they  were 
weary,  they  were  bought  np  for  the  Roman 

Now  to  be  fond  of  any  thing,  purely  be- 
caufeit  is  uncommon,  becaufe  the  Generali- 
ty of  Mankind  wants  it,  is  an  ill-natured 
Plcafure  ^  and  arifes  from  an  unbenevolent, 
and  ungenerous  Temper. 

Philot.  Pray  what  do  you  think  of  the 
Artificial  Improvement  5  Is  not  a  Rich 
Drefs  an  Addition  to  the  Wearer  upon  this 

PhiUL  Not  at  all.  'Tis  true,  the  Re- 
fining upon  what  was  more  imperfc&ly 
begun  by  Nature  ^  the  graceful  Difpofiti-. 
on  of  the  Parts  5  and  the  judicious  Mixture 
of  Colours  5  are  Arguments  of  Induftry 
and  Ingenuity:  But  then  this  Commenda- 
tion does  not  belong  to  thofe  that  Buy 
them.  If  the  meer  Wenrwg  them  is  any 
ways  Creditable,  it  is  becaufe  the  Tay- 
lors, &€.  are  the  Fount dfts  of  Honour. 

Philot.  I  grant  you,  thofe  People  make 
em  5  but  the  Suiting  them  is  above  their 
Talent.  None  but  Perfons  of  Condition 
can  hit  this  Point.  Indeed  they  have  a 
great  Delicacy  and  Exaftnefs  in  their  Fan- 
cy :  They  pitch  upon  nothing  that  is  Taw- 
dry and  Mechanick,  Staring,  or  ill  Matched. 
One  may  know  a  Gentlewoman  almoft,  2iS 
well  by  feeing  her  chufe  a  Mantua,  or  a  Ri- 


roncerning  CLOATHS.        107 
bon  3  as  by  going  to  Garter ^  or  Clarerfcl^ 


PhilaL  The  mixing  of  Lights  and  Sfiade, 
handfomely,  looks  like  a  Genius  for  Paint- 
ing :  And  that  is  the  mod  you  can  make  of 
your  Obfervation,     To  go  on  with  you :  I 
fliall  venture  to  add,  That  for  private  Per- 
fons  to  expeft  an  ufual  Obfervanceupon  the 
Account  of  fine  Cloaths^  argues  them  Con- 
fcious  of  their  own  little  Worthy  and  that 
the  greatcft  Part  of  their  Quality  comes  out 
of  the  Drcjjing  Room.     Having  nothing  to 
prefer  them  to  the  Efteem  of  the  Judicious, 
they  are  contented  to  take  up  with  the  Cere- 
mony of  the  Ignorant  5  and  with  a  little 
Glitter  and   Pageantry,  draw  the  gazing 
unthinking  Mobile  to  Admire  them.  Now 
to  defire  Refpeft  where  we  have  no  Jurif- 
diftion,  purely  upon  our  own  Account,  is 
an  Argument  either  of  a  weak  Judgment, 
or  weak  Pretences.     If  we  underftood  the 
true  Grounds  of  Efteem  5  If  v/e  were  well 
ftockM  v/ith  Abilities,  or  good  Aftions,  to 
entertain  us  at  Home  ^  we  iliould  not  make 
our  felves  fo  mean,  as  to  let  our  Satisfafti^ 
ons  depend  upon  the  Reverences  of  the  Ig- 
norant, or  Defigning.      Befides,  to  delight 
in   the  Submiffions  of  Others,    is  a  certain 
Sign  of  Pride*    This  fuppofes,  That  we  are 
not  fo  muchpleafed  with  our  ov/n  Station  ^ 
as  with   looking   down,    and  feeing  our 


io8       A  Moral  Essay 

Neighbours,as  we  fancy,  in  a  worfe  Condi- 
tion than  our  felves.  Whereas  a  generous 
Mind  has  its  Happinefs  encreafed,  by  being 

Philot.  I  fuppofe  your  Artillery  may  be 
almoft  fpent  by  this  time. 

Fhilal.  I  was  going  to  tell  you,  That 
Rich  Cloaths  are  accounted  unfuitable  to 
Old  Age^  which  is  a  farther  Proof  of  their 
Infignificancy.  That  Age  which  is  moft 
remarkable  for  Wifdorn  and  Temper  3 
which  is  particularly  Honoured  with  the 
Weight  of  Bufinefs,  and  Dignity  of  Office  5 
and  has  defervedly  thegreateft  Regard  paid 
it :  That  Age,  I  fay,  chufes  to  apear  in 
a  plain,  unornamented  Garb.  Whereas, 
were  fine  Cloaths  Marks  of  true  Honour  ^ 
were  they  Ornaments  great  enough  for  a 
Man's  Reafon  to  delight  in,  the  wifefl:  Part 
of  the  World  would  not  go  without  them: 
Efpecially  fince  the  Decays  of  Nature  give 
fo  fair  a  Plea  for  the  Affiftances  of  Art. 
There  cannot  be  a  greater  Difparagement  to 
this  Sort  of  Finery,  than  its  being  refufed  by 
that  Age  which  feems  to  need  it  mofl:  ^  and 
if  it  was  Confiderable,  beft  deferves  it. 
Since  Men  at  the  Height  of  Difcretion  are 
afhamed  of  thefe  Additions  ^  this  is  a  Con- 
vincing Proof  that  they\re  Childifh  and 
Trifling  ^  and  fitteft  for  thofe,  who  carry 
more  Body  than  Soul  about  them. 


concerning  C  L  O  A  T  H  S.      109 

Philot.  Your  Inference  is,  that  there 
(hould  be  a  Refemblance  between  Age  and 
Habit  5  and  that  a  Finical  Old  Spark,  can 
never  be  in  the  Falhion. 

PhilaL  Right.  For  Old  People  to  fet  up 
for  Mode  and  Dreffing,  is  a  naufeous  Piece 
of  Vanity.     Indeed,  when  we  come  into 
the  World  firft,  'tis  not  fo  remarkable  an 
Imprudence,   if  we  mifplace  our  Efteem, 
and  make  an  indifcreet  Choice.    Tis  no 
wonder  if  we  ftick  upon  a  gaudy  Out-fide, 
when  we  are  not  (harp  enough  to  look 
through  it.     When  our  Minds  are  unfur- 
niftied  with  Materials  for  Thinkings  and 
fcarce  ftrong  enough  to  wield  a  rational 
Pleafure  3  they  are  apt  to  divert  themfelves 
with  the  amufements  of  Senfe.     But  when 
we  have  run  through  the  Experience  of  ma- 
ny Years,  and  had  fo  many  Opportunities 
of  Improvement:    When  our  Reafon  is 
grown  up  to  Maturity  5  and  we  are  fuppo- 
fed  to  have  made  our  lafl:  Judgment  upon 
Things:  When  every  thing  we  fay  or  do, 
fhouldhavean  Air  of  Gravity  and  Greatnefs 
in  it  5  then  to  dote  upon  Trifles,  is  a  fhrewd 
Sign  that  our  Minds  arenolefs  decayed  than 
our  Bodies.   It  looks  as  if  we  were  afliamed 
of  making  any  Pretences  to  Wifdom,  and 
betrays  an  impotent  Defire  of  returning  to 
the  Extravagance  of  Youth. 


no  AMoKAh  Essay 

Philot.  After  all  your  Striftnefs,  I  hope 
you  have  fome  fleferve  of  Liberty  for  Wo- 
men. They  have  the  Excufes  of  Cuftom, 
the  Agreeablenefs  of  Figure,  and  the  Incli- 
nations of  Sex,  to  plead  in  their  Behalf.  Be- 
fides,  I  am  told  St.  Augitflifje  (Ep.  245.  To^. 
2.)  abates  very  much  of  the  Rigour  of 
your  TertuUian  3  and  fpeaks  vi^ith  great  Mo- 
deration upon  the  Point.  "  He  thinks  fine 
"  Cloaths  ought  not  to  be  forbidden  marri- 
"  ed  Women  ^  who  are  obliged  to  pleafe 
"  their  Husbands.  And  if  they  may  ufe 
this  Expedient  to  Fleafe  them  when  they 
have  them  5  why  may  they  not  do  it  that 
they  may  Vleafe  to  have  them  ?  Why  may  not 
the  fame  little  Charm  be  praftifed  to  Begin,  as 
well  as  to  Entertain  the  Relation  ? 

PhiUL  With  all  my  Heart  ^  let  St.  Au- 
giiftims  Indulgence  pafs.  But  'tis  my 
humble  Opinion,  they  (hould  keep  their 
Inclinations  unengaged.  They  would  do 
well  not  to  drefs  their  Fancy,nor  wear  their 
Finery  in  their  Head  5  nor  think  their  Af- 
ternoon Quality  better  than  their  Morning. 
For  when  a  Woman  is  once  fmitten  with 
her  Drapery^  Religion  is  commonly  laid 
afide^  or  ufed  more  out  of  Cuftom,  than 
Devotion.  When  her  governing  Paffions 
lye  this  way.  Charity  is  difabled,  and 
Good-nature  fails,  and  Juftice  is  over- 
looked 5  and  (he  is  lofl:  to  all  the  noble  Pur- 


concerning  C  I.  O  A  T  H  S.        in 

pofes  of  Life.  How  often  are  Relations  neg- 
Jefted,  Tradefmen  unpaid,  and  Servants 
ftinted  to  Mortifying  Allowances,  for  the 
Support  of  this  Vanity  ?  How  patched  and 
un-iiniform  does  it  maJce  the  Figure  of  fome 
Families  ?  and  what  a  difagreeablc  Mix- 
ture of  Poverty  and  Riches,  do  we  fee 
fometimes  within  the  fame  Walls?  Thefe 
Excefles  make  them  forget  the  Compaffion 
of  their  Sex  ^  and  the  Duties  of  their  Stati- 
on :  They  Rob  the  Neceffities,  and  FIou- 
ri(h  in  the  Penance,  and  Wear  that  which 
fhould  have  been  the  Flefi  and  Blood  of 
their  own  Retinue, 

Fhilot,  What  do  you  think  of  thofe  be- 
low the  Gentry^  Ought  they  not  to  be 
fomewhat  Frugal,  and  Unpretending  in 
their  Appedrance} 

PhilaL  Truly  I  think  the  Taylor  {hould 
take  Meaftire  of  their  ^idity^  as  well  as  of 
their  Limbs.  For  thofe  who  make  their 
Cloaths  much  better  than  their  Condition, 
do  but  expofe  their  Difcretion.  Perfons  of 
Quality  have  fome  little  Colour  for  their 
Vanity  :  But  as  for  Others,  they  have  no- 
thing to  fay  for  Themfelves.  In  them  it 
looks  like  a  LevellirKg  Principle  ^  like  an  Il- 
legal Afpiring  into  a  forbidden  Station.  It 
looks  as  if  they  had  a  Mind  to  deftroy  the 
Order  of  Government,  and  to  confound  the 
Diftinftions  of  Merit  asd  DC'^rce.In  a  Word, 


Ill      ^MoralEssay^  ^C. 

At  this  rate  of  Management,  a  Man  lofes 
his  Wealth  and  Reputation  at  the  fame 
Time ;  makes  himfelf  expenfively  Ridicu- 
lous :  and  over-fhoots  Extravagance  it  felf. 

Pffllof.  My  time  is  up,  I  muft  leave  you, 

P/jilal,  Adieu. 

O  F 

O    F 





Philotimns  and  Fhilalethef. 

FhiUl.  "T  ^  T  Hither  fo  faft  this  Morning  5 

%/\/     methinks  you    are  fome- 

^    ^      what  earlier  than  ufual? 

Phlloto  Maybe  fo.  But  when  aMan  sOc- 

cafions  are  Up,  and  Abroad,  'tis  fit  he  fliould 

attend  them. 

Philal.  Pray  what  may  yourBufinefs  be^ 
ior  you  don't  ufe  to  break  your  Sleep  for 
Trifles  ? 

Philot.  Why  laft  Night  Mr.  A,  and  I 
happened  to  fall  into  a  Mifunderftanding 
over  aGIafs  of  Wine.  At  length  he  told 
me  theControverfy  could  not  be  taken  Up^ 

I  without: 

114      0/DUELLlNG. 

without  giving  the  Safisfa&io^  of  a  Gentle* 
mm.  My  Anfwer  was,  That  1  would  De- 
bate the  Matter  with  him  in  his  own  Way 
this  Morning.  And  I  am  now  going  to  fet- 
tle fome  little  Affairs  before  the  time  of 

Philal.  If  you  defign  to  make  your  Will^ 
you  are  out :  For  to  do  that  toany  Purpofe, 
a  Man  muft  be  found  in  Mind  and  Memory  ^ 
which  is  none  of  your  Cafe,  For  the  Bufi- 
nefs  you  are  going  about,  is  fufBcient  to 
prove  you  Non  Compos. 

Philot.  Pray  let  us  have  no  Bantring.  You 
know  me  too  well,  to  imagine  that  a  Con- 
cern of  this  Nature  (hould  make  any  dif- 
honourable  Impreflion :  However  5  Becaufe 
an  Accident  may  happen,  I  love  to  make  a 
proper  Provifion  5  and  leave  my  Difcretion 

Fhilal.  That  you  will  not  do  with  me,  I 
promife  you  ^  unlefs  you  can  give  a  better 
Account  of  your  Undertaking  than  is  ufu- 
ally  done. 

Philof.  I  am  now  obliged  to  Difpute  the 
Matter  at  the  Swords  Pointy  fo  that  it  will 
be  to  no  effeft  to  Argue  it  any  other  Way : 
For  a  Man  of  Honour  muft  keep  his 

Philal.  Yes,  no  doubt  on*t.  If  he  pro- 
mifes  to  fet  a  Town  on  Fire,  'tis  as  much 
as  his  Efchutcheon  and  Pedigree  is  worth, 


0/DUELLING.        115 

to  fail  in  the  Performance.  Look  you  ^  you 
feem  fenfible  that  you  are  within  a  Ha- 
zard :  If  you  are  a  Gentleman,  learn  to  va- 
lue your  felf.  Don't  Stake  your  Life  againft 
a  Nut-lhell  5  nor  run  into  the  other  World 
upon  every  Fop's  Errand. 

Philot.  I  tell  you  I  am  engaged.  What 
if  I  underftood  the  Praftice  as  little  as  you 
do  ?  Since  it  is  the  Cuftom,  I  muft  defend 
my  Honour  5  For  to  fuflFer  under  the  Impu- 
tation of  Cowardize,  is  worfe  than  being 
buried  Alive.  However,  if  you  have  any 
thing  to  fay,  I  have  an  Hour  good  to  hear 

Philal.  As  much  a  Cuftom  as  you  make 
it,  'tis  not  improved  into  Common  Latv : 
That  is  point  Blank  againft  you :;  and  Tyes 
you  all  up,  if  you  kill  upon  theOccafion. 

Philot.  *Tis  the  Cuftom  of  Gentlemen  ^ 
and  that  is  fuSicient  for  my  purpofe. 

PhiUL  What  if  it  was  the  Cuftom  to 
Tilt  your  Head  againft  a  Poft,  for  a  Morn- 
ings Exercifc  5  would  you  venture  the  Beat- 
ing out  your  Brains,  rather  than  be  Un- 
fafhionable  ?  What  if  it  was  the  Cuftom  for 
People  of  Condition  to  betray  a  Trnft:^  to 
forfwear  a  Debt  ^  or  forge  a  Conveyance  ^ 
would  you  follow  the  Precedent,  or  Forfeit 
their  s^ood  Opinion  ? 

Philot.  You  feem  to  Miftake  the  Point. 
I  grant  you,  Men  of  Figure  are  too  often 

I  2  Faulty 

ii6      O/DUELLING. 

Faulty  in  fome  of  the  Inftances  you  men- 
tion :  But  then  they  are  not  bound  to  it  up- 
on the  Score  of  Reputation  ^  which  makes 
a  Difparity  in  the  Cafe. 

PhiUL  They  are  not-  true.  But  fuppofe 
they  were,  what  then  ?  Does  not  this  Sup- 
pofition  clearly  prove,  That  we  are  not  to 
take  the  Conduft  of  any  Sort  of  People  up- 
on Content :  But  to  examine  the  Reafona- 
blenefs  of  a  Cuftom,  before  we  go  into 
it  >  Whatever  is  beneath  a  Man,  is  be- 
neath a  Gentleman:  But  to  Aft  without 
Thinking,  is  beneath  a  Man  ^  much  more 
againfl:  it. 

Phllot.  I  perceive  you  believe  this  Sort  of 
S^isfiSion  very  Unaccountable. 

PhiiaL  I  do  fo.  And  the  Law  is  of  my 
Opinion^  which  I  hope  is  no  Contemptible 

Philot.  Hark  you,  We  do  but  Laugh  at 
thefe  Stories.  Do  you  think  a  Parcel  of 
ftarched  Lawyers,  with  a  Jury  of  Haber- 
dajljers^  and  Chandlers^  are  proper  Judges  in 
the  Cafe?  Are  fijch  Pedants,  and  Mecha- 
nicks  as  thefe,  fit  to  give  Rules  to  Men  of 
Honour  ^ 

PhJUL  I  perceive  you  think  I<^norance 
and  Idlenefs,  neceffary  Qualifications  of 
a  Gentleman  ^  and  doubt  not,  but  that 
you  praftife  accordingly.  But  if  Men  of 
Honour  are  too  Great  to  be  governed  by 
•r  th« 

0/ DUELLING^ n; 

the  Law,  they  fliould  be  fo  Modeft  as  not 
to  plead  it  for  their  Advantage.  They 
fhould  throw  up  their  Fortune  5  and  Dis- 
band from  Society.  Yes,  and  their  Quali- 
ty too  5  for  this,  as  well  as  the  other,  is 
fettled  by  the  Coffftltutwn. 

Philot.  I  thought  ^tality  had  been  the 
fole  Privilege  of  Birth  5  or  at  leaft  of  th^ 
Prince's  Favour. 

P/jtlal.  All  Honour,  as  well  as  Land,  i$ 
Originally  a  Gift  from  the  Crown.  Now 
Trerozative  is  a  Part  of  the  Law :  And 
though  Quality  and  Eftate  are  fettled  upon 
a  Man  and  his  Heirs  5  yet  the  Grant  runs  al- 
ways with  a  Condition  of  Forfeiture,  in 
Cafe  of  Treafon  :  And  therefore  the  Son  of 
an  unreftored  Traytor,  has  no  Pretences  to 
the  Quality  of  his  Anceftors. 

Philot.  I  know  we  fay,  That  Treafon 
taints  a  Man's  Blood  ^  and  makes  it  Bafer 
than  that  of  a  Peafant  :  But  I  look  upon 
this  as  a  kind  of  Whimfey.  For  though 
the  Government  may  take  away  my  Eftate  5 
yet  it  cannot  make  me  nothing  of  Kin  to  my 
Father.  So  that  the  Son  of  a  Gentleman 
muft  be  a  Gentleman,  in  fpight  of  Fate. 

Philal.  But  not  in  fpight  of  Treafon. 
For  in  that  Cafe,  he  is  banifhed  the  Blood;:, 
andtranfplanted  from  the  Family  of  his  An- 
ceftors.  His  Leafe  of  Heraldry  is  Expired, 
hi3  Title  is  Extinft  5  and  he  can  no  more 

I  3  Claini 

ii8       0/DUELLING. 

Claim  his  former  Honour,  than  an  Eftate 
which  was  Sold  by  his  great  Grand-father. 
I  grant  you,  the  Relation  between  him  and 
his  Father  continues,  and  that's  it  which 
deftroys  his  Pretenfions  5    The  Stream  of 
Honour  is  dryed  up,  before  it  reaches  the 
Chanel  of  Pofterity.    The  Father  has  loft 
all  5  and  therefore  can  Convey  nothing  over. 
The  Son  if  he  pleafes,  may  be  of  kin  to  the 
Treafon  ^  for  the  Infamy  of  that  remains ; 
But  as  for  the  Quality  'tis  all  wiped  out,  as 
if  it  had  never  been.   And  therefore  though 
your  Inftance  is  true,  your  Inference  fails  3 
for  the  Son  of  a  Tray  tor,  is  not  the  Son  of 
a  Gentleman.     In  fhort.  You  muft  either 
allow  that  Quality,  like  other  Branches  of 
Property,  ftands  upon  the  Bafis  of  Law  5 
or  elfe  you  unavoidably  run  into  the  Prin- 
ciple of  Levelling.     For  where  the  Diftin- 
ftions  of  Condition  are  not  afcertained  by 
publick  Provifion,  every  one  is  at  Liberty 
to  rate  his  Own  and  his  Neighbour's  Sta- 
tion, as  he  pleafes.     Where  there  are  no 
Inclofures,  all  People  may  intercommon, 
without  Preference  or  Ceremony.     New 
Grounds  of  Honour  may  be  {^t  up,  axid 
the  old  ones  difclaimed  5    and  a  Taylor 
may    make  himfelf  a  Lord  5    and  clap  a 
Coronet  upon  his  Goofe^  if  he  has  a  mind 
to  it. 


0/ DUELLING.       119 

Philof,  I  fuppofe  your  Conclufion  is. 
That  the  Notion  of  Honour  is  to  be  taken 
from  the  Laws  and  Government  5  and  not 
from  any  private  Set  of  People,  how  valu- 
able foever  in  other  Refpefts. 

PhiUL  Right.  And  from  thence  I  infer. 
That  Duelling  is  a  very  difhonourable  Pra- 
ftice.  For  when  you  have  given  the  beft 
Proof  of  your  Sufficiency,  and  killed  your 
Man^  you  are  feized  into  the  Hand  of  Jh- 
fiice  5  treated  like  Affaffins  5  and  condemn- 
ed to  Die  with  Circumftances  of  Ignominy. 
You  are  not  Lidi&ed  for  Acquitting  your 
felves  like  Gentlemen  5  but  for  difturbing 
the  Publick  Peace  ,  and  murthering  the 
King's  Subjects.  Now  the  Law  never 
^  loads  a  Man  with  Reproaches,  nor  punifties 
I  him  thus  coarfely,  for  doing  a  handfom 
!        Aftion. 

Philot.  What  do  you  tell  me  of  Lawyers 
Cant  5  Mnrdravit  ,  ftragem  exercuit  ,  df* 
pra5licavit :  Very  pretty  Stuff  to  difpatch  a 
Man  of  Honour  with  !  You  fee  how  the 
Men  betray  their  Ignorance  by  their  Forms 
of  Speaking:  And  as  for  the  Bench,  they 
have  a  Thoufand  Pound  per  Annum , 
for  making  of  Malefaftors  ^  and  they 
mufl:  fay  fomething  in  Defence  of  their 

PhiUL  As  for  the  Bench,  the  Bai\  and 
the  reft,  they  are  not  the  Maker r^  but  the 

I  4  Mini' 

foo      G/DUELLfNG. 

Minifters  of  Law  5  they  are  the  Servants  of 
the  Government;  And  their  Methods  of 
Proceeding  are  chalked  out  by  their  Snperi- 
ours  :  And  when  the  Reafon  of  Things  is 
good,  'tis  not  material  though  the  Latin 
proves  otherwife.  Indeed,  I  think  the 
Laws  can't  ufe  you  too  rigoroufly  ^  for  Tm 
fure  you  treat  them  with  great  Contempt. 
When  Highway-men  Kill,  'tis  commonly 
for  a  Livelihood  ^  to  prevent  Difcovery ;  or 
in  the  Heat  and  Surprize  of  Paffion  :  And 
when  'tis  over,  they  feldom  juftify  the 
Faft  5  but  Condemn  what  they  have  done. 
But  your  Tribe  are  Murtherers  by  Princi- 
pie  5  which  is  fomething  worfe  than  Malice 
prepence^  becaufe  'tis  ready  upon  all  Occafi- 
Dns,  and  often  Afts  without  any  Provocati" 
on  5  except  the  Vanity  of  complying  with 
a  barbarous  Cuftom.  As  if  it  was  as  indif- 
ferent a  thing  to  cut  a  Man's  Throat,  or 
let  it  alone,  as  to  wear  a  Broad  or  Narrow 
brim'd  Hat :  And  that  thefe  little  Concerns 
of  Bloody  ought  to  be  perfeftly  governed 
by  the  Faflnon^  And  when  the  Barbari- 
ty is  committed,  you  have  the  Affurance  to 
maintain  it  s  and  to  argue  for  the  Murther 
againft  Law  and  Gofpel.  In  fliort,  I  think 
youftand  in  the  greateft  Defiance  to  Autho- 
rity of  all  Men  Living, 
Fhilot.  How  fo  ^ 


~Gf  DUELLING.        iiii 

Philal.  I  have  given  you  fome  of  my  Rea- 
fonS5  and  you  (liall  have  the  reft. 

I.  You  Scorn  to  refer  your  Differences  to 
the  Law  5  but  make  your  felves  your  own 

Philot.  If  the  Government  w^ill  not  make 
a  fufficient  Provifion  for  the  Honour  of  Gen- 
tlemen, they  muft  right  their  own  Cafe  5 
and  there's  an  end  on't. 

PhilaL  You  would  do  well  to  prefer  a 
Bill  againft  all  Kings  and  Parliaments  fince 
the  Conqueft  5  and  if  that  won't  do,  Chal- 
hffge  the  Crown,  and  the  two  Houfes  at 
their  next  Meeting,  to  give  you  Satisfafti- 
on.  Do  you  not  perceive.  That  by  thus 
taking  the  Bufinefs  out  of  the  Hands  of  the 
Government,  you  both  Reproach,  and  in 
effeft,  Renounce  it  at  your  Pleafure.  The* 
Laws  very  well  fuppofe,  that  People  are 
apt  to  be  too  Partial  and  Paffionate  in  their 
own  Concerns  5  and  therefore  remit  them 
to  a  publick  Decifion.  Now  'tis  a  kind  of 
Maxim  with  us.  That  no  Ma/fpould  k  wifer 
than  the  Laws. 

Philot.  What  would  you  have  me  Com- 
plain to  aMagiftrate,  when  a  Man  gives 
me  the  Lye  5  or  any  fuch  fort  of  Affront  ? 
Thefe  things  won't  bear  an  Adion  ^  and 
yet  a  Gentleman  will  rather  Dye  than  put 
then)  up, 


la^        0/DUELLING. 

Philal.  By  the  way,  a  Lye^  was  not  coun- 
ted fo  Mortal  an  Affront  till  Charles  the  Fifth 
happened  to  fay,  He  was  no  Gentleman  that 
would  take  it.  Now  what  has  England  to 
do  with  Germany}  If  an  Emperour  throws 
out  an  unweigh'd  Sentence,  muft  we  be  go- 
verned by  it  ?  Are  Law  and  Juftice  fuch 
Phantoms,  that  a  Spanijh  Rodomontade 
fhould  make  them  vanifh  ?  Or  muft  a  Fo- 
reign Prince's  Humour  Command  farther 
than  his  Legal  Authority? 

Fhilot.  The  Prince's  Opinion  is  the  Stan- 
dard of  Mode.  And  to  be  Precife  and  Sin- 
gular, looks  like  Spleen,  and  Monkery,  and 
ill  Breeding.  You  know  wh^nDlonyfius  of 
Sicily  had  a  Fit  of  Geometry  upon  him,  his 
Court  took  it  immediately.  You  could 
fcarce  meet  a  Man  of  Quality  without  a  pair 
of  Compaffes  about  him  ,  and  Vifits  were 
moftly  fpent  about  Squares  and  Circles.  But 
as  foon  as  the  King  grew  weary,  the  Faftii- 
on  was  quite  laid  afide.  And  then  as  P///- 
tarch  obferves,  nothing  was  a  greater  Pe- 
dant than  a  Mathematician. 

PhilaL  You  lay  fo  much  Strefs  upon  thefe 
Compliances,  one  would  think  you  took 
them  for  part  of  your  Allegiance. 

Philot.  Not  to  follow  a  Prince's  Opini- 
on, is  in  eflfeft  to  fay,  he  is  Miftaken  3  which 
is  an  unhandfom  Reflection. 


PMaL  In  Things  indifferent  you  fay  well. 
But  where  Juftice  and  Confcience  are  con- 
cerned, meer  Complaifance  fliould  not  car- 
ry it.  By  the  Extent  of  your  Maxin,  you 
would  have  made  an  admirable  JEthiopian 

Philot.  What  is  that  > 

P/jilal.  Diodorus  SichIus  tells  us  (Biblioth. 
/.  5.  J  That  t\\Q lEthiopians  happened  once 
to  have  a  One-Eyed  Bandy-Leg  d  Prince  5 
now  fuch  a  Perfon  would  have  made  but  an 
odd  Figure  if  care  had  not  been  taken. 

Philot.  Pray  how  did  the  Court  behave 
*  themfelves  upon  this  Accident? 

Philal.  Like  Men  of  Honour.  They  made 
a  Faftiion  of  their  Prince's  Misfortune  5  and 
immediately  fhut  up  one  of  Natures  Win- 
dows, and  got  a  fort  of  Scotch-Boot  to  bend 
their  Hams  in. 

Philot.  I  think  I  could  have  imitated  ^/ex- 
ander^s  v/ry  Neck,  as  well  as  the  Macedoni- 
ans. But  this  which  you  mention  is  a 
Chargeable  Fafliion. 

Philal.  However  it  prevailed  fo  far,  that 
a  Gentleman  would  no  more  appear  with 
Strait  Legs,  or  Two  Eyes  in  his  Head,  than 
you  would  in  a  Pink'd-Doublet,  or  Boot- 
Hofe-Tops.  You  fee  how  far  good  Breeding 
will  carry  a  Man,  if  he  will  but  ftick  to  his 
Principle.    But  to  return. 


104      0/ DUELLING, 

Your  faying  that  thefe  Indignities  won  t 
hear  anA^ion^  is  to  confefs  that  the  Wifdom 
of  the  Nation  has  thought  them  below  No- 
tice. And  will  you  venture  your  All  upon  a 
Caufe,  which  would  be  Hilled  out  of  all  the 
Courts  oi England  2iS  ridiculous?  Will  you 
take  away  a  Mans  Life  upon  a  Provocation, 
for  which  no  Government  will  allow  you 
Six-peny  worth  of  Damages  ?  A  Complaint 
fitter  for  a  Boy  to  run  to  his  Mother  with, 
than  to  diforder  a  Man.  If  there  was  but 
a  few  of  you,  and  you  (hould  talk  at  this 

Rate,  you  would  be  fent  to  B lam  ^  but 

D^fendif:  numerus  x,  and  that's  the  beft  of 
your  Vlca, 

Philot.  As  the  Cafe  ftands.  He  who  refu- 
fes  a  Challenge^  lofes  the  Reputation  of  a 
Gentleman  5  none  of  that  Quality  will  keep 
him  Company. 

Phild,  Lucifer's  Excommunication  ex- 
adly !  And  I  perceive  you  dread  the  Cenfttre 
much  more  than  that  of  the  Church.  The 
beft  on't  is,  you  are  fomewhat  out  in  your 
Calculation.  For  there  are  not  a  few  of 
Good  Extraftion,  of  another  Opinion. 

Philot.  I  fuppofe  you  mean  Ecclefiafticks. 
Now  we  have  nothing  to  fay  to  them  : 
Their  Profeffion  exempts  them  from  a  ne- 
ceffity  of  Fighting. 

PhitaL  I  mean  Seculars  too.  I  hope  the 
Temporal  Lords  and  Commons  are  no  Pea- 


OfDUELLING.      115 

fants.     And  will  they  Account  any  Perfon 
Infamous  for  the  Regularity  of  his  Behavi- 
our? For  not  breaking  thofe  Laws  which 
they  either  made  or  approved  themfelves  ? 
At  this  rate  they  muft  be  a  very  extraordi- 
nary Affembly  5  and  Weftmwfter  altogether 
as  great  a  Sight  as  the  Tower.     Will  not  the 
Judges  and  Juftices  go  for  Gentlemen  ^  and 
do  you  think  they  will  avoid  a  Man's  Com- 
pany for  declining  a  Challenge :,  and  yet 
Commit  and  Hang  him  up  for  fucceeding 
in  it  ?  Pray  don  t  make  the  Governing  Part 
of  a  Nation  fo  extravagantly   Ridiculous. 
There  are  many  other  grave  Perfons  of 
Worth  and  Blood,   who  would  give   the 
Caufe  againft  you:  But  I  find  noneofthefe 
wil  1  pafs  Mufter.    It  feems  Beauts  and  Bully  s^ 
and  their  wife  Admirers,  have  feized  the 
Herald's  Office  ;  and  engroffed  all  the  Qua- 
lity to  themfelves. 

Philot.  When  you  have  declaimed  till 
you  are  weary,  I  muft  tell  you  that  we 
have  no  fmall  Party  ofas  much  Honour,  and 
Value,  as  any  you  have  mentioned  5  who 
will  very  hardly  be  brought  over  to  your 

PhiUl.  I  hope  not.     Tis  true,  I  know 

fome  People  are  all  Quality:   You  would 

think  they  were  made  up  of  nothing  but 

Title  and  Genealogy.     If  you   happen  to 

encounter  a  Prejudice,  or  crofs  upon  their 


ia6       Q/DUELLING. 

Fancy,  they  are  too  Confiderable  to  under- 
ftand  you.  Thefe,  I  confefs,  I  almoft  De- 
fpair  of  5  but  hope  their  Number  is  not  great. 
By  the  way,  let  me  tell  you,  your  Fraterni- 
ty take  a  very  great  Liberty  in  their  Opi- 
nion 5  you  make  nothing  to  Renounce  the 
Publick  Senfe  in  Matters  of  the  higheft  Im- 
portance: And  count  that  a  Noble  At- 
chievement,  which  the  Laws  punifh  as  a 
Capital  Offence.  Now  to  fet  up  a  Notion 
of  Honour  againft  the  Government,  with 
fuch  Circumftances  as  thefe,  is  of  very  dan- 
gerous Confequence.  Tis  fuch  an  Affront 
to  the  Conflitiition  5  fuch  a  deliberate  Con- 
tempt 5  fuch  an  open  Defiance  of  Authori- 
ty^ as  nothing  can  be  more.  It  makes 
the  Laws  Cheap  and  Ridiculous  5  the  So- 
lemnities of  Juflice  apiece  of  Pageantry 5 
the  Bench  a  few  Reverend  Poppets,  or 
Scharamouches  in  Scarlet.  And  thus  by 
Expofing  the  Adminiftration,  the  very 
Foundations  of  Peace  and  Property  are 
fhaken  and  fap'd. 

Fhilot.  Certainly  you  are  retained  by  the 
whole  Corporation  of  Cowstrds,  you  make 
fo  Tragical  a  Bufinefs  on't ! 

Fhilal.  By  your  Favour:  To  have  our 
Swords  ready  to  execute  the  Orders  of  eve- 
ry paultry  Paffion  3  To  put  Murther  into 
our  Creed,  and  cut  Throats  upon  profelTed 
Principles,  is  a  Tragical  Bufinefs  3,  and  I  be-^ 
lieve  you'll  find  it  fo,  Philot. 

0/DUELLING.      laj 

Philot.  Trouble  not  your  felf^  we  value 
neither  your  Judges,  nor  your  Juries.  If  we 
kiW  fairly^  we  have  always  Interefl:  at  Court 
to  bring  us  off. 

PhilaL  You  may  fet  up  a  Science  againft 
the  Government  5  and  range  Murthering 
under  Difcipline  and  Rule  5  and  call  it  by 
what  fine  Names  you  pleafe :  But  your 
Methods  of  Killing,  and  that  of  Highway- 
men, are  alike  Fair  in  the  Eye  of  Juftice  5 
and  the  fame  Rewards  are  affigned  to  both. 
As  for  your  Friends  at  Court,  Tis  to  be 
hoped  that  Princes  in  time  will  Refent  the 
Breach  of  their  Laws,  and  the  Lofs  of  their 
Subjefts,  a  little  more  heartily  ;  That  they 
will  not  encourage  a  Praftice  which  Infults 
their  Authority,  and  ridicules  their  Mini- 
fters  5  and  keeps  up  a  Spirit  of  Barbarity 
throughout  the  Nation.  Befides,  there  are 
Things  they  call  Appeals  ^  and  in  that  Cafe 
you  know  your  Pardon  is  out  of  Doors. 

Philof.  We  muft  take  our  Chance  for 

PhiUL  You  are  hardy  Men  fome  of  you. 
If  all  the  Subjefts  fliould  take  the  fame  Li- 
berty, we  (hould  have  wild  Work.  You 
fay  the  Government,  is  Defective  in  conff- 
dering  theRefpefts  of  Honour  ^  and  there- 
fore are  refolved  to  be  your  own  Carvers. 
What  if  the  under  fort  of  People  fliould 
take  the  Hint,  and  Praftice  upon  it,  in  the 


ia8       0/DUELLING.      

Inftance  of  Property  ?  Look  ye  Neighbours 
(  fays  a  fharp  Country  Fellow  )  the  Fine 
Folks  have  gotten  arvay  all  the  Land  from  m  :^ 
for  my  fart  I  want  fo  wany  fcore  Acres  to  live 
eafily^  andlfuppofeyoHdofotoo^  and  I  think 
our  Ind/fjlry  deferves  it.  *Tis  trne^  EJiates 
are  otherwife  fettled  ^  and  I  JJjo:  Id  believe 
my  felf  obliged  to  obferve  my  Countries  Cw- 
floms^  if  others  would  do  the  fame:  But  I  per- 
ceive, the  Gen  fry  canfet  the  Conftitution  afedc 
without  any  Scruple,  They  can  tilt  throfgh 
one  an  others  Lungs  in  a  Bravado,  though  the 
Law  makes  Hangirjg  matter  ont.  Why  fjould 
we  be  more  Slaves  to  the  Government  than 
others  5  Tm  fare  ive  do  not  get  fo  much  by  il  ? 
We  are  enough  of  usx,  let  m  mind  our  BHfvyefsi 
*ris  true,  this  would  be  a  lewd  Projed  ^ 
but  'tis  the  Confequence  of  your  own  Prin-» 
ciple  ^  therefore  have  a  care  of  fetting  the 

Philot.  If  we  may  take  a  greater  Freedom 
with  the  Government  than  the  Vulgar,  our 
Quality  is  our  Excufe  5  that  will  bear  us  outc 

Philal  Quite  contrary.  For  firft,  a  Gen- 
tleman is  fiippofed  to  be  better  acquainted 
with  the  Lav/s  than  a  Peafant^  therefore 
bis  breaking  them  muft  be  a  greater  Fault  5 
becaufe  it  implies  more  of  Contempt  in  the 

Secondly,  Where  the  Example  is  of  worfe 
Cenfequence,  the  Care  to  check  it  ftiould 


0/DUELLlNG.        1^9 

be  the  greater.  The  Influence  of  Men  of 
Figure  is  Confiderable.  When  they  are  at 
the  Head  of  an  ill  Cuftom,  they  have  pre- 
fently  a  Train  to  Attend  them.  The  Infe- 
aion  fpreads  like  Lightning  5  and  'tis  a 
Credit  to  live  counter  to  Reafon  and  Rcgu- 
laritv.  The  (lender  Principles,  the  loofe 
Praftices  of  thefe  Men,  is  that  which  has  fo 
efFeftually  Debauched  the  Age.  This  is  it 
which  has  expofed  Virtue,  and  baniflied 
Religion  5  and  almoft  buried  the  Diftinfti- 
ons  of  Good  and  Evil. 

Thirdly,  Since  Quality  is  a  Diftinftion 
fettled  by  Law  5  thofe  who  have  the  great- 
eft  Share  of  this  Privilege,  aremoft  obliged 
to  obferve  the  Publick  Regulations.     The 
Government  is  a  greater  Benefaftcr  to  fuch 
Perfons  5  and  they  are  very  ungenerous  and 
ungrateful,  if  they  fly  in  the  Face  of  it.  A 
Man  that  enjoys  Honour  and  Eftate  by  a 
Society,  has  greater  Engagements  to   Re- 
gard it,  than  he  who  receives  only  a  Com- 
mon Proteftion.     One  has  perhaps  a  1000/. 
per  Annum  for  keeping  the  Laws  3  and  the 
Other  nothing  but  his  Labour  for  his  Pains: 
And  pray  which  is  m.oft  to  Blame  then,  if 
they  break  them  ? 

Fhtlot,  You  feem  to  forget,  that  their 
Fortune  and  Condition  follows  their  Birth  5 
fo  that  they  are  only  obliged  to  their  Fami- 
ly for  the  Advantage. 

K  FhilnL 

ijQ      0/DUELLING. 

PhiUl.  You  argue  too  faft.  Pray  are  not 
Defcents  and  Inheritances  governed  by  Law  > 
What  Claim  can  we  make  to  Privilege  or 
Property,  without  it  ?  A  Man  when  he  is 
about  it,  may  as  eafily  be  Born  to  loooo/. 
a  Year,  as  to  lo  Pence.  The  Trouble  to 
himfelf,  or  his  Mother,  is  much  the  fame 
as  to  that  Matter.  People  come  into  the 
World  in  Turkey  the  fame  Way  they  do 
Here  5  and  yet,  excepting  the  Royal  Fami- 
ly, they  get  but  little  by  it.  Nature  has  fet 
us  all  upon  a  Level,  as  to  thefe  Things: 
Tis  only  the  Confiitution  which  makes  the 
Difference  3  and  therefore  thofe  who  have 
the  Advantage,  ftiould  pay  it  a  proportion- 
able Refpeft. 

Philot.  I  perceive  you  are  coming  on 
again  5  And  to  ftop  you  a  little,  let  me  tell 
you,  'tis  my  Obfervation,  That  the  Cuftoin 
of  Duels  puts  Gentlemen  upon  their  good 
Behaviour  5  'tis  a  Check  upon  Converfati- 
on,  and  makes  it  more  Inoffenfive  than  it 
would  be  otherwife. 

PhilaL  An  admirable  Remedy!  Juftfuch 
a  one  as  Death  is  againft  all  Difeafes.  If 
there  muft  be  Difputes,  is  notSquabling  lefs 
inconvenient  than  Murther?  Had  not  a 
Man  better  have  a  Black  Eye,  than  a  Nap- 
kin drawn  through  him  5  and  Bleed  rather 
at  the  Nofe  than  at  the  Heart?  Thefe Con- 
tefts,  though  much  better  let  alone,  make 


0/DUELLING.       131 

neither  Orphans  nor  Widows  ^  nor  perpe- 
tuate Feuds  among  Families.  Bcfides,  the 
Diforders  of  Converfation  may  be  prevent- 
ed without  fuch  a  dangerous  Expedient, 
For  not  to  mention  Religion,  a  moderate 
(hare  of  Prudence  and  Behaviour  will  do 
the  Bufinefs.  Tis  not  yet  the  Fafhion,  for 
Women  of  Quality  to  Tilt.  Now  though 
they  can  hate  one  another  pretty  heartily  5 
though  their  Humours  are  full  as  Nice,  and 
their  Paffions  as  Strong,  as  thofe  of  the 
other  Sex  ^  yet  the  fenfe  of  Decency  is  fuf- 
ficient  to  keep  them  from  coarfe  Language, 
and  rude  Provocations. 

Philot.  However,  Mifunderftandings  will 
happen  fometimcs.  And  when  they  do, 
it  does  not  become  Gentlemen  to  manage 
them  like  lefler  People.  Their  Revenges 
muft  be  particular  ^  as  well  as  the  reft  of 
their  Breeding.  It  looks  as  oddly  for 
them  to  Quarrel,  as  to  Salute,  like  a 

PhilaL  So  that  I  perceive  if  Butchers  had 
but  the  Manners  to  go  to  Sharps^  Gentle- 
men would  be  contented  with  a  Rubber  at 
Cuffs.  If  they  muft  be  fingular  in  their 
Difputes,  let  it' be  for  the  better  I  befeech 
you.  Let  us  not  be  fo  Vain,  as  to  think  it 
a  Commendation  to  be  more  LJnreafonable 
in  our  Demands,  and  more  Savage  in  our 
Refentments  than  the  Meancu,  and   mo9r 

K  2  W^ 

19^      0/DUELLING. 

Undifciplined.  If  they  muft  run  counter 
to  the  Vulgar  in  every  thing ,  I  wonder 
they  don  t  leave  off  Swearing,  Drinking, 
&c.  Thefe,  by  their  Affiftance,  are  grown 
Plebeian  Vices :  Infomuch  that  Porters  and 
Footmen,  are  as  perfeft  in  them  as  them- 

Philot,  I  grant  you.  Clowns  may  Box  it 
off,  and  be  quiet ;  this  way  of  Satisfaftion 
is  agreeable  enough  to  their  little  Pretenfi- 
on?.  But  the  Honour  of  a  Gentleman  muft 
have  other  fort  of  Dama2;es. 

Pkilal.  If  the  Difpute  was  between  Pea- 
fant  and  Gentleman,  you  would  fay  fome* 
thing,  though  not  enough.  But  you  know 
a  Gentleman  is  not  obliged,  to  Fight  ano- 
ther who  is  not  fo.  Now  where  the  Con- 
dition of  the  difobliged  is  Equal,  at  leaft 
to  the  Degree  of  Gentlemen  5  why  fliould 
the  Affront  be  counted  fo  Mortal  an  Injury? 
I  know  no  reafon  for  this,  unlefs  you  will 
fay,  That  Men  of  Quality  are  obliged  to  be 
more  Bloody  and  Implacable^  and  to  carry 
their  Paffions  to  greater  heights  of  Fury, 
than  other  People.  But  this  Plea  proves 
them  really  lefs,  not  greater  than  the  com- 
mon Size  of  Mankind  5  and  is  far  wide  of 
the  true  Character  of  Honour.  If  Quality 
confifts  in  fuch  Sallies  as  thefe  are  ^  Tigers 
and  Fiends  may  ptit  in  for  a  confiderable 


0/ DUELLING.  i:^:^ 

Philot.  If  this  way  of  deciding  Quarrels 
among  Gentlemen  were  peculiar  to  our  Age 
or  Country,  your  Reafoning  would  have 
more  force  5  but  we  have  almoft  a  general 
prefcription  of  Time  and  Place  againft 

PhJldL  Not  fo  General  as  may  be  brought 
for  the  Heathen  Religion,  or  the  Alcoran  s^ 
and  yet  I  hope  you  will  not  plead  in  Defence 
of  either  of  thefe.  To  give  you  an  In- 
ftance  near  home,  The  French  you  know 
are  far  from  being  an  inconfiderable  Nati- 
on. Their  Nobility  are  as  numerous,  and 
their  Pretenfions  as  well  fupported  5  they 
have  as  much  Fire  in  their  Tempers,  and 
as  much  Regard  for  their  Honour,  as  any 
of  their  Neighbours :  Notwithftanding  this, 
you  fee  the  Practice  of  Duelling  is  abfolute- 
]y  fuppreffed  5  and  they  are  all  content- 
ed to  refer  their  Grievances  to  the  Govern- 

Philot.  The  French  King  takes  more  care 
to  Right  a  Gentleman's  Honour,  than  is 
done  with  us  5  which  makes  the  Cafe  dif- 

PhilaL  Particular  Satisfaftion  for  every 
Affront  in  Converfation  cannot  be  Award- 
ed by  Stated  Laws  5  the  Circumftances 
are  too  many  to  be  brought  within 
*a  Rule.  A  Prince  mufl:  be  little  lefs  than 
Abfolute    to    do    this    effeftually.    Now 

K  3  fwch 

1^4      OfPUELLING. 

fuch  a  Stretch  of  Prerogative,  would  be 
agreeable  neither  to  the  ErjgUjI)  Genius, 
nor  Conftitution.  And  is  it  not  a  hard 
Cafe,  that  we  muft  either  Deliver  up  all 
our  Property  to  the  Crown  :;  or  our  Lives 
to  every  ungovernable  Paffion  and  Ca- 
price ? 

Farther.  You  may  remember,  that  the 
Subjeft  holds  his  Honour  and  Eftate  by  no 
other  Tenure  than  the  Laws.  What  a 
monftrous  Injuftice  ^  what  an  Ingrati- 
tude 5  what  an  infufferable  Pride  muft 
it  then  be,  for  private  Men  to  ereft  a 
Magiftracy  of  their  own  ^  to  Juch^e  and 
'Execute  in  Matters  of  Life  and  Death ; 
VinAto  Hatig  and  Dr^w?  within  themfelvcs? 
If  the  Subjefts  may  fet  the  Laws  afide 
with  fo  little  Ceremony,  and  make  Supple- 
mental Provifions  at  Difcretion,  the  fig- 
nificancy  of  Government  will  be  unintel- 
ligible. If  Authority  may  be  flighted  in  an 
Inftance  of  fo  high  a  Nature,  why  not  in 
a  hundred  >  And  when  the  Fences  are  thus 
broken  down.  Peace  and  Property  Good- 
night ! 

Pk'Hot.  Your  mentioning  the  jFrr;;^/^,  puts 
me  in  mind  of  the  old  Romans  5  they  were 
a  very  Brave  People  :  Pray  what  was  their 
Praftice  in  the  Cafe  j  for  I  have  almoft  for- 


0/DUELLING.       135 

Philal.  Not  at  all  for  your  Purpofc- 
Tis  true,  there  was  a  Sort  of  Duelling 
among  them,  as  tliat  of  the  Horatii^  and 
Oiriatii  5  of  Manlius  Torquattis^  and  the 
Gad  that  Challenged  the  Army.  But  then 
there  was  a  Difference  in  the  Perfons  and 
Occafion.  Thefe  Duellifts  were  Enemies, 
Subjefts  of  different  Princes ,  a  Sort  of 
Fighting  Reprefentatives^  chofenlike  David 
and  Goliah^  to  Decide  the  Controverfy  of 
the  Field.  At  leaft  the  Conteft  was  al- 
lowed by  Publick  Authority  5  and  under- 
taken upon  the  Score  of  their  Country. 
But  as  for  one  Subjeft's  cutting  another's 
Throat  about  private  Difputes,  they  were 
perfed  Strangers  to  thefe  Methods  of  Ju- 
ftice.  When  Milo  killed  Clodius  upon  the 
Road,  though  there  was  no  fuch  Thing  as  a 
Challenge  5  though  TuUy  proves  it  no  more 
than  a  Rencounter-^  yet  becaufe  there  was  a 
former  Mifunderftanding  between  them  5 
neither  the  Rhetorkk  oithQCouncH^  nor  the 
Bravery  of  the  Prifoner,  could  prevent  the 

PMlot.  After  all  5  you  cannot  deny  but 
that  the  prefent  Cuftom  has  prevailed  for 
feveral  Ages. 

P-hilaL  So  have  a  great  many  other  ill 
Things  befides.  There  is  fcarcely  any  Ex- 
travagance fo  fingular  as  to  want  a  Prece- 
dent.    But  Cuftom  without  Reaibn,  is  no 

K  4  bet- 

ij6      0/DUELLING. 

better  than  ancient  Error.  And  now  fince 
you  prefs  your  Prefcription,  I  fhall  trace  it 
to  the  Original.  Now  the  Praftice  of  Sub- 
JQ&s  Righting  themfelves  by  the  Sword, 
was  introduced  by  the  Lombards^  Saxons^ 
^n6.Normans.  A  People,  who poflibly  at  that 
Time  of  Day,  had  not  Brains  to  decide  the 
Matter  any  other  Way.  For  how  much 
foever  they  may  be  of  Kin  to  us,  we  muft 
own  they  were  a  very  unpolifhM  Sort  of 
Mortals  5  and  why  (hould  we  be  tied  up  to 
the  Didates  of  Paganifm  and  Ignorance  > 
If  a  Man's  Houfe,  and  Habit,  and  Eating, 
was  not  better  than  theirs  ^  he  would  not  be 
thought  to  have  much  of  the  Spirit  of  a 
Gentleman.  If  we  are  bound  to  implicit 
Submiffion  5  if  we  are  to  follow  Antiquity, 
without  any  Exceptions  of  Judgment  3 
Why  don't  we  feed  upon  Maft^  and  lodge 
in  Caves ^  and  go  almofl  Naked  ^  And  to 
come  nearer  our  Northern  Anceflors  5 
Why  don't  we  Vindicate  our  felves  by 
Txj2i\0rdcal  5  Bath  our  Innocence  in  Scald- 
ing Water '^  and  hop  over  Heated  Plough- 
/j^rc'/ Blindfold? 

Farther,  We  may  obferve,  that  the  Bar- 
barity of  this  Cuftom  was  fomewhat  re- 
ftrained,  and  bound  up  to  certain  Forms  of 
taWo  The  Occafion  was  generally  Confi- 
^erable :  Either  for  wiping  off  Imputati- 
pm  of  Treafon,  or  profecuting  Appeals  of 


0/  DUELLING.      157 

Murther,  or  trying  Titles  of  Land.  As 
for  the  •Difputes  of  Sharpers^  of  Bottles, 
Dice,  ^nd  Wenches,  we  don't  read  of  any 
Provifions  made  for  the  Honour  of  fuch 
Sparks,  and  Diverfions  as  thefe.*  We  may 

Secondly,  That  the  Men  were  juft  come 
off  from  Heathenifm  ^  and  very  iindifci- 
plined  in  Life.  Their  Reafon  was  in  the 
Oar  5  and  their  Underftanding  as  low  as 
their  Morals.  This  Condition  of  Things, 
made  their  Princes  either  miflead  or  indulge 
them.  They  had  Authority  to  mJfguide 
their  Confcience,  to  encourage  their  Re- 
venge;, and  in  fome  Meafure  to  excufe  it. 
The  irV/V  of  Co772hdte  was  made  out  in  the 
King's  Courts 5  and  the  vv^hole  Manage  of 
the  Quarrel  under  the  Dircftion  of  the  Go- 
vernment. Twas  none  of  their  Way  to  be 
kiird  in  Hugger-mugger  5  and  ftcal  a  Stab- 
bing as  they  do  now.   (Cotton,  fojihum,} 

Thirdly,  If  they  Fought  v/ithout  Pub- 
lick  Allowance,  and  any  Perfon  fell  in  the 
Quarrel,  the  Survivers  were  apprehended 
and  tryed  for  Murther. 

Fourthly,  Thefe  C<7;k;/'/?/j,  though  govern- 
ed by  thefe  Reftriftions,  and  under  the 
Countenance  of  Law,  were  always  Con- 
dem.ned  by  thQCe^/fure  of  the  Church. 

Philot.  Do  you  think  then,  they  are  not 
eapable  of  Regulation  ? 


Jj8      O/DUELLINg 

Philal.  No  more  than  Adultery.  This 
Pradlice  is  Mahm  infe  ^  and  an  ill  Thing 
cannot  be  done  within  a  Rule.  Tis  a 
ftrong  Poyfon,  it  muft  be  Expelled  5  for  all 
the  Cooking  in  Nature  will  ne'er  make  Di- 
et on't.  Tis  true,  there  are  Degrees  in 
Deformity,  as  well  as  Beauty  5  and  there- 
fore fome  Cafes  may  be  more  remarkable 
than  others.  For  the  Purpofe^  when  a 
Gentleman  of  Eftate  Fights  an  indigent  Bul- 
ly, who  poffibly  knows  no  more  how  to 
live  in  this  World,  than  he  does  in  the  next. 
This  Man  is  angry  to  f^e  his  Neighbour  in 
eafy  Circumftances.  And  when  it  Comes 
once  to  this  5  The  Strength  of  his  Malice, 
and  the  Opinion  of  his  Skill,  will  pick  a 
Quarrel  from  a  (lender  Occafion.  Now 
fliould  I  defire  him  to  get  an  anfwerable 
Fortune  before  the  Glove  comes  :  To  make 
the  Hazards  of  the  Combat  Equal,  their 
Pockets  as  well  as  their  Weapons,  fhould  be 
in  fome  Meafure  adjufted.  To  throw 
down  a  few  Farthings,  and  make  a  Noife 
to  have  them  covered  with  Gold  5  would 
be  abfurd  in  a  Wager :  And  a  Man  muft  be 
very  Weak  to  accept  it.  And  if  Life  be  ei- 
ther valuable  to  Keep,  or  dangerous  to 
Lofe,  one  would  think  the  Parallel  fliould 
Hold.  This  venturing  All  againfl:  No- 
thing, puts  me  in  mind  of  Mark  Anthony^ 
who  after  he  had  loll  the  Battel  at  A6fhm^ 


0/ DUELLING.      1^9 

and  was  Penned  up  in  Alexandria^  would 
needs  fend  AuQ^ifp^  a  Challenge.  C^far*^ 
Anfwer  was,  That  if  he  was  weary  of  Livings 
there  was  other  Waj/s  of  Difpatch  befides  Fight^ 
ing  him  ^  And  for  his  part^  he  f/jonld  not  troH- 
bit  himfelfto  be  his  Executioner.  Anthony^  I 
fuppofe,  thought  the  Return  reafonable  ^ 
and  in  a  thort  Time  did  his  own  Bufi- 

Vhilot,  I  Gonfefs  as  you  have  reprefent- 
ed  the  Cafe,  it  looks  oddly  enough. 

Bhilai.  I  will  give  you  one  that's  more 
odd,  it  you  call  it^fo.  I  mean  t\\t  Myftery 
of  Seconds^  and  Thirds. 

This  is  fuch  a  Mafterpiece  5  that  I  think 
no  Defcription  can  reach  it.  Thefe  Un- 
derpullers  in  Diftradtion,  are  fuch  implicit 
Mortals  as  are  not  to  be  matched  upon  any 
other  Occafion:  A  perfeft  Stranger  (hall  En- 
gage them  at  the  firft  Word.  To  ask  Que- 
ftions  would  be  ungentile.  On  they  go 
without  any  Acquaintance,  either  with  the 
Man,  or  the  Matter.  A  mod  honourable 
Undertaking,  to  Fight  about  they  know 
not  what  5  for,  and  againft,  they  know 
not  whom  1  So  that  for  ought  they  can  tell, 
they  may  be  under  the  Pious  NecefTity  of 
Murthering  their  Father. 

Philot.  However,  you  can't  fay  there  is 
any  Malice  Prepcnce. 


I40       0/DUELLI N  G. 

PhilaL  Right!  There  is  nothing  Pre- 
fence  3  neither  Malice  nor  Reafon.  But  for 
all  that,  I  don  t  like  a  Man  that  can  hate  at 
firfl:  Sight  ^  and  kill  Extempore  .<? 

Vhtlot.  You  miftake^  a  Second  is  not  an- 
gry. He  only  engages  in  Complaifance  to 
his  Prmcipal, 

PhilaL  So  much  the  worfe  ^  becaufe  it 
argues  the  greater  Contempt  of  human 
Kind.  For  my  Heart,  I  cant  underftand 
a  Combatant  that  can  kill  in  cool  Blood  : 
and  fliew  the  utmoft  Effefts  of  Rage  with- 
out Paffion  !  'Tis  a  Sign  his  common  Tem- 
per is  as  bad  as  the  Malice,  and  Provocati- 
ons of  other  People.  This  Stoical  Improve- 
ment, is  the  Philofophy  of  a  Butcher.  It 
makes  a  Beaji  of  an  Enemy  5  and  knocks 
him  down  with  as  little  Concern  as  if  he 
were  an  Ox. 

PhiloL  To  requite  you  for  your  extraor- 
dinary Inftances,  I  will  give  you  a  pretty 
tough  one  on  the  other  Side.  If  a  Souldier 
rcfufes  a  Challenge  from  another,  he  will 
not  only  be  counted  a  Coward  ^  but  in  all 
Likelihood,  Cafhiered  into  the  Bargain. 

Philal.  The  Cafe  is  hard,  I  confefs,  but 
not  yours  3  for  you  are  none  oitht  Military 
Liji.  To  thofe  who  may  be  concerned,  I 
anfwer  5 

T.  You  know  the  Challenger  is  punifh- 
ed  as  well  as  the  Challenged  3  which  Difci- 


0/DUELLING.       141 

pline  will  prevent  the  Cafe  from  beingCom- 
mon.  But  when  it  does  happen,  it  may  be 
replied  in  the 

Second  Place,  That  he  who  profefTes 
Arms,  may  prove  his  Courage  by  more  de- 
fcnfible  Inftances.  His  former  Behaviour  in 
the  Field,  is  oftentimes  fufficient  to  wipe 
off  an  Afperfion  of  Cowardife. 

Thirdly,  If  he  is  not  furnifhed  with 
Proof  this  Way:  Let  him  defire  his  Superi- 
our  Officer,  that  the  next  time  he  is  drawn 
out,  the  Challenger  may  be  Pofted  near 
him  5  And  then  would  I  heartily  convince 
him,  and  the  Enemy  to  boot,  that  I  want- 
ed no  Refolution.  If  a  Man  mifcarries  in 
fueh  a  Tryal,  he  may  juftify  himfelf  to  his 
Reafon.  He  dyes  in  his  Calling  ^  and  if  no- 
thing elfe  hinders,  he  may  look  the  other 
World  in  the  Face. 

Fhilot.  But  a  Souldier  may  fometimes 
wait  a  long  while  for  fuch  an  Opportunity 
of  purging  himfelf:  And  would  you  have 
him  ftarved,  and  laughed  at,  in  the  mean 

Philal,  Let  him  remember  he  is  a  Chri- 
ftian,  as  well  as  a  Souldier  5  and  that  he 
was  firfl:  Lijied  under  God  Almighty. 

Now  a  Man  of  Honour  will  rather 
ftarve,  than  be  falfe  to  a  folemn  Engage- 
ment. And  where  the  Caufe  is  juft,  he  is 
to  be  commended  for  his  Conftancy.     And 


142      0/DUELL I N  G. 

if  Intereft  ftrikesin  too,  'tis  not  only  Crimi- 
minal,  but  Weaknefs  to  Defert  it. 

As  for  the  Point  of  Contempt,  let  him  re- 
turn it  with  Pity  :  Tis  no  Diflionour  to  be 
undervalued  by  thofe  who  want  either 
Underftanding,  or  Confcience^  or  both. 
If  bare  Contempt  without  Reafon  is  fo  ter- 
ribly Significant,  a  Fool  would  be  better 
than  aPhilofopher^  a.  Slave  than  anEmpe- 
rour  ^  provided  the  firft  had  but  the  Info- 
lencc  to  Scorn  the  latter. 

Philot.  For  all  that,  you  will  have  a  great 
many  againft  you. 

Philal.  So  there  are  a  great  many  Sheep ; 
but  I  think  ne'er  the  Wifer  for  their  Num- 

Philof.  Do  you  think  then  this  Cuftom  is 
fo  abfolutely  forbidden  by  Religion  > 

Ph'tlal,  lam  furprifedoneBaptizedfhould 
put  the  Queftion !  In  earneft,  I  believe  this 
Notion  of  Honour  as  much  an  Idol,  as 
Nebuchadne%a.rS  Golden  Image  :  *Tis  fet  up 
by  the  fame  Intereft ;  and  probably  has  done 
more  Mifchief. 

Philot.  If  it  be  fo,  the  Metal  muft  be 
good  ;  according  to  your  own  Compart- 

Philal.  Yes.  But  the  Worfhip  is  ftark 
naught ;  and  lefs  to  be  chofen  than  the  Fiery 
Fnrtjace.  Tis  great  Pity  fo  much  good  Blood 
fhould  be  offered  at  it.    Tliat  Men  who 


0/ DUELLING.       14^ 

have  fuch  Opportunities  for  Senfe,  (houlcC 
be  entvangkd  in  fo  monftrous  an  Abfurdity ! 
That  thofe  who  might  be  the  Ornament  of 
their  Age,  and  Defence  of  their  Country, 
fhould  make  themfelves  a  Misfortune  to 
both ! 

Philof.  I  believe  the  Danger  of  the  Ad- 
venture makes  them  think  it  honourable. 

Vhilal.  Look  you !  To  rifque  the  Main 
without  Reafon  or  Warrant,  is  Raflinefs: 
Tis  to  be  more  Stupid  than  Brave.  If  a 
Man  Ihould  leap  a  Garret:^  or  vault  down 
th^  Momtment  \  do  you  imagine  he  would 
leave  the  Memory  of  a  Hero  behind  him? 

Phllot.  Methinks  'tis  fine  to  feem  above 
the  Impreffions  of  Fear ;  and  to  Flalh  in  the 
Face  of  Danger. 

PhildL  I  grant  you,  Fortitude  is  a  very 
valuable  Quality.  But  then  it  muft  be  un- 
der the  Conduft  of  Prudence  and  Juftice  : 
Without  this  Affiftance,  the  bed:  Event  will 
prove  Ruinous ;  and  the  Viftory  it  felf  a 

Phi  lot.  You  mean  Religion  will  not  en- 
dure the  Duelling  Principle. 

PkiUL  No  m.ore  than  all  the  PJereJict 
fince  Simo}?-  Magm.  Tis  a  Principle  fo 
full  of  Pride,  and  Paffion,  and  B^evenge ; 
fo  Tempeftuous  and  Abfurd :  fo  abfolute- 
ly  unallied  to  Reifon  and  Good-nature; 
that  polilht  Heathenrfjii  would  be  aQnm*d 

144-      Of  DUELLING. 

on  t.  In  a  Word,  Tis  as  contrary  to  the 
Tendency  and  Temper  of  Chriflianity,  as 
Hob's  Creed  is  to  the  Apoftles  ;  as  Light  is 
to  Darknefs,  as  God  is  to  the  Devil. 

Philot.  Tis  a  hard  Matter  to  part  with 
the  Charafter  of  a  Gentleman. 

Philal.  Fear  it  not.  As  long  as  the 
Laws  are  on  our  Side,  the  Heraldry  is  all 
fafe.  And  if  it  wereotherwife,  let  us  re- 
member we  are  Chriftians.  If  there  hap- 
pens a  Competition  between  thefe  two  Pre- 
tenfions ;  let  us  drop  the  Gentleman  and 
keep  theChriftian ;  for  he  is  aPerfon  of  the 
befl:  Quality. 

PInlot.  Say  you  fo? 

PhilaL  Yes.  I  fay  a  Chriftian  and  rid 
Gentleman,  is  more  a  Perfon  of  Conditioti^ 
than  a  Gentleman  and  no  Chriftian.  The 
former  is  more  nobly  Related^  born  to  a 
greater  jF^r///,*/^,  and  better  Founded  in  per- 
gonal Merit. 

Ph'dot.  You  fay  fomething.  I  wifli  yon 
would  enlarge  upon  this  Head. 

PhiUL  You  know  my  Bufinefs  is  not 
Preaching  \  any  Divine  will  give  youSatis- 

Philot.  Upon  fccond  Thoughts,  they 
need  not:  A  little  of  the  Bible  will  do  it 
without  them.  To  fpeak  frankly,  I  am  fo 
well  fatisfied  upon  the  whole,  that  I  am  re- 
folved  to  take  no  notice  of  my  Spark  ;  but 

0/DUELLlNG.        14.5 

I  am  afraid  he  will  Poft  me  up  for  a  Cow- 
ard, and  how  then? 

PhiLit.  I  would  mind  it  no  more  than 
the  R^aHing  of  a  Fever,  or  a  FrocUmatiGu 
from  Bedlam. 

Philot.  I  (hall  take  your  Advice.  But  I 
mufl:  tell  you  withall.  That  if  he  draws  up- 
on me  in  the  Streets,  I  Vv^ill  not  be  i^o  paffive 
as  to  let  the  Sun  (hine  through  me,  if  I  can 
help  it. 

PhilaL  I  have  nothing  to  fay  as  to  that. 
But  then  you  fhoald  wifti  the  Occafion  may 
never  happen  5  and  keep  your  Refolution 
to  your  felf.  For  to  give  out  this  Sort  of 
Language,  looks  too  like  a  Provocation : 
And  if  you  fhould  be  fo  unfortunately  fet 
upon,  be  fare  you  keep  within  thcCompafs 
of  Self-defence* 



O     F 





Vhilottmus  and  Philaletbef. 

\/\/  ^^^^^  infipid  Creatures 
^  ^  are  Men  !  Sure  thefe  are 
none  of  the  beft  Things  Cod  ever  made ! 
Upon  the  Whole,  I  think  one  might  as 
good  disband,  and  turn  Hermit,  as  be  trou- 
bled with  them  any  longer.  I  begin  now 
to  underftand  the  Condud  of  the  firft  M^;/Z"/  5 
but  believe  their  Hiflory  mifreported.  They 
fled  the  Perfecution  of  Mandkind,  more 
than  that  of  a  fingle  Tyrant.  They  pre- 
ferM  the  Wildernefs  to  the  Town  ;  and 
found  their  Safety  and  their  Satisfaftion 
better  fecured  in  Solitrde^  than  Society.  For 
a  wild  Beaft  does  not  pretend  above  his 
Order  5  and  is  fo  frank  as  to  difcover  his  De- 

L  7  fign: 

I  /j-S       Of  General  Kindness. 

fign  :  But  a  Man  is  aBeafr^  and  yet  has  not 
the  Mcdcfty  to  own  ir.  Hah!  Here  is  Phi- 
laleihes^  he  has  over-heard  me  :  In  earneft, 
I  fhall  be  called  to  an  Account  for  my  Ex- 
poftiilations ! 

Ph'daL  Vv4iat  Mr.  Hob's  Ghoft  !  No  lefs 
than  a  Satyr  upon  your  whole  Rind  ?  Vm 
not  forry  I  have  interrupted  your  Solilo- 
quies, except  they  had  been  better  natu- 

Philot,  I  did  not  think  you  had  been  fo 
near:  But  finoe  you  have  catched  me, 
give  me  leave  to  tel!  you,  I  know  the 
World,  and  upon  Experiment  I  find, 
there  is  not  one  in  forty  v/Ithout  Defign, 
or  Vanity,  in  their  Converfation.  Pray 
perufe  your  Acquaintance  well,  and  if  you 
don't  difcover  fome  F!ciix>  in  their  Ho- 
nefty,  or  their  Humour,  Tm  much  mi- 

PLnLiL   Are  not  you    a  Man,    Philoti- 

Ph'dot.  What  then? 

PhlUiL  Then,  by  your  own  ConfefFion, 
*tis  forty  to  one  but  that  fome  Part  of  the 
difigreeable  Charafter  belongs  to  your 

Ph'ilot.  However,  you  know  Odds  will 
not  win  Wagers  ^  DiSculties  are  not  De- 
m.onflrations  ^  'tis  unreafcnable  to  argue 
from    Improbabilities    againft  Matter    of 

Of  General  Kindness.       i  /j.9 

Fa^.  If  I  find  my  fcif  Well  5  if  my  Con- 
ftitution,  or  my  Care,  is  my  Prcfervafive, 
you  muft  not  charge  the  Plague  upon  me  -^ 
l3ecaufe  I  converfe  with  EpidcmcrJ  Infcfti- 

PhjlaL  You  are  refolvcd  to  keep  Well 
with  yourfelf:  I  doubt  not  but  in  Time 
your  good  Opinion  Vv^ill  reach  your  Neigh- 
bours:  They  may,  to  ufe  your  own  Simi- 
litude, be  as  free  from  Ccnta^hft  as  your 
felf:  And  if  they  are  feized,  the  Plague  is 
not  always  M^r^^/.  Befides,  it  miglit  have 
been  your  own  Cafe.  So  that  all  things 
confidered,  I  hope  you  will  not  lylork  the 
Houfe  upon  bare  Sufpicion  :  And  when  the 
Tohe77s  appear,  you  will  pity  their  Conditi- 
on ;  and  endeavour  their  Recovciy, 

Philot.  To  deal  freely,  I  (hnll  take  Care 
of  mv  felf,  and  fo  I  fLippofe  will  every  bo- 
dy elf,^  that  is  wife.  For  that  which  Peo- 
ple call  clrrverfal  Benevolence^  is  b'Jt  a  Piece 
o^  IGnght  Errantry  :  it  looks  prettily  in  a 
Romance  ^  but  in  L?j9,  'tis  neither  prudent, 
nor  prafticable. 

Phrlal.  Do  you  think  it  fo  imprafticable 
an  Abfurdity  to  v/ifh  all  People  well  5  and 
endeavour  to  m.ake  them  ^o  ? 

Philot.  What  of  all  Perfwafions,  Coun- 
tries, Tempers,  and  Conditions,  whatfoe- 
v^r  ? 

L  3  Philal. 

1  5o     Of  General  Kindness, 

P/oilaL  Yes.  We  comprehend  all  Man- 
kind in  the  League, 

Philot.  You  have  a  notable  Grafp:  I 
dare  not  ftrain  my  Inclinations  at  that  Rate. 
I  love  to  keep  fair  with  the  World  as  well 
as  yon  ^  but  it  may  be  upon  different  Rea- 
fons.  In  a  Word,  I  take  Civility  to  be  on* 
ly  a  Compliance  with  the  Mode  ^  Friend- 
fhip  but  another  Name  for  Trade  5  all 
Mercenary  and  Defigning.  Indeed  confi- 
dering  the  State  of  humane  Affairs ,  'tis 
next  to  impoffible  to  be  otherwife.  Where 
there  is  fo  much  of  Indigence,  Competiti- 
on, and  Uncertainty,  you  muft  expeft  Self- 
intereft  will  govern.  You  may  obferve. 
That  which  You  call  Good  Nature^  is  moft 
remarkable  in  the  Young  and  Unexperi- 
enced. Such  Perfons  I  confefs  are  often  ve- 
ry Lavifh  of  their  Favours,  and  Careffing 
in  their  Converfation  :  But  thefe  Blandifh- 
ments  feem  only  defigned  for  a  State  of  Im- 
potence 5  that  what  they  can't  carry  by 
Force  and  Forefight,  they  may  obtain  by 
Flattery.  Like  unfledged  Birds,  they  are 
fond  of  every  one,  that  they  m.ay  be  Fed 
the  better.  And  where  this  Reafon  fails^ 
that  v/hich  I  am  ^oing  to  add  will  fupply  it. 

PhiUL  Whatsis  that  > 

P/jHoL  Why,  young  People  generally 
don't  Think  fo  far  as  others,  nor  confider  a 
Neceffity  at  aDiftance:  This  often  makes 


of  General  Kindness.       151 

tliem  more  Liberal  than  Wife.  They  are 
apt  to  be  over-credulous  at  firft  Setting  out  5 
and  cannot  fo  well  fee  through  Artifice  and 
Pretence :  So  that  'tis  no  Wonder  if  they 
beftovv  their  Inclinations  too  freely  upon 
their  Neighbours. 

Philal.  This  early  Difpofition  to  Oblige^ 
appears  to  me  an  Impreffion  of  Nature, 
which  was  intended  for  Continuance:  For 
as  the  Ufe  and  Pofture  of  the  Limbs  hold 
the  fame  in  Manhood  as  they  were  in  Infan- 
cy 5  fo  one  would  think  the  Motions  of  the 
Mind  (hould  be  fet  Right  at  firft.  And 
therefore  when  good  Humour  happens  to 
wear  off  with  Age,  it  feems  to  proceed 
from  Mifmanagement  5  and  looks  more  like 
a  Degeneracy  of  Nature,  than  an  Improve- 
ment of  Reafon.  If  you  pleafe  to  hear  me, 
I  Ihall  endeavour  to  provQUmverfal  Benevo" 
/^;/(7e  both  an  acknowledged,  and  apraftica^ 
ble  Difpofition. 

Philot.  Pray  begin.  / 

Philal.  My  firft  z\rgument  then  (hall  be 
drawn  from  Community  of  Nature.  We 
are  all  caft  in  the  fame  Mould,  allied  in  our 
Paflions,  and  in  our  Faculties:  We  have 
the  fame  Defines  to  fatisfy,  and  generally 
the  famePleafure  in  fatisfying  of  them.  All 
Mankind  is  asitv/ere  one  great  Beirjg,  divi- 
ded into  feveral  Parts  5  every  Part  having 
the  fame  Properties  and  Affeftions  v;ith  an- 

L  4  other* 

15"^       Of  General  Kindness. 

other.  Now  as  we  can  t  chufe  but  defire 
Accommodations  for  our  own  Support  and 
Pleafure;  fo  if  we  leave  Nature  to  her  Ori- 
ginal Biafs,  if  we  hearken  to  the  undepra- 
ved  Suggeftions  of  our  Minds,  we  (hall 
wifh  the  fame  Conveniences  to  others. 
For  the  apprehending  a  Being  fo  like  our 
own,  in  profperous  Circumftances,  muft 
be  an  Advancement  of  our  felves :  By  this 
we  fee  as  it  were  our  own  Nature  pleafed, 
and  Flourifliing  in  another.  And  thus  much 
Mr.  Hobs  himfelf  confefles  to  the  Ruin  of 
his  C^ufe^  That  the  Senfe  of  having  comnmni" 
eated  SatisfaBion  is  naturally  Delightful. 

Philot.  But  will  this  Notion  fpread  wide 
enough  to  do  any  Execution  ? 

FhilaL  Yes.  For  if  a  Man  can  but  difen- 
gage  him.felf  from  the  Exceffes  of  Self-love, 
in  a  fingle  Inftance,  he  does  the  Bufinefs, 
If  he  can  but  wifli  well  to  another,  without 
making  Intereft  the  only  Motive,  he  may 
be  generous  enough  to  take  all  Mankind 
into  his  Affeftions.  For  he  that  can  do  it  to 
one,  v/ithout  any  mercenary  View,  may 
for  the  fame  Reafon  do  it  to  a  Million, 
'Tis  but  repeating  the  Aftion,  v/here  for 
his  Encouragement,  the  Pleafure  will  be 
likewife  repeated, 

Pkilot.  You  are  going  too  faft.  The  dif- 
ferent Capacities  and  Behaviour  of  Men, 
vyili  leave  your  Repetition  neither  Senfe, 


Of  General  Kindnss.        15^ 

nor  Poffibility  :  For  to  love  Infignificancy 
is  Dotage  ^  and  feldom  paffes  any  farther 
than  Children  or  Relations.—' 

PhiUl,  For  all  that  x,  one  may  wi(h  a  poor 
Man  an  Eftate^  or  a  Fool  Underftanding^ 
There  is  no  unconquerable  Averfion,  nor 
fo  much  as  any  Difficulty  in  thefe  things. 

Philot.  I  fay  farther  5  to  love  malicious, 
and  difobliging  Qualities,  is  impoffible. 

Philal.  If  thofe  Qualities  were  infepara- 
ble  from  the  OhJcS^  I  grant  your  Meaning : 
But  where  Malice  is  only  Accidental,  and 
Reformation  poffible,  the  Cafe  is  other  wife, 
APhyfician  may  have  aKindnefs  for  the 
Patient^  without  being  fond  of  the  Difeafe. 

Philof.  To  illuftrate  your  Diflinftion.  If 
a  Man  gives  me  a  fower  Box  on  the  Ear  5 
I  may  love  the  Hand,  though  I  don  t  like 
the  Blow.  I  affure  you  he  that  can  thus  ab- 
ftraft  the  Affront  from  the  Perfon  that 
gives  it  ^  and  take  ofr  a  Cuff  fo  metaphyfi- 
cally,  is  very  much  a  Philofopher. 

Philal.  If  you  are  not  fatisficd,  Til  confi- 
der  your  Objeftion  farther  afterwards.  At 
prefent  I  lliall  go  on  to  a  fecond  Proof, 
That  Univerfal  Benevolence  is  agreeable  to 
humane  Nature  5  unlefs  you  have  a  Mind 
to  interpofe. 

Philot,  Not  juft  nov/.  Take  your  Me-^ 


154-     Of  General  Kindness, 

Pkilal,  I  prove  my  Point,  from  that 
Compajpon  which  generally  follows  any  con- 
fiderable  Misfortune.  This  Civility  is  fo 
very  common,  and  fo  much  expefted,  that 
thofe  who  are  unconcerned  at  the  Troubles 
of  another,  are  called  Inhumane^  i.  e.  They 
are  degenerated  from  their  Rind  5  and  don't 
deferve  the  Name  of  Men.  And  does  it 
not  plainly  follow,  That  thofe  who  are  thus 
fenfibly  Touched,  muft  have  a  real  Kind- 
nefs  for  the  Unfortunate? 

Philot,  I  think  not.  For  Compaflion  is 
but  the  Confequence  of  Infirmity^  and 
bottom'd  upon  Self-love.  We  are  affefted 
with  what  another  fuffers  5  becaufe  this  puts 
us  in  mind  we  are  not  fecure  our  felves. 
And  when  our  Neighbour's  Calamity  dif- 
covers  more  than  the  Poffibility  of  our  own, 
'tis  no  Wonder  if  we  are  fomewhat  uneafy, 

PhilaL  I  grant  you,  CompafGon  may  be* 
fometimes  accounted  for,  as  you  fay:  But 
then  'tis  a  Miftake  to  fuppofe  it  can  come 
i'l'om  no  other  Caufe,  For  'tis  eafy  to  ob- 
ferve,  That  the  moil:  generous  Diipofitions 
are  the  moft  Compaffionate.  Such  Perfons, 
though  their  Fortune  is  never  fo  well 
Guarded  5  though  the  Greatnefs  of  their 
Mind  exempts  them  from  Fear,  and  makes 
them  leaft  concerned  for  any  Accident  of 
their  own,yet  none  condole  and  fympathife 
more  heartily  than  they.    'Tis  plain  there- 


Of  General  Kindness,     j^^i^ 

fore,  that  this  Pity  and  Tendernefs,  being 
fo  void  of  Self-Intereft,  muft  proceeed  from 

Philot,  Go  on.  I  (hall  come  in  with  you 
by  and  by. 

PhiUL  I  affirm  then  in  the 

Third  place,  That  'tis  not  agreeable  to 
the  Attributes  of  God  to  fuppofe,  that  he 
has  made  the  Nature  of  Man  fuch,  that  ac- 
cording to  his  Original  Inclinations,  he 
fhould  be  unconcerned  about  the  Happinefs 
of  his  Neighbour. 

Fhilot.  Whyfo? 

PhiUL  Becaufe,  this  would  be  a  Refle- 
ftion,  both  upon  the  Goodnefs  and  Wifdom 
of  God  Almighty. 

Philot.  Prove  the  Parts  of  your  Affertiom 

PhiUL  I.  This  fuppofition  is  repugnant 
to  the  Goodnefs  of  God.  For  can  we  ima- 
gine that  God  5  who  is  Infinite  Goodnefs 
himfelf^  who  made  all  rational  Creatures 
that  they  might  be  Happy  ?  Can  we  ima- 
gine that  he  lliould  contradift  the  AfFefti- 
ons  of  his  own  BlefTed  Nature  5  and  form 
a  Being  wholly  unlike  himfelf?  A  Beij^g 
which  he  would  not  only  hate  as  foon 
as  it  was  made^  but,  v/hich  is  more,  he 
could  impute  his  Diflike  to  nothing  but  his 
own  Workman(hip  ?  But  if  either  out  of 
Indifferency,  or  Difaffeftion,  'twas  con- 
trary to  the  Nature  of  Man  to  wifh  the 


1 56       Of  General  Kindness. 

Happinefs  of  another  ^  he  mufl:  be  fuch  a 
Thing  as  I  have  defcribed.  And  is  it  pof- 
fible  to  conceive.  That  Goodnefs  and  Per- 
feftion  can  be  the  Parent  of  fo  unlovely  an 
OfF-fpring?  That  the  over-flowing  Gene- 
roufnefs  of  the  Divine  Nature,  would  cre- 
ate immortal  Beings  with  mean  or  envious 
Principles?  To  be  thus  furnifh'd,  would 
make  them  both  Miferabie  and  Trouble- 
fome^  Neither  acceptable  to  this  World, 
nor  fit  for  the  other. 

Philot.  Thefe  Inclinations  you  fo  much 
diflike  are  very  common  5  therefore  if  they 
don't  come  from  Abovc^  you  mafl:  find  them 
out  fome  other  Original. 

Philal.  That  will  be  done  without  Diffi- 
culty. To  begin  5  The  Reafon  v^hich  hin- 
ders Men  from  wilhing  the  Happinefs  of 
others,  proceeds  fometimes  from  the  Pre- 
judices of  Education^  from  the  ill  (Exam- 
ples and  Flatteries  of  thofe  they  firft  con- 
verfed  with^  and  fometimes  'tis  afterwards 
contrafted  by  their  own  Fault.  The  gene- 
ral Caufe  of  this  Depravation,  isCovetouf- 
nefs,  and  Pride. 

I.  An  immoderate  Love  of  Mony  fpoils 
thofe  generous  Difpofitions  they  were  fent 
into  the  World  with.  It  confines  their 
Affedtions  to  their  Pockets^  and  fhrinks  up 
their  Defires  into  the  narrow  and  fcanda- 
lous   Compafs   of   their    own    Concerns. 


Of  General  Kindness.       157 

Their  Nature  is  fo  impoverifh'd  by  their  ill 
Management,  that  they  are  not  afcle  to 
fpare  one  kind  Wifli  from  themfelves  5  nor 
expend  one  generous  Thoughc  in  Favour  of 

Philot.  The  Cafe  is  fomewhat  worfe  than 
you  have  reprefented  it.  People  don  t  al- 
v^ays  keep  within  the  Terms  of  Neutrality. 
They  are  not  contented  to  forbear  Wifti- 
ing  well  5  but  are  oftentimes  averfc  to  the 
Happinefs  of  others. 

PhiUl.  Right.  When  Pride  ftrikes  in, 
that  is  the  Confequence.  This  Vice  makes 
Men  think  their  Neighbours  Advantage  pre- 
judicial to  their  own  5  and  that  the  greateft 
Pleafure  is  to  fee  others  beneath  them. 
Such  an  ill-natured  Notion  as  this,  made 
Lucifer  uneafy,  and  envious  in  Heaven  5 
and  we  knov/  what  was  the  Iffue.  Far  be 
it  from  us  to  fuppofe,  that  God  would 
ftamp  fuch  Ignoble,  fuch  Apoftatizing  Qua- 
lities upon  any  rational  Being.  Thefe  would 
not  be  the  Image  of  the  Deity,  but  the 

Philot.  In  my  Opinion,  Self  love  feems 
the  beft  Expedient  to  fecure  Individuals. 
By  fuch  a  Bent  of  Nature,  a  Man  will  be 
fure  to  take  Care  of  one  3  and  not  leave  his 
Bufinefs  to  the  Generofity  of  his  Neigh- 


158     Of  General  Kindness. 

P/jiUL  If  every  one  could  ftand  upon  his 
own  Legs,  what  you  fay  would  have  a 
better  Colour.  However,  your  Objeftion 
leads  me  to  fhew  you,  That  it  reflefts  upon 
the  Wifdom  of  God,  to  fuppofe  Men  made 
with  fuch  narrow  inconverfable  Inclinati- 
ons :  For  by  this  Temper  they  would  be 
Unfit  for  Society.  But  God  has  defign  d 
Man  afociable  Creature.  To  this  End,  he 
has  fent  him  into  the  World  weak,  and  de- 
fencelefs  ^  fo  that  without  the  Care  of 
others,  'tis  impoflible  for  him  to  Subfift. 
And  when  he  is  befl:  able  to  Shift,  if  he  had 
no  Affiftance  or  Converfe  but  his  own  5  the 
Indigence  of  his  Nature  would  make  him 
very  uneafy,  and  ill  fupplied. 

Now  there  is  nothing  fo  ftrongly  ce- 
ments Society  ^  nothing  makes  it  flower, 
and  flourifn  fo  much,  as  a  hearty  Regard 
to  the  Publick  Good.  Tis  general  Kind- 
ftefs  and  Good-will,  which  eftabliflies  the 
Peace,  and  promotes  the  Profperity  of  a 
People  ;  To  fay,  this  Dlfpofition  keeps  Men 
juft  and  inoffenfive,  is  too  mean  a  Com- 
mendation. It  improves  their  Praftice 
much  higher^  and  makes  them  Munificent 
and  Obliging.  Without  this  Virtue,  the 
Publick  tJnion  mud:  unloofe  ^  the  Strength 
decays  and  the  Pleafure  grow  faint  and  lan- 
guid. And  can  we  fuppofe,  that  God  would 
iinderfurnifh  Man  for  the  State  he  defigned 

him  '^ 

Of  General  Kindness.      i5c^ 

him  5  and  not  afford  him  a  Soul  large 
enough  to  purfue  his  Happinefs  ?  That  he 
fliould  give  him  Solitary  Principles  5  and 
yet  intend  him  for  PublickConverfe  >  Cre- 
ate him  fo,  that  he  (hall  naturally  Care  for 
nothing  but  himfclf  5  and  at  the  fame  time, 
make  his  intereft  depend  upon  mutual  Af- 
feftion,  and  good  Correspondence  with 
others  ?  Is  it  imaginable,  that  fuch  aCom- 
prehenfive  Wifdom  ;  which  has  made  all 
things  in  Number^  Weighty  and  Meafnre  3 
fecured  the  Prefervation  of  Brutes^  by  In- 
ftinft  and  Sympathy  ^  and  made  fo  fair  a 
Provifion  for  the  inferiour  World  5  Is  it 
to  be  conceived,  I  fay,  that  fo  glorious  a 
Vrovidence  ftiould  not  proportion  the  Facul- 
ties of  his  Nobleft  Creatures  5  but  fend 
them  into  Being  v/ith  Inclinations  unfuit- 
able  to  the  Condition  they  muft  neceffarily 
be  placed  in  > 

Philot.  Under  Favour,  there  are  other 
Materials  for  a  Commonwealth  ,  befides 
ftark  Love  and  Kindnefs  ^  and  I  believe  the 
Building  might  laft,  without  tempering  the 
Mortar  with  Honey.  What  do  you  fay  to  the 
Fear  of  receiving  Harn^  5  and  the  Hopes  of 
Affiftance  >  Thefe  are  the  Motives  of  Self- 
love  ^  and  I  think  fufficient  to  make  Men 
Juft?  and  Willing  to  do  a  good  Turn. 

PhiUL  Truly  I  think  not.     I  grant  you, 
thefe  Motives  are  not  infigqificant ;  They 


1 6o       Of  General  Kindness. 

have  an  Intereft  in  Life  ^  but  not  enough  to 
pufh  it  to  Perfedion  ^  and  fecure  its  Happi- 
nefs.  For  firft,  They  will  not  reftrain  a 
fecret  Mifchief^  which  confidering  the  un- 
fortified State  of  Mankind,  is  a  great  De- 
fed.  Befides,  the  Agreeablenefs  of  Society 
muO:  be  loft  this  way.  Tis  Inclination  and 
Endearment,  that  gives  Life  and  Pleafure. 
But  when  People  have  nothing  but  Fears, 
and  Jealoufies,  and  Plots  in  their  Heads, 
there  is  no  Mufick  in  their  Company.  And 
farther,  I  would  gladly  know,  how  thefe 
fcanty  Principles  can  explain.  Why  Men 
fhould  die  for  their  Friends;  and  facrifice 
their  Intereft  for  their  Country,  without 
Neceflity  ?  By  the  Maxims  of  Self-love, 
fuch  Aftions  as  thefe  muftbe  foolifh  and  un- 
natural :  And  yet  thofe  who  are  thus  forget- 
ful of  themfelves,  have  been  always  reckon  d 
the  Nobleft,  and  beft  Deferving. 

Philot, You  forgot  that  there  is  fuch  a  thing 
as  Honour  and  vain  Glory  in  the  World. 
This  is  the  Bait  that  catches  the  Men  you 
fpeakof:  Tis  the  Reputation  of  the  Adion 
that  fires  their  Spirits  5  and  makes  them  fo 
Prodigal,  and  Refigning. 

PhilaL  In  earneft,  you  are  catched  your 
felf !  Your  Objedion  fuppofes  the  Truth  of 
what  I  am  contending  for.  It  fuppofes,  That 
Benevolence  and  Generofity  are  pofTefTed  of 
thepublickEfteera^  Tlftttliey  have  Cuftom 


Of  General  Kindness.        i6i 

3nd  ?refcriptTon  on  their  fide  3  That  they 
are  the  higheft  Improvements  of  the  Will  5 
the  mcft  ^admired  and  Heroick  Qualities. 
Now  'tis  very  ftrange,  fo  iiniverGd  a  Con- 
fent  fhould  be  founded  in  a  Miflake^  and 
none  but  Mr.  Hobs^  and  fome  few  of  his 
Difcipling,  ftiould,  underftand  the  Operati- 
ons of  their  own  Minds  5  and  the  right  Con- 
ftitutions  of  them. 

Fhilot.  Well!  If  this  World  won't  fatisfy 
you,  the  other  fhall.  I  fay  then,  That  the 
Fear  of  invlfthh  Powers,  and  the  Expeftati- 
ons  of  future  Puniftiments,  are  fufBcient  to 
keep  Men  upon  their  ^W  Behaviour  5  to  be 
a  Check  upon  their  Privacies  3  and  make 
them  Honeft  at  Midnight.  And  yet  after 
all,  they  may  have  no  great  Stomach  to  the 
Matter.  Tis  the  Rod,  not  the  Inclination, 
which  learns  the  Lejjbn. 

Fhilal.  I  grant  you  the  Difciplining  Part 
of  Religion  is  very  fignificant.  However, 
it  would  not  give  a  fufEcient  Relief  in  this 

Philot.  Whyfo? 

PhiUL  Becaufe,  upon  your  Suppofition, 
the  Force  of  it  would  be  loft.  For  if  the 
Nature  of  Man  was  averfe  to  general  Kind- 
nefs  ^  if  he  could  not  chufe  but  think  it  un- 
reafonable,  to  love  any  Body  but  himfelf  ^ 
then  God  in  Commanding  him  to  Love  his 
Neighbour,  would  oblige  him  to  an  Im- 

M  poffibility. 

1 6a     Of  General  Kindness. 

poffibility.  We  might  as  well  be  com- 
manded to  tafte  Gall  as  fweet  as  Honey : 
For  'tis  as  much  in  our  Power,  to  alter  the 
Verceptions  of  our  Senfes,  as  to  love  any 
thing  contrary  to  our  Pvcafon  and  Inclinati- 
on. Upon  this  Suppofition  therefore  no 
Man  could  have  an  inward  Affeftion  for 
his  Neighbour  5  which  yet  'tis  certain  we 
are  obliged  to  have. 

Philot.  Iflamufedwell,  Til  ne'er  trouble 
my  felf  about  what  People  think.  If  they 
always  aft  like  Friends,  they  may  mjh  like 
Enemies,  if  they  pleafe. 

Philal.  Have  a  Care !  If  they  are  not  fo 
TPithin^  they  will  not  be  long  fo  without. 
For  if  we  had  a  kind  of  Antipathy  againfl: 
minding  any  thing  but  our  felves;  If  we 
thought  our  own  Intereft  prejudiced,  or 
our  Quiet  embarraffed  by  being  concerned 
for  Others  5  in  this  Cafe^  all  Offices  of  Hu- 
manity and  Obligation,  would  be  fo  many 
Afts  of  Penance.  And  fince  the  Opportu- 
nities of  Obliging  return  fo  faft  5  to  be  com- 
manded the  Ufe  of  them,  would  make  our 
Lives  almoft  a  perpetual  Torment.  It 
would  be  like  feeding  upon  that  we  natural- 
ly abhor  5  which  inftead  of  Nourifhing, 
would  throw  us  into  Sweats  and  Convidfions, 
And  at  this  rate,  a  Kindnefs  would  often 
be  a  greater  Mifchief  to  the  Doer,  than  a 
Benefit  to  the  Receiver.    TheUpfliot  is. 


of  General  Kindness.       163 

That  if  the  Mind  of  Man  was  naturally 
averfe  from  Wifliing  well  to  any  thing  but 
himfelf,  the  Command  of  general  Benevo^ 
knee  would  be  impoffible  to  be  entertained 
in  Principle,  and  AfFeftion.  And  as  for 
the  Counterfeit  in  outward  Praftice,  that 
would  be  fuch  a  Grievance  to  ill  Nature, 
that  very  few  would  fubmit  to  it.  For  if 
Men  are  fo  unreafonable,  as  not  to  be  go- 
verned by  Religion  now,  when  'tis  both 
Profitable  and  Pieafant^  of  how  little  force 
would  it  be,  fnould  it  lie  almoft  wholly  in 
Violence  and  Averfion?  If  Envy,  and  Ill- 
Nature,  were  the  Natural  Frame  and  Com- 
plexion of  the  Mind,  Religion  would  fig- 
nify  not  much  towards  Reformation  5  fo 
that  Society  could  receive  but  fmall  advan- 
tage from  thence.—- 

Philot.  Hold!  Don*t  cry  Viftory^  I  hav(S 
a  Rcferve  for  you.  Befides,  you  owe  m§ 
fome  Satisfaftion  to  an  old  Objeftion. 

Phild.  What  s  that? 

Philot.  I  told  you,  that  the  Injurioufncfs 
and  the  Vanity  of  a  great  part  of  the  World 
was  fuch,  That  general  Kindnefs,  if  it  came 
down  from  Speculation  to  Praftice,  would 
be  quickly  out  of  Doors.  I  confefs,  if  we 
could  (land  clear  of  the  Trouhlefo^j^e  and  the 
Treacherous^  I  could  be  asGood-Natured  as 
the  beft  of  you.  But  alas,  v/e  are  in  face 
Rom'filii^  and  that's  enough  toStiranyMan'i 

M"^  Spleen, 

1 64.       Of  General  Kindness. 

Spleen,  that  has  either  ijis  Underftanding, 
or  his  Senfes  about  him. 

Phildl.  You  find  Coldnefs  and  DifafFefti- 
on  very  general  5  and  thence  you  argue  from 
Paul  to  Neceffity.  Tis  i^o  therefore  it  muft 
be  lb.  Under  favour,  that's  no  Confe- 
quence.  I  fuppofe  that  you'll  grant,  that 
Men  don't  aft  always  up  to  the  ftretch  of 
their  Capacities :  And  that  'tis  poffible  for 
them  to  be  much  more  Prudent,  Benign, 
an  InofFenfive,  than  they  are. 

Philot.  What  then!  Would  you  have  a 
Man  a  Stcck^  mufi  he  not  be  fenfible  of  ill 

Philal.  Look  you,  all  ill  Ufage  proceeds 
from  Ignorance,  and  Diforder  of  Mind. 
Thofe  that  give  it  are  the  greateft  Suffer- 
ers. They  deftroy  their  own  Happinefs 
more  than  ours.  And  under  this  Notion, 
they  will  deferve  our  Compaffion  much 
better  than  our  Hatred :  Our  Charity  will 
take  them  in  as  naturally  as  Bedlam.  'Tis 
true,  there  may  be  fome  degrees  of  diffe- 
rence in  the  Diftraftion^  but  that  is  all. 
And  as  we  may  Willi,  we  may  likewife 
Attempt  their  Welfare:  Not  only  out  of 
Pity,  and  common  Alliance  3  but  alfo  from 
the  Profpcft  of  a  Return. 

Fhllot.  How  fo> 

PhildL  Why,  by  our  Rindnefs  we  fhall 
cither  Ixeform  the  injurious  Perfon,  or  not^ 


Of  General  Kindness.      i6<; 

if  we  do,  the  ground  of  ourDiflikeisgonc; 
and  we  have  made  him  more  commodious 
for  our  purpofe;  If  wearedifappointed,  we 
(hall  have  the  fatisfaftion  of  doing  Good 
againft  Evil 5  which  as  'tis  the  moft  Divine 
Quality,  fo  to  maintain  it,  the  Pleafure  is 
proportionably  raifed.  There  is  a  fecrct 
Triumph,  and  Exultation  of  Spirit,  upon 
fuch  an  Occafion.  There  is  no  One  that 
ads  in  this  manner,  who  does  not  inward- 
ly applaud  himfelf  forit^  which  is  as  much 
as  to  fay,  God  bids  him  go  on. 

Philot.  If  we  may  be  Kind  to  thofe  we 
believe  our  Enemies :  If  we  can  fall  in  Love 
with  Malice  and  Oppofition  ^  then  by  pari- 
ty of  Reafon,  we  may  court  undifguifed 
Ruin,  and  hate  our  Selves. 

PhilaL  If  by  Kindnefs  you  mean  Pity 
and  good  Wilhes,  I  think  it  very  praftica- 
ble  to  go  thus  far  with  an  Enemy  5  but  if 
you  enlarge  your  Senic  to  Complacency  and 
Aifeftion,  I  grant  it  Impoflible.  Befides, 
there  is  no  need  of  winding  up  the  String 
thus  high:  \¥e  are  not  obliged  to  be  pleaf- 
ed  with  thofe  that  do  us  Mifchief^  the 
Goodnefs  of  God  himfelf  does  not  proceed 
thus  far.  For  tho'  he  is  kind  to  the  Z)k- 
thankfnl^  and  the  Evil-^  2inAdefres  the  Con- 
verfiofi  of  a  Sinner  5  yet  he  does  not  delight 
in  him  while  he  continues  fuch. 

M  3  Vhilot, 

i  66       Of  General  K  i  N  d  N  e  s 

Fallot.  When  you  have  made  the  mofl: 
of  it,  I  forefee  this  Latitudinarian  Love  will 
beexpenfive^  and  therefore,  I  would  glad- 
ly be  farther  informed  what  is  to  be  gotten 
by  it. 

PhiUl.  Very  much.  In  good  earneft, 
this  Quality  is  well  worth  the  Courting  5 
'tis  valuable  in  Fortune,^  as  well  as  in  Beauty 
and  Humour.  Twill  make  a  Man  an  Interefl: 
in  the  World.  It  removes  Difficulties,  and 
fmooths  the  Paflages  for  Bufinefs ;  and  like 
the  Marriage  of  Princes,  there  is  Policy  as 
well  asPleafure  in  \\^  Alliance.  You  know 
the  Trade  of  Life  can't  be  driven  without 
Fdrtners'^  There  is  a  reciprocal  Dependance 
between  the  Greateji  and  the  Leafi.  And 
the  beft  Figure  is  but  a  Cypher,  where  it 
ftands  alone.  For  this  reafon,  a  wife  Man 
will  ftrengthen  the  Confederacy  5  and  take 
in  all  the  Help  he  can  get.  Now,  there  is 
nothing  fo  engaging  as  a  benevolent  Difpo- 
fition.  This  Temper  makes  a  Man's  Beha- 
viour inoffenfive,  affable  and  obliging^  it 
multiplies  Friends;  and  diflirms  the  Malice 
of  an  Enemy.  He  that  is  Kind  out  of  Prin- 
ciple, v/ill  be  fo  to  all  the  Advantages  of  De- 
cency and  Com.pafs.  That  which  is  Natu- 
ral, is  Uniform,  Conftant,  and  Graceful. 
Whereas,  he  who  Counterfeits  good  Na- 
ture 5  he  who  is  civil  only  out  of  Breeding 
Qr  Dcfign,  will  be  apt  to  bave  Breaks^ 


Of  General  Kindness.       167 

and  Inequalities  in  his  Humour.  A  Man 
cannot  always  ftand  bent;  fo  that  either 
Negligence  or  Paffion,  or  Intereft,  will 
fometime  or  other  return  the  Pofture  ^  and 
unmask  the  Pretence ;  and  then  the  Labour 
is  all  loft.  But  the  natural  Complexion  of 
Goodnefs  will  hold. 

Fhilof,  Yes,  till  the  Man  breaks. 

PhiUL  No  fear  of  that.  This  Quality 
will  do  more  than  Pay  for  its  keeping.  Re- 
member, that  Power  goes  in  with  the  Incli- 
nations of  Courfet:  Get  but  Mens  Hearts, 
and  their  Hands  will  follow.  But  to  do 
this,  there  is  nothing  more  likely  than  a 
plaufible  and  obliging  Honefty.  The 
Charms  of  Kindnefs  are  irrefiftible^  they 
Conquer,  and  Captivate ;  and  return  with 
Spoil  and  Triumph.  Befides,  the  Afliftancc 
that  comes  from  Inclination,  is  generally 
fafer,  and  more  ferviceable,  than  that 
which  is  haled  in  by  Force  or  Money. 
He  that  reigns  in  the  AfFedtions  is  the  hap- 
py Prince  5  for  in  Love  there's  neither  Trea- 
chery nor  Defertion.  A  Man  remarkably 
Obliging,  is  almoft  Proof  againft  the  moft 
Malicious.  They'll  be  afraid  of  attaquing 
one  fo  fortified  in  publick  Efteem ;  and 
under  fo  facred  a  Charafter.  Though 
his  Virtue  may  be  over-look'd,  the  in- 
famy of  the  Aft  ion  will  prevent  an  In- 

M  4  Phiht. 

1 68       Of  General  Ki  N  d  n  e  s  s. 

Philot.  Will  this  Difpofition  do  us  any- 
farther  Service? 

PhilaL  Yes;  our  Affeftion  to  others  gives 
us  a  fhare  in  their  Happinefs^  and  fo  be- 
comes an  Addition  to  our  own.  Wip- 
ing well,  enlarges  a  Mans  Capacity  of 
being  Happy :  This  hinders  his  Satisfaftion 
from  being  confined  to  his  private  Intereft, 
He  is  really  the  better  for  whatever 
good  his  Neighbour  enjoys  5  becaufe  e- 
very  thing  of  this  Nature  fatisfies  his 
Deiires^  and  gives  him  that  he  delights 

Fhilot.  I  warrant  you,  his  Mind  is  like  a 
Burning-glafs!  The  Rays  of  good  Fortune 
from  all  diverfities  of  Points,  concenter  in 
his  Benevolence  5  and  excite  an  intenfe  and 
multiplied  Pleafure. 

PhilaL  Yes.  And  in  a  great  meafure 
make  him  Mafter  of  all  the  Happinefs  he 
fees,  or  hears  of.  All  profperous  Events, 
all  Improvements  of  Induftry,  and  Bleflings 
of  Providence  which  he  is  acquainted  with, 
his  excellent  Temper  gives  him  an  Intereft 
in  5  fortho'he  has  not  thePoffeffionof  thefe 
things,  he  has  what  is  moft  defirable,  the 
Satisfaftion  of  them.  Nay,  I  believe  the 
generous  Congratulation  may  be  improv- 
ed to  exceed  the  Occafion  5  and  make  a 
Man  more  happy  than  thofe  he  rejoyces 
for.     In  this  Cafe,   the  Laws  of  Nature 


Of  General  Kindness.      169 

give  way  for  the  Encouragement  of  Good- 
nefs  5  the  Stream  rifes  higher  than  the  Foun- 
tain 5  and  the  Rebound  is  ftronger  than  the 
Firft  Motion. 

Vhtlot.  This  is  a  new  way  of  extrafting 
the  Spirit  of  Happinefs  3  the  Chymiftry  of 
a  Bee  is  nothing  to  it  5  it  fucks  the  Sweety 
without  impoverifliing  the  Flower,     Were 
I  Mafter  of  this  Secret^  I  would  not  concern 
my  felf  about  laying  in  the  ufual  Provifion 
for  Satisfaftion.     No,  I  would  rather  chufe 
to  be  happy  at  the  fecond  hand  5  that  is 
much  the  eafier  way  3  there  the  Gains  come 
in  a-main,  without  any  Venture.     For  In- 
ftance.     I  would  not  trouble  my  felf  about 
getting  an  Eftate;  'twere  only  Loving  a 
Man  dearly  that  has  one  5  and  that  will  do 
as  well.     But  the  Mifchief  is,  at  prefent  I 
am  not  a  Man  of  that  fortunate  Imagina- 

Philal.  The  Pov/er of  Thought  and  Ima- 
gination you  know  is  very  great  3  and 
therefore  'tis  Prudent  to  fet  them  the  right 
way  at  work. 

Philot,  Be  it  fo.     I  (hall  allow  your  Ar- 
gument in  fome  meafure  5    and  make  my 
Advantage  upon  it. 
Philal.  Which  way? 
Philot.  Why,  if  kind  Wifhing  and  Ob- 
liging  are  fuch  entertaining  Adtions ;    If 
they  may  be  carried  np  to  tranfport,  and 


1 70     Of  General  Kindness. 

almoft  fenfualitiy ;  then  your  general  Bene- 
volence is  nothing  but  a  refined  fort  of  Self- 
!ove  5  becaufe  it  afts  upon  a  forefeen  Re- 
ward. I  told  you,  Self,  would  be  at  the 
Bottom  after  AIL 

PUjilal.  So  let  it,  fince  it  has  Company. 
For  let  me  tell  you,  to  be  deJighted  in  the 
Happinefs  of  another,  is  fo  far  from  being 
Mercenary,  that  'tis  an  infallible  Proof  of  a 
natural  and  undiffembled  Goodnefs.  How 
can  we  better  demonftrate  the  reality  of  our 
AfFeftions  to  a  Friend ,  than  by  rejoycing 
at  his  Profperity  >  As  for  the  Pleafure  which 
attends  fo  noble  a  Difpofition,  the  Expe- 
ftation  of  that  is  no  Vicious  Self-defign. 
For  we  are  allowed  to  love  our  Selves,  as 
well  as  our  Neighbour :  So  that  the  prof- 
peft  of  being  pleafed,  does  not  leffen  the 
generofity  of  the  Aftion,  if  bis  Advantage 
was  as  fincerely  fought,  and  delighted  in, 
as  our  own.  Therefore  by  Charity's  not 
feehing  her  omt^  (which  you  know  is  made 
a  part  of  its  Charafter)  is  only  meant,  that 
it  does  not  feek  its  own,  without  a  joynt 
Refpedl:  to  the  Welfare  of  another.  In 
fliort,  I  think  the  Pleafure  of  Congratulati- 
on is  fo  far  from  a  Fault,  that  the  firft  Satis- 
f  a6i:ion  ought  rather  to  Create  a  fecond  5  we 
Ihould be  pleafed  with  our  Pleafure,  becaufe 
it  brings  us  the  good  News,  that  our  Minds 
are  rightly  difpofed. 


Of  General  Kindness,      lyi 

P/jtlot.  I  confefs  I  am  beaten  off  here  5 
but  hope  to  fucceed  better  in  my  next  At- 
tempt.— — 

PhilaL  In  the  mean  time  give  me  leave 
to  obferve.  That  Envy  and  Difquiet  are 
uneafy  Paffions^  they  fret  and  exhauft  the 
Spirits.  The  Mind  is  as  it  were  Sore,  and 
put  to  Pain  at  every  turn  ^  which  is  a  fair 
Intimation,  things  are  not  in  the  Condition 
they  fhould  be. 

Philot.  And  what  help  is  there  for  all  this  > 

PhilaL  A  kind  reconciling  Thought  is 
prefent  R^emedy.  This  Balfamick  Humour 
clofes  the  Wound,  and  fcatters  the  Anguifh. 
Like  the  Motion  of  Reflitutmt^  it  returns 
Nature  to  her  Eafc ,  and  fets  her  in  thePo- 
fture  (he  was  made  far. 

Philot.  I  grant  you,  Benevolence  has  a 
healing  Quality,  and  fits  very  fmooth  at 
firft.  But  as  the  World  goes,  the  Confe- 
quences  of  it  are  more  likely  to  make  us  un- 
happy, than  otherwife. 

-PhilaL  How  fo  ? 

Philot.  If  you  look  Abroad,  you  11  find 
Indigence,  and  Difappointment,  and  Vex- 
ation, much  more  Common  than  Profpe- 
rity.  Now  this  Predominancy  of  Misfor- 
tune lies  very  hard  upon  Benevolence  5  and 
makes  the  kindeft  People  the  greateft  Suffe- 
rers. Their  Companion  rifes  in  proportion 
to  their  Generofity  ^  their  Tendernefs  is  more 


1J1     Of  General  Kindness. 

paffive  5  which  makes  a  Foreign  Calamity 
ftrike  deeper,  and  grow  more  pungent.  Ha- 
ving ftrong  Defires  to  Relieve,  but  fmall 
Abilities  to  EfFeft  it  ^  their  good  Nature  muft 
needs  grow  troublefome,  becaufe  'twill  of- 
ten make  'em  Wifh  thofe  Things,  which 
they  fee  are  impoffible  to  compafs.  But 
others  who  keep  their  Inclinations  at  Home, 
are  not  fo  much  expofed  to  difquiet  ^  be- 
caufe their  Paffions  and  Expeftations  being 
confined  to  their  private  Intereft,  they  are 
concerned  for  no  Misfortune  but  their 

PhiUL  Suppofing  what  you  fay  would 
hold,  it  would  be  no  juft  Difcouragement  to 
Goodnefs^  confidering  how  much  it  will 
be  rewarded  hereafter.  But  becaufe  your 
Objedion  relates  chiefly  to  the  Frefent^  I  (hall 
direfl:  my  Anfwer  againft  that  Senfe  ^  and 
give  it  you  by  Parts. 

I  affirm  therefore.  That  if  a  Man  does 
but  joyn  Confideration  with  his  Benevo- 
lence 5  if  hisUnderftanding  be  good,as  well 
as  his  Will,  his  Affeftion  for  the  common 
Welfare  will  never  hurt  him.     For 

I.  He  will  perceive,  that  the  unhappy 
part  of  the  World  is  not  fo  numerous  as  at 
firfl:  it  appeared.  Thofe  who  are  of  low 
Condition,  tho'  they  may  feem  moft  Defert- 
ed,  are  not  the  worft  provided  for.  Their 
Fortune  is  little,  'tis  true  5  and  fo  generally 


Of  General  Kindness.     173 

are  their  Defires  ^  which  makes  them  want 
as  few  things  as  thofe  whofe  Poffeffions  are 
larger.  They  have  the  Pleafure  of  their 
Senfes  as  well  as  others  5  and  what  is  deny- 
ed  in  Variety ,  is  fupplied  by  Labour  5 
which  fharpens  the  Appetite,  and  ftreng- 
thens  the  Conftitution. 

2.  As  for  thofe  who  are  real  Objefts  of 
Compaffion,  the  old  Maxim  will  in  great 
meafure  relieve  them 5  Dolor ^  //gravis  hre- 
vis  ji  longus  hvk.  At  the  worft,  Life  and 
Mifery  will  be  difpatched  eer  long  5  and 
then,  if  they  deferve  it,  they  are  Happy  5 
as  Happy  as  Goodnefs  can  wifh. 

:5.  Commiferation  has  a  mixture  of  Satis- 
faftion,  as  well  as  Trouble  in  it.  By  this  a 
Man  is  Confcious  he  does  the  Office  of  a 
Friend  5  that  he  is  of  a  generous  and  hu- 
mane Difpofition.  Thefe  Thoughts  make 
the  Pleafure  of  the  Sympathy  equalize  the 
Trouble  5  if  the  Perfon  be  not  very  near, 
or  the  Calamity  very  great,  which  we  are 
concern  d  for. 

Fhilot.  There  is  fomething  in  what  you 
fay  ^  for  I  have  obferv'd,  that  Women  will 
Weep  and  Condole  with  abundance  of 
Tendernefs  and  AfFeftion :  I  believe  they 
are  pleafed  with  the  Pomp  and  Paffion  of 
their  Sorrow  5  and  think  themfelves  the  bed 
NaturM  People  in  the  World  for't. 


1 74-     Of  General  Kindness. 

Philal.  We  (hould  interpret  all  Signs  of 
good  Nature  in  the  faireftSenfe.  But  I  fhall 
proceed,  and  obferve  : 

4.  A  wife  Well-wifher  will  confider, 
there  is  a  neceffity  of  Difcipline^  both  to 
fecure  the  Orderly  and  reclaim  the  Evil. 
Goals  and  Gibbets  are  as  ufefal  in  a  State, 
as  great  Places,  and  Patents  of  Honour. 
Where  Goodnefs  is  mutable,  and  Reafon 
unabfolute,  there  muft  be  Pv.igour  to  fence 
in  Duty  ^  and  check  the  Abufe  of  Liberty. 
As  things  (land,  'tis  not  conceiveable  how 
Providence  can  Govern  without  Punifhing. 
Upon  this  Contemplation,  a  good  Man  will 
no  more  be  difturbed  at  the  Methods  of 
Correftion,  than  by  feeing  his  Friend  take 
unpalatable  Phyfick^  which  he  knows  to 
be  proper  for  his  Health.  And  as  for  thofe 
who  are  loft  beyond  Recovery,  tho'  he 
wifhes  'twere  otherwife,  yet  their  Obftina- 
cy  does  not  fo  deeply  AfFeft  him  as  to  make 
him  uneafy. 

Philot.  Is  not  fuch  aSedatenefs,  a  Sign  of 
Ncgleft,  and  Stoical  Indifference  ? 

PhilaL  Not  at  all.  The  Saints  above 
are  not  affiifted  at  the  Punifhment  of  the 
damned  5  and  yet  they  have  Charity  in 
Perfcftion:  But  your  Objeftion  runs  into 
an  abfurd  Inference.  It  Dilutes  theHappi- 
nefs  of  the  other  World  5  and  gives  H@1I  an 
Influence  upon  Heaven. 


Of  General  Kindness.      175 

Philot.  I  have  nothing  farther  to  objeft^ 
and  therefore  mnft  be  yourProfelyte:  But  if 
you  have  any  more  to  fay,  let's  hear  it  5 
for  a  Man  can  never  be  too  well  fortified 
againft  Cuftom 

Phjldl.  Yes.  General  Kindmfs  may  be  re- 
commended from  the  Noblenefs  of  fuch  a 
Temper.    It  fprings  from  a  generous  Root  5 
and  fpreads  and  Hourithes  upon  the  beft 
Nourilhment  imaginable.     There's  nothing 
in  it  that  is  Mercenary  or  Fantaftical.     Tis 
not  fupported  by  Chance  or  Humour  5  by 
Flattery  or  Defign :  It  (lands  upon  its  own 
independant  Strength  x,  and  holds  on  through 
all  Oppofition.   Tis  above  Difcouragement 
and  ill  Ufage^  and  not  fo  much  as  checked 
into  IndifFerency,  by  frequent  Injury  and 
Provocation.     I  need  fay  no  more  for  this 
Virtue  than  that  'tis  the  Temper  of  God. 
This  Truth  I  fliall  take  for  granted.    In- 
deed the  Univerfe  proves  it  5  all  the  Powers 
and  Delights  of  Nature  are  ftanding  Evi- 
dence:   If  Omnipotence    were    in   other 
Hanis  thanGoodnefs,  v/e  fhould  feel  terri- 
ble Effefts  on't.     Now  to  refemble  God,  is 
the  Perfediion  of  Virtue  ^  'tis  doing  the 
wifeft,  and  the  Greateft  Aftion  in  its'^Kind. 
To  mention  but  one  Advantage^  We  can*c 
recommend  our  felves  more  cffeftually  to 
God  Almighty,  than  by  delighting  in  the 
fame  Aftions  which  he  does.     Lovt  natii- 


1 76       Of  Genera]  Kindness. 

rally  arifes  from  Likenefs  of  Difpofition. 
Our  Imitation  of  Another,  is  an  unquefti- 
oned  Proof  that  we  value  his  Perfon,  and 
admire  his  Choice  3  which  lays  a  kind  of 
an  Obligation  for  a  Return.  SuchaConfent 
of  Wills,  fuch  an  Uniformity  of  Defires, 
does  as  it  were  incorporate  diftinft  Effences  5 
and  makes  us  almoft  the  fame  thing  with 
another  5  fo  that  as  long  as  he  has  a  Re- 
gard for  himfelf,  he  muft  have  one  for  us 
too.  By  being  of  the  fame  Temper  with 
God  Almighty,  we  do  as  it  were,  engage 
his  Inclinations  to  make  us  Happy.  While 
we  are  thus  aflfefted,  he  can  no  more  be  un- 
concerned about  our  Welfare,  than  he  can 
deny  himfelf  5  or  put  a  negleft  upon  his 
own  Attributes. 

P/jiloL  You  may  pleafe  to  hold  your 
hand.  For  I  am  fo  far  convinced,  That 
unlefs  I  am  Kind  to  others,  I  (hall  now  be 
forced  to  fall  out  with  my  felf. 

PhilaL  May  the  Impreffion  continue. 

Vhilot.  I  hope  recollefting  the  Reafons^ 
will  make  it  do  fo. 

Your  Servant 




O  F    A 


Enquir'd  intOj  &c. 



t  O    T  H  E 

A%-  JL-/  ljL 

IS  fowc  Tears  flnce  the  VMication  of 
thk  [mail  Treatjfe  '^  I  am  full  con-- 
vinced^  the  Inter  eft  of  Religion  is  not 
a  little  cmrernd  in  the  Enquiry.  The  OfEce 
lies  among  Perftis  who  have  a  great  Force  upon 
Chjiom  and  Practice  :  and  where  the  Motion 
IS  (irong^  the  Dire^ion  fwftld  be  well  fecured. 
*Tk  true^  Milton  treats  the  Argument^  as  he 
does  the  King^  with  great  Contempt  :  But  to 
be  i Unfed  byfuch  a  Hand^  and  in  fuch  Compa" 
^/,  is  rather  an  Honour  than  otherwife.  The 
Scripture  (fays  this  Man)  owns  no  fuch  Or- 
der-^  and  therefore  they  muft  be  left  to  the 
Examination  the  Sons  of  Sceva  met  with. 
Bifhops  or  Presbyters  we  know,  and  Dea- 
cons we  know,  but  what  are  Chaplains  > 
(Eiconocl.  p.  163,  J  He  might  have  anfiver- 
ed  in  his  own  Words ^  C  p.  164.  J)  That  they 
were  Houfiiold-Priefts  ^  and  given  an  In^ 
fiance  from  the  Old  Teflament.  For  there  we 
find^  that  Micah  entertain  d  a  Levite  wi'h 
Salary  and  Diet  5  and  after  all  told  him ^  He 
fhoiild  be  a  Father,  and  a  Prieil  to  him. 
CJ^^dg,  I  J.  10,  J     Itfeems^  he  did  not  think 

N  2  ht 

1 80  To  the  Reader. 

he  had  hired  a  Servant  with  hk  ten  Shekels, 
As  for  the  Heathen^  they  had  a  Modejler  Senfe 
ofReligio/^y  than  to  rob  their  Gods  of  their 
Minifters  -^  and  make  them  their  own.  The 
Roman  Emperonrs  were  Priejls  themfelves  ^ 
but  had  none  Belong  to  them  till  they  were 
Deady  and  Deifyed,  Towards  the  Declenjfon 
ofPhilofophy^  now  and  then  a  grave  VretGii- 
der  was  drawn  ojfhy  the  Steams  of  the  Kitch- 
in.  Lucian  ridicules  thefe  Men  for  their  Lit- 
tle Compliances,  One  of  them  itfeems  made  his 
Court  to  the  Lap-dog,  to  improve  his  Inter eji 
with  the  Lady.  But  an  envious  Foot-man 
happening  tofmoak  the  matter^  broke  ajejl  up- 
on the  Favourite^  and  the  Philojopher,  and 
fpoiVd  All.  But  thefc  Sages  dont  comeftriS- 
ly  within  the  ^ejiion.  They  ivere  only  Secu- 
lars 3  and  entertain  d  upon  the  Score  of  Learn- 
ings not  Religion. 

In  the  Churchy  the  Bufinefs  of  a  Chaplain 
feems  not  of  the  higheft  Antiquity.  In  the  fir fl 
Ages^  the  Clergy  were  fupported  by  their  Bi- 
Jhop  3  and  generally  lived  under  his  Obfervati^ 
on.  (Can.  Apoft.  )  And  afterwards  when 
they  removed  from  the  Mother  Church,  They 
had  Titles,  7,  e.  Cures  afjtgned  them  3  much 
larger  than  fimle  Families.  The  flrfl  Chap- 
lain I  meet  with,  was  one  Majorinus  ^  a  very 
unfortunate  Perfon.  He  lived  in  the  Reign  of 
Dioclefian  :  And  n?^ Ordained  by  the  Dona- 
tifts,  for  the  See  ^/Cartilage  5  againji  the  Ca- 


To  the  Reader.  18 1 

tholick  Bipop  Caecilian.  He  wasfet  tip  and 
Countenanced  by  his  Patronefs  Lucilla,  a  high 
Spirited  Lady  5  who  refnfed  Communion  with 
C^cilian,  for  being  Reproved  by  Him  when  he 
was  Arch'deacon.  (  Optat.  Lib.  i.  cont.  Par- 
men. )  However^  by  the  Story ^  Majorinus 
might  be  no  more  than  a  Reader  in  the  Fami- 
ly  5  who  in  the  Cujlom  ofthofe  Times^  was  lefs 
than  a  Sub-deacon, 

The  wrong  Z)fe  the  Rich  Laity  might  make 
of  the  Indigence  or  Ambition  ofthefe  Houjhold 
Clergy^  was  Ifuppofe,  the  Reafon  why  the  Se- 
cond  Council  of  Orange  (Can.  9.  held  Ann. 
535. )  allowed  no  Priefi  to  Re  fide  with  Secular 
Perfons^  without  the  BiJIwfs  Leave. 

Dr.  Heylin  Reports  (  Cypr.  Ang.  ) 
*^  That  Bijhop  Laud  ohferved^  the  Interefi  of 
*'  the  Church  prejudiced  by  the  great  Increafc  of 
"  Chaplains  in  the  Houfes  of  private  Gentle- 
*'  men.  To  prevent  this  Inco??venience^  andfome 
others^  King  Charles  the  Firft  publified  hk 
Inftruftions  to  Archbijloop  Abbot,  An.  1629. 
containingOrd^rs  to  be  executed  by  theBiJ/jops 
in  the  Province  of  Canterbury.  The  In- 
ftruftions were  comprehended  in  ten  Articles, 
Thefeventh  enjoyns^  That  the  Bilhops  fufFer 
none  under  Noble-men,  and  Men  Qualified 
by  Law,  to  have  any  private  Chaplain  in 
his  Houfe. 

/  ha7je  mentioned  thefe  Injiances^  to  ft)ew 
the  Difficulty  of  the  Office,  'fk  a  nice  TJnder- 

N  3  taking^ 

1 8^  To  the  Reader. 

taking  •  and  requires  a  more  than  ordinary 
Sufficiency,  And  therefore  anUnexperiencedy 
jJnballajlcd  Divine^  muff  he  an  improper  Miff 
fionary,  'Twere  well  if  he  nnderfioo.i  Some^ 
thing  of  Men  and  Things  5  if  he  was  fiirnijh- 
ed  both  with  Matter  and  Form  ^  and  rather 
Brought  hk  Education  ,  than  deceived  it. 
For  a  Difadvantage  in  the  Beginning  of  Buff-- 
nefs^  k  not  eaffly  overcome.  There  Jhould  be 
Vigilance  in  Converfation ,  a  Sweet nefs  of 
Temper^  anTJnaffe^ed  Piety ^  and  a  noble  Con- 
tempt of  Interefi.  And  ffnce  the  Clergy  thus 
engaged^  are  more  Numerous  than  formerly^ 
they  ffould  manage  with  the  greater  Care. 
For  when  the  Priejihood  k  mifunderfiood^  Re- 
ligion muff  decline  ofCourfe,  And  when  Re- 
ligion k  gone^  we  have  loji  the  befi  Support  of 
thk  Life^  as  well  as  the  other.  This  Reafon- 
ing  muff  be  allowed^  by  thofe  who  are  not  funk 
below  the  Do&rines  of  Providence.  Indeed^  if 
a  Man  fits  up  for  a  Sceptick,  I  dont  expeB 
the  Argument  Jhould  Reli(l)  :  But  the  Opinion 
of  fitch  Judges  k  neither  Credit^  nor  Misfor- 
tune. With  thefe  People^  a  Jefi  paffes  for  a  De- 
^onffration  ^  and  to  Laugh^  and  Confute  k 
thefameThing.  It  feems^  Truth  and Falffoad^ 
depends  upon  their  good  Liking  :  And  they 
have  the  peculiar  Privilege  of  Wijbing  Things 
in ,  or  out  of  Being ,  at  Pleafure.  Who 
ippould  expe3  fuch  Flights  of  Conceit  from  fo 
^umbk  Pretences  f  For  an  Atheiff^  if  you  will 


To  the  Reader.  l^ 

take  hk  Word,  for  It    is  a  very  defpicahle  Mor- 
tal.    Let  us  Defcrihe  him  by  hk  Tenents, 
and  Copy  him  a  little  from  his  own  Original. 
He  is  then  no  better  than  a  Heap  of  Organized 
Dnfi^  a  fialking  Machine  *j  ^  Speaking  Head 
without   a  Soul  in  it.      His    Thoughts    are 
hound  up  by  the  Laves  ^fMotion  ^  his  AUions 
are  all  prescribed.     He  has  no  more  Liberty 
than  the  Current  of  a  Stream  5  or  the  Blafi^  of 
a  Tempeji.     And  where  there   is  no  Choice^ 
there  can  he  no  Merit.      The  Creed   of  an 
Atheift  is  a  degrading  Syjlem  ^  a  moft  mortify- 
ing  Perfwajion.      No  Advantages  can  make 
him  Shine  :  He  firikes  himfelfout  of  all  CI  aim 
to  Regard:  And  has  no  Alliance  to   any   ho' 
nourable  DiJiinSion.     He  is  the  Off-fpring  of 
Chance  5  the  Slave  of  Neceflity  5  danced  by 
foreign  Impulfes  no  lefs  than  a  Puppet :  Igno- 
ble in  his  Defcent  5  Little  in  Life  5  and  No- 
thing at  the  End  ont.     Atheifm,  the  Refult 
of  Ignorance  and  Pride  :^  of  firong  Senfes,  and 
feeble  Reafon  5  of  Good  Eating,  and  III  Liv- 
ing!   Atheifm,  the  F I  ague  of  Society  5    the 
Corrupter  ^/Manners 5  and  the  Underminer 
^/Property  !  What  can  the  Raillery^  the  Re- 
proaches, the  fupercilious  Cenfures  of  this  Seft 
fignifie  ^  Whyjloould  they  be  raifed  above  their 
Principle  ^  and  rated  higher  than  their  own 
Valuation  /  They  are  below  all  Con f  deration^ 
txcept  that  of  Pity  oiul  Prayers  5  and  thefe  I 
heartily  f^ive  them. 

N  4  // 


To  the  Reader 

IfthePUinnefs  ^fwhat  VoWows  difgufif 
the  fober  Reader^  I  amforry  for  it.  'Tis  a 
Circumfiance  vohich  could  not  he  declined^ 
vpithoiit  Prejudice  to  the  Subjed.  The  over- 
fmoothnefs  of  an  Argument^  is  apt  to  abate  the 
Force,  You  miifk  give  it  a  Pointy  to  mahe 
npay  for  Pajfage,  Pleafure  cannot  always  be 
made  the  Vehicle  of  Health.  And  when  the 
Cafe  Requires  it^  no  Man  blames  the  DoSor  for 
preferring  the  Cure  to  the  Palate.  Befides^ 
the  bare  mention  offome  P radices  is  enough  to 
Expqfe  them.  And  when  things  are  a  Satyr 
upon  themf elves ^  who  can  help  it  .<?  The  Defor- 
mity lies  in  the  Monjler  ^  not  in  him  that 
fjows  it. 

I  am  far  from  defiring  a  Deprejjion  of  the 
Laity  3  or  abetting  any  Spiritual  Ufurpation. 
Honour  and  Civil  Pretences^    are  not  Held  at 
the  Will  (?/^&  Church  3  and  therefore^  She 
Jl)ould  not  feize  without  Warrant.     To  make 
Orders  a  Patent  for  Pride^  and  a  Privilege 
for  Misbehaviour^  is  much  more  than  runs  in 
the  Commiffion.     /  am  pleading  for  no  Cyni- 
cal Neglect  5  no  illfupported  Forwardnefs  ;  no 
Brisk nefs  above  Mens  Bufinefs^  or  their  Ta- 
lent.      But   then  I  hope^  'tis  no  Harm  for 
Church-men  to  maintain  their  Liberty  5  and 
keep  the  Property  of  their  P  erf  on  s  tothemfelves^ 
Efpecially  fince  they  live  amongjl  a  Free  Peo- 
ple 5  and  have  fo  good  Evidence  for  their  Title, 
Farther^  There  is  no  Fear  of  Levelling  from 


To  the  Reader. 

this  Enquiry.  For  Independertcy  does  notfup- 
pofe  Eqtidity  :  Freedom  and  Degrees  are  well 
enough  Confident. 

To  prevent  all  MifconJlrnSion.  I  willingly 
grant  it  no  Disadvantage  to  a  Gentleman  to 
Belong  to  a  Perfon  of  ^tality  5  provided  his 
Employment  he  Secular.  But  the  FtmSion. 
ofanEcclefiaflick,  requires  anotherKdmon, 





O  F    A 


Enquir'd  into,  &^c» 

JVvend  obferves,  Sat,  7.  that  the  Pra-p 
dice  of  the  Lawyers  in  his  time,  wa$ 
ufually  proportioned  to  the  Figure 
they  made  at  the  Bar  ^  where  he  that 
appeared  in  the  beft  Equipa,8;e,  was  fup- 
pofed  to  have  the  greateft  (hare  of  Law 
and  Senfe  in  him :  So  that  had  the  Vulgar 
had  any  Power  in  determining  Right,  a 
good  Caufe  might  oftentimes  have  been 
loft,  for  want  of  fine  Cloaths  to  plead  it  in. 
Whether  any  part  of  this  Vanity  prevails 
v^ith  us,  I  (hall  not  difpute^  however,  this 
Inference  may  be  fairly  allowed.  That  the 
Succefs  of  Truth  depends  very  much  upon 
the  Reputation  of  its  Advocate.  For  the 
Generality  often  ftick  in  the  furface  of 
Things  5  and  are  more  affefted  with  Appear- 
ance than  Pveality.  They  want  either  Force 


i88        The  OFFICE  of 

or  Inclination,    to  go  the  Bottom  5  and 
try  the  Merits  ^  So  that  when  a  Man  is 
Maimed  in  his  Credit,  or  burlefqu  d  in  his 
Office,  he  muft  not  expeft  to  do  any  great 
Execution.    The  Audience  muft  be  pre- 
pared no  Icfs  than  the  Oratory  forReafons, 
without  a  Difpofition  to  receive  them,  fig- 
nify  not  much  :  Where  the  Affent  is  barr  d 
up  with  Prejudice,  the  weight  of  the  Mat- 
ter, and  the  Addrefs  of  the  Management, 
are  fcarcely  felt.    For  Perfwafivenefs  is  the 
EfFed  of  Efteem,  and  right  underftanding. 
It  goes  againft  the  Grain,  for  Men  to  learn 
Condudt  from  thofe  they  Contemn  5  Tis  a 
Contradiftion  of  their  own  Cenfure,   and 
fets  the  defpifed  Perfon  in  fome  meafure, 
above  theai.     Befides,   Intelligence  from 
fuch  a  Quarter,  is  often  thought  imprafti- 
cable  5  as  well  as  unpleafant :  For  'tis  gene- 
rally prefumed,  that  Difcourfes  cannot  rife 
much  above  the  Pitch  of  thofe  that  make 
them  5  and  that  'tis  fcarce  poffible,  for  an 
inconiiderable  Man  to  talk  to  the  purpofe. 
To  entertain  a  contemptible  Opinion  of  any 
Perfon,  cramps  his  Power  5  and  difables  his 
Friendlhip  5  and  puts  him  under  a  mighty 
difadvantageof  doing  any  Good.  Little  No- 
tions, and  unfavourable  PrepoffefIions,give 
an  ill  Tindure  to  the  Judgment  ^  and  a  wrong 
Turn  to  the  Scale;  They  keep  Men  from 
feeing  Things  in  their  true  Colours  5  and  al- 

aCHAPLAIN,  tc     189 

lowing  them  their  proper  weight :  And  thus 
good  Argumenrs,  and  ferviceable  Advice, 
are  often  turned  back,  for  want  of  Charac- 
ter and  Recommendation. 

This  Confideration  puts  ill  Men  upon 
their  Guard  5  They  fee  the  Truth  of  the 
Remark:  and  provide  againft  the  Confe- 
quence.  They  make  it  their  Bufinefs  to 
Mifreprefent  the  Minifters  of  Religion  5  to 
deprefs  their  Authority  ^  and  decry  the 
Ufefulnefs  of  their  Profeffion.  And  when 
their  Adverfaries,  as  they  count  them,  are 
difarmed  of  their  Reputation,  the  Point  is 
gained  ^  and  the  Difturbance  at  an  End, 
From  henceforward  'tis  to  be  hoped.  They 
may  have  Pleafare  without  Reftraint  5  and 
Vice  without  Infamy. 

For  this  purpofe,  They  would  fain  per- 
fwade  the  World,  That  the  Clergy  gain 
no  Creditable  Addition  by  their  Office  5 
That  they  are  rather  Diftinguiflied  for 
Difadvantage  than  Regard.  By  this  wife 
Reafoning,  Learning  fhould  be  a  Crime  5 
and  Priefthood  a  Punifliment :  And  if  fo, 
Thofe  who  have  it,  ought  to  forfeit  the 
Privileges  of  Birth  and  Education  5  or  at 
lead: ,  not  enjoy  them  without  Abate- 

Now,  that  there  are  fome  Perfons,  and 
thofe  not  all  of  the  lowed  Rank,  who  feem 
to  be  of  this  unreafonable  Opinion,  is  too 

' 9Q      T^be  OFFICE  of 

apparent  5  and  therefore  I  (hall  defire  thern 
to  confidcr,  That  thofe  who  accounr  the* 
Priefthood  a  lelTening  of  a  Man's  Quality, 
muft  either  believe  all  Religion  to  be  an 
Impofture  5  or  if  they  do  own  the  Being 
of  a  God,  their  Apprehenfion  of  him  is  fo 
Scandalous  and  Unworthy,  that  I  think  it 
would  be  a  kindnefs  to  them,  to  fuppofe 
them  Atheifts:  For  'tis  not  fo  monftrous 
and  provoking,  to  deny  the  Exiftence  of  a 
Deity,  as  to  fuppofe  him  void  of  Excellen- 
cy and  Perfection :  To  imagine  him  to  be 
fo  far  from  being  the  Fountain  of  Honour, 
that  he  is  rather  to  be  accounted  a  difcre- 
ditto  thofe  who  belong  to  him  ^  and  that 
a  Perfon  of  Condition  ought  to  be  afham*d 
of  his  Service  :  Such  a  Notion  of  God  Al- 
mighty as  this,  befides  the  Abfurdity  of  it, 
looks  like  a  malicious  Acknowledgment  of 
his  Being  5  only  to  make  him  capable  of 

But  befides  that  the  Funftion  of  the 
Clergy  in  general,  is  too  often  mifunder- 
ftood^  (which  in  fuch  a  fceptical  and  licen- 
tious Age,  we  need  not  wonder  at)  Thofe 
who  Officiate  in  private  Houfes  lie  under 
particular  Difadvantages:  Here  the  Mafter 
of  the  Family  ufually  expefts  an  extraordi- 
nary Obfervance  from  the  Prieft^  and  re- 
turns him  lefs  notice  in  exchange,  than  to 
©thers  of  the  fame  Order  and  Condition. 


jCHAPLAIN,(^r.      191 

Now  one  would  think  in  point  of  Reafon 
that  an  Ecclefiaftical  (  as  well  as  a  Civil  or 
Military)  Officer,  fliould  be  more  confi- 
der*d  within  the  limits  and  extent  of  his 
Employ,  than  elfewhere^  both  upon  the 
account  of  the  Jurifdiftion  he  hath  there  5 
and  becaufe  of  the  Advantage  thofe  he  is 
concerned  with,  do  or  may  receive  from  the 
execution  of  his  Office. 

Now  the  reafon  of  this  unaccountable 
Praftice,  muft  be  refolved  into  one  or  both 
of  thefe  Pretences  3  either 

1.  That  a  Clergy -man  officiating  in  a 
Family,  ought  to  be  entertain'd  no  other- 
wife  than  under  the  Notion  of  a  Servant : 

2.  Becaufe  'tis  in  the  Patron's  Power 
to  oblige  the  Prieft  with  Church-Prefer- 

It  will  be  therefore  the  Defign  of  thefe 
Papers  to  ftiew, 

1.  That  a  Prieft  or  Chaplain  in  a  Family, 
is  no  Servant. 

2.  That  whatever  fair  Expefl-aticns  the 
Patron  may  have  given  the  Prieft  of  future 
Advantage,  thofe  are  no  fufficient  Grounds 
to  juftify  an  imperious  Deportment  on  the 
one  hand  5  or  a  fervile  Submiffion  on  the 

I.  I  ftiall  prove,  That  a  Prieft,  or  Chap- 
lain in  a    Family,  isnoServant^  the  con- 

192      The  OFFICE  of 

trary  of  which  I  believe  he  is  often  thought 
to  be  5  though  'tis  not  always  fpoken  out* 
Now  in  order  to  the  removing  thisMiftake, 
I  (hall  in  the 

Firft  place,  Anfwer  thofe  Objeftions, 
which  feem  to  have  given  the  moft  probable 
Occafion  of  its  Rife. 

Secondly,  I  (hall  give  a  fhort  Defcription 
of  the  Office  of  a  Chaplain  5  and  (hew  how 
much  it  differs  from  that  of  a  Servant. 

I.  I  fliall  Anfwer  thofe  objeftions,  which 
have  given  the  moft  probable  Occafion  to 
this  Miftake  5  among  which  we  may  reckon 
the  Prieft's  being  entertained  with  Diet. 

But  that  eating  at  anothers  Table,  does 
not  make  a  Man  a  Servant,  is  plain  5  for  if 
it  did,  then  every  one  that  vifits  his  Friend, 
if  he  happens  to  Eat  or  Drink  without  pay- 
ing for  it,  muft  immediately  forfeit  his  Li* 
berty.  If  it  be  faid.  That  'tis  not  Eating 
now  and  then  upon  a  Vifit,  which  brings 
a  Man  into  the  Condition  of  a  Servant  5 
but  doing  it  conftantly  ^  and  with  the  fame 
Perfon :  To  this  I  anfwer.  That  if  Eating 
by  the  Year,  makes  a  Man  Servant  for  a 
Year,  then  Eating  by  the  Day,  muft  make 
him  a  Servant  for  that  Day  ^  the  only  dif- 
ference in  this  Cafe  is,  that  the  one  who  eats 
but  a  Meal  or  two,  comes  into  his  Liberty 
fooner  than  the  other. 


But  poffibly,  'tis  the  Priefts  contrafting 
for  Diet,  which  makes  him  miflaken  for  a 
Servant  to  him  that  affords  it-  and  here 'tis 
fuppofed  to  come  under  the  Notion  of  Wa- 
ges ^  becaufe  the  Prieft  is  to  do  fomething 
for  it.  Now  becaufe  a  Confideration  of 
this  nature,  whether  it  be  received  in  Mo- 
ney or  Diet,  or  both,  is  the  fame  things 
I  (hall  prove  that  a  Man's-  Receiving  Mo- 
ney in  confideration  of  beftowing  his 
Time  and  Pains  upon  another,  does  not 
make  him  a  Servant  to  him  that  returns 
him  a  Recompence  for  his  Trouble.  For 
example.  Lawyers  and  Phyficians  have 
their  Fees  5  or  their  Wages,  if  you  pleafe^ 
and  yet  I  fuppofe  none  will  fay,  that  they 
are  Servants  to  all  their  Clients  and  Patients 
that  imploythem;  and  if  not  to  aill,  then 
for  the  fame  Reafon  not  to  any;  The 
Judges  have  a  Fee  for  every  Caufe  which 
is  tryed  at  the  Nifi prius  Bar^  and  a  Juftice 
of  Peace  hath  Money  allowed  him  for  mak- 
ing a  Warranty  which  both  of  them  may 
teceive  without  forfeiting  their  Authority. 
The  Houfe  of  Commons  likewife,  have 
Penfions  from  their  Eleftors,  during  the 
Seffion  of  Parliament^  I  confefs,  'tis  not 
ufually  paid  now  5  but  if  they  did  receive 
it,  as  formerly  they  have  done,  I  hope  no 
one  would  fay,  a  Knight  of  a  Shire  was  Ser- 
vant to  21  Man  of  Forty  Shillings /7cr  J«- 

0  n^m. 

19+        The  OFFICE  of 

num^  becaufe  he  contributed  fomething  to- 
wards his  Maintenance.  In  all  thefe  Cafes, 
a  Man  is  engaged  in  the  Bufinefs  of  others  3 
and  receives  a  Confideration  for  his  Em- 
ployment 5  and  yet  hath  no  Keafon  to  bt^ 
accounted  a  Servant  for  his  Pains. 

If  it  be  faid  that  in  moft  of  thefe  Inftan- 
ces,  the  Salaries  are  affignM  by  Law  5  and 
confequently,  that  there  is  no  Contraft  be- 
tween him  that  receives,  and  him  that 
gives  the  Confideration^  I  anfwer,  that 
there  is  a  vertual,  though  not  an  exprefs 
Contraft^  becaufe  the  People  have  agreed, 
to  Confent  to  whatever  their  Reprefenta- 
tives  (hall  determine. 

ily.  As  to  the  Cafe  of  the  Lawyers, 
though  their  Fees  are  ftated  by  Law,  yet 
every  one  chufes  whom  he  will  make  ufe  of  5 
io  that  the  voluntary  retaining  any  one,  is 
no  lefs  than  a  plain  Contrafl: ;  and  the  giv- 
ing him  fo  much  Money,  upon  condition 
t!]at  he  will  Plead  for  him. 

5;//y,  'Tis  not  the  Contrafting  for  Mony 
in  iieu  of  fome  other  Exchange,  whicli 
makes  a  Man  a  Servant;  for  then  every 
one  that  fells  for  Money  would  be  a 
StDrvant  to  the  Buyer  5  and  confequently, 
a  Pedlar  might  make  himfelf  a  Mafter 
of  the  beft  Merchant  in  London^  if  he 
fhould  happen  to  be  fo  Ambitious  as  to 
be  his  Cuftomer :  And  v/hich  is  moft  to 


^CHAPLAIN,  fyc.     195 

be  lamented,  if  a  Man  tould  not  by  way  of 
Contraft  receive  Mony  with  one  Hand, 
without  parting  with  his  Liberty  with  the 
other,  then  the  Landlord  muft  be  a  Ser- 
vant to  the  Tenant,  for  the  bare  contra- 
fting  for  Rent,  though  he  never  received 
a  Penny,  is  enough  to  bring  him  Under; 
fo  that  according  to  this  Opinion,  a  Man 
cannot  Let  his  Farm,  without  Demifing 
and  Granting  away  himfelf. 

But  further.  That  the  entertaining  the 
Clergy  with  Diet  and  Salary,  is  no  Argu- 
ment of  their  Subjeftion,  will  appear,  if  we 
confider  that  we  are  bourid  to  contribute 
towards  the  Support  of  our  Parents  if  they 
ftand  in  need  of  it  5  and  yet  I  fuppofc  it 
does  not  follow.  That  this  makes  us  their 
Superiours:  Tisfofar  from  it,  that  our  af- 
Cfting  them,  is  accounted  part  of  that  Ho- 
nour which  the  Fifth  Commandment  en- 
joyns  us  to  pay  them;^  and  is  fo  interpret- 
ed by  our  Saviour  himfelf,  St.  Mattlmv,  150 
4,  5,  6.  The  communication  therefore 
of  part  of  our  Wealth,  to  the  Clergy  Of- 
ficiating in  our  Houfes,  is  in  reafon,  no- 
thing but  a  due  Refpeft  to  their  Fnnftion, 
and  a  grateful  Acknowledgment  of  their 
Care:  What  the  Prieft  receives  from  us,  is 
in  effeft  offered  to  God  Almighty  5  becaufe 
'tis  given  upon  the  account  of  the  Relation^ 
he  hath  to  him  3  and  the  Advantages  we  rc- 

O  2  eeive 

196        The  0¥V\CE  of 

ceive  from  thence.  This  is  honouring  God 
with  our  Subjlancc'^  who  in  regard  he  fkands 
in  need  of  nothing  himfelf,  hath  ordered 
thofe  Perfons  (whom  he  hath  fct  a  part  to 
keep  up  his  Service  and  Worfliip)  to  receive 
what  Men  prefent  to  him,  in  token  of  his 
Sovereignty  and  Providence.  Thus  what 
was  offered  to  God  under  the  Old  Tefta- 
ment  (except  what  was  fpent  in  Sacrifi- 
cing) was  the  Prieft's  Portion,  affign  d  by 
the  Divine  Appointment,  Numb.  18.  8,  9. 
and  in  the  20th,  Verfe  of  that  Chapter,  the 
Reafon  why  the  Tribe  of  Levi  was  to  have 
no  Inheritance  in  the  Land  wliich  was  to 
be  divided,  is  given,  Becaufe  God  promi- 
fed  to  be  their  Inheritance  5  that  is,  to  give 
them  thofe  Offerings  which  were  made  to 
him:  And  that  this  was  a  very  liberal  Af- 
fignment  ^  and  much  exceeded  the  Provi- 
fion  which  was  made  for  the  reft  of  the 
Tribes,  might  eafily  be  made  good,  were  it 
not  Foreign  to  the  prefent  Argument. 

There  are  many  other  places  in  the  Old 
Teftament,  which  may  be  alledg'd  for  the 
Confirmation  of  this  Truth,  asZ)e///.  18.  2. 
Jofl).  15.  14.  E'Lck.  44.  28,  dv.  And  that 
this  Praftice  did  not  depend  upon  any  Ce- 
femonial  Conftitution^  but  was  founded  in 
the  unalterable  reafon  of  things,will  appear 
if  we  look  into  the  New  Teftament  5  where 
Se,  Paul  tells  us,  that  God  has  ordained 


aCUAVLAl^.^c.      197 

t/jat  thofe  that  the  Go/pel  (which  every 
Priefl:  docs  who  reads  the  New  Teftaraent) 
//joM  live  of  the  Gofpel,  I  Cor.  9.  1 4.  Our 
Spiritual  Cover nours  are  Mimflers  of  God 
to  us,  as  well  as  our  Temporal,  Rom.  15.  4, 
and  therefore  the  Apoftle's  Inference,  v.  6. 
may  in  a  qualified  fenfe  at  leaft,  be  applied 
to  them,  For  this  Canfe  pa^  yoti  Tribute  alfo. 
And  that  the  fame  Apoftle  did  not  believe, 
that  a  Confideration  of  this  Nature  ought 
to  fubjeft  the  Clergy  to  Diftance  and  Sub- 
miflive  Behaviour,  is  beyond  queftion  5  for 
he  plainly  tells  the  Corinthians^  i  Cor.  9.  11. 
If  we  have  f own  unto  yon  Spiritual  things^  is 
it  a  great  things  if  we  Jl)all  reap  your  Carnal 
Things^  It  feems,  he  did  not  believe  this 
Favour  fo  extraordinary  5  or  to  have  any 
fuch  commanding  Quality  in  it,  as  to 
make  him  their  Servant  or  Dependant,  if 
he  had  received  it.  Nay  he  tells  them,  that 
he  had  power  to  eat  and  to  drink  5  that  is, 
God  had  given  him  a  Right  to  a  competent 
Maintenance  out  of  the  Eftates  of  thofe  he 
inftrufted  -^  which  without  queftion,  where 
the  Circumftances  of  the  Perfon  will  Per* 
mit,  ought  to  be  proportioned  with  refpeft 
to  the  Perfon  Reprefented  5  and  to  the  Na- 
ture and  Quality  of  the  Employ,  Tis  plain 
therefore,  that  the  Apoftle  thought,  that 
if  Ood's  Minifters  lived  out  of  the  Fortunes 
©f  their  Charge,    yet  they   were  not  fo 

O  ?  mightily 

198      The  OFFICE  of 

mightily  indebted  beyond  a  Poflibility  of 
Requital  5  but  that  the  Obligation  was  full 
as  great  on  the  other  fide:  and  the  reafon 
why  fome  Men  now  a  days  are  not  of  the 
fame  Mind,  is,  becaufe  the  Concerns  of  an- 
other World  have  none,  or  a  very  flender 
Confideration  allowed  them  ^  for  otherwife 
without  queftion,  Men  would  look  up- 
on thofe  as  none  of  their  leaft  beneficial 
Friends,  who  are  appointed  by  God  to 
guide  them  fecurely  in  their  Paffage  to 
Eternity:  But  now  'tis  the  Mode  with  too 
many,  to  live  as  if  their  Souls  were  the 
mofl:  inconfiderable  thing  they  carried  about 

5.  It  may  be  objefted.  That  every  Fa- 
mily ought  to  be  under  the  Government  of 
one  fingle  Perfon  5  and  becaufe  the  Prieft  is 
confeffed  not  to  be  the  Mafter,  therefore  he 
muft  be  under  Command  5  and  confequent- 
ly  a  Servant.  Now  this  is  foflenderanOb- 
jeftion,  that  I  fhould  have  waved  the  men- 
tion of  it,  but  that  fome  People  feem  de- 
firous  of  being  impofed  upon  in  this  matter  ^ 
and  we  know  when  Men  are  in  love  with  a 
Miftake,  the  leaft  appearance  of  a  Reafon 
Is  apt  to  entangle  their  Underftandings ^ 
and  make  them  overlook  the  Evidence 
pf  an  Affertion  they  are  prejudiced  a^ 

^CHAPLAlN,?'^c-.      199 

To  what  is  objefted  therefore,  I  anfwcr. 
That  this  Argument  proves  all  Boarders 
Servants,  though  their  Office  or  Quality  be 
never  fo  much  above  thofe  they  fojourn 
v^^ith.  I  grant,  thePrieft  is  not  to  difturb 
the  Mafter  of  the  Houfe  in  the  Government 
of  his  Family,  nor  to  intermeddle  in  his  Af- 
fairs, (to  do  this  were  an  imreafonable  In- 
croachment)  but  the  living  under  Jiis  Roof 
makes  him  no  more  his  Servant,  than  his 
Father  or  Mother  are,  vv^hen  they  refide 
with  him. 

There  may  be  feveral  other  things  urged 
againft  the  Truth  of  the  Propofition  I  am 
to  defend  ^  but  the  folving  the  remaining 
Objeftions  will  fall  in  more  conveniently, 
after  I  have  given  a  fliort  Defcription  of  the 
Office  of  a  Chaplain  5  and  fliew  how  much 
it  differs  from  that  of  a  Servant^  and  Iiow 
inconfiftent  it  iswith  it^  which  I  (hall  pro- 
ceed to. 

I.  Therefore,  The  Office  of  a  Clergv- 
man  in  a  Family,  is  to  Pray  for,  Blefs,  and 
give  Abfolution  to  thofe  he  is  concerned 
with  ;  which  are  all  Afts  of  Authority  and 
Jurifdiftion.  He  is  to  Counfel,  Exhort, 
and  Reprove  the  Mafter  of  the  Familv  him- 
felf,  upon  occafion  (though  with  refpeft  to 
his  Station)  which  Offices  are  inconfi- 
ftent with  the  Condition  of  a  Servant  5 
and  muft  be  very  unfuccefsfully   pcrform- 

O  4  ed 

aoo        r^  OFF  ICE  of 

ed  bv  him,  as  will  further  appear  after- 

2.  He  does  not  receive  this  Gommiffion 
from  the  Mafter  of  the  Family,  or  from 
any  humane  Authority,  but  from  God  him- 
feljf,  whofe  Deputy  he  is  in  things  pertain- 
ing to  Religion :  He  is  not  entertained  upon 
any  fecular  Account  5  or  to  manage  any  other 
pufinefs  but  what  relates  to  another  World  ^ 
and  is  Gonfecrated  to  this  Funftion  by  the 
Divine  Warrant  and  Appointment  ^  and 
ponfcquently  he  is  God's  Minifter  not  Man's. 
The  Place  in  which  he  is  engaged  is  his 
Parifli;  and  the  difference  between  a  Paro- 
chial Prieft  and  him  lies  in  this.  That  the 
Extent  of  his  Gharge  is  not  fo  large  as  that 
pf  a  Parifh-Prieft^  the  one  having  but  on- 
ly one  fingle  Family  to  take  care  of  ^  and 
the  other  a  great  many :  But  the  Office  is 
the  fame^  and  therefore  the  one  hath  no 
fnore  reafon  to  be  accounted  a  Servant,  than 
the  other. 

5.  However  Pride,  Ignorance,  or  Tncon- 
fideration,  may  fometimes  byafs  Men's 
Minds,  yet  if  they  would  but  Attend 
to  their  own  Praftice ,  they  would  fee 
that  the  Concern  of  a  Prieft  in  a  Family, 
is  no  fervile  Employment  ^  becaufe  in  the 
abfence ox  a  F  ^lefl:,  theMafler  of  the  Family 
fupplies  his  Place,  as  far  as  lawfully  he  may| 
^^h^t  is,  in  Praying  and  giving  Thanks  at 

lyleat  j 

^CHAPLAIN,  ^^'c     aoi 

Meat  5  which  is  a  plain  Confeffion,  that 
Men  are  fatisfied,  that  'tis  very  improper 
to  imploy  any  of  their  Servants  in  the  Per- 
formance of  Holy  Offices  5  the  doing  of 
which  would  be  diOionourableto  God,  and 
weaken  the  Force  and  Majefty  of  Religion: 
And  therefore  when  One  Confecrated  to 
Holy  Miniftrations  is  not  prefent,  God 
ought  to  be  addreffed  to  by  a  Perfon  of  the 
greateft  Confideration  in  the  Family  ^  which 
implicit  Confeffion  of  theirs,  is  both  agree- 
able to  the  Reafon  of  Mankind  in  general, 
and  the  Praftice  of  the  firft  Ages  of  the 
World,  when  the  Civil  and  Ecclefiaftical 
Authority  were  united  5  the  fame  Perfon 
being  both  Prieft  and  Prince  in  his  Family^ 
as  appears  from  Abraham^  Ifaac^  Jacob,  and 
Job's  erefting  Altars,  and  offering  Sacrifices: 
And  before  the  Inftitution  of  the  Mofaich 
Law  (in  which  God  chofe  a  diftinft  Tribe 
to  ferve  him  in  holy  Offices )  the  Firft- 
born,  among  other  confiderable  Privileges, 
had  the  Priefthood  annext  to  his  Birth- 

4.  This  Notion  of  a  Servant,  dcftroys 
the  End  and  Defign  of  the  Prieftly  Office^ 
it  renders  his  Perfon  cheap;  and  his  Dif- 
courfe  infignificant^  it  caufes  his  Reproofs 
to  be  looked  upon  as  prefumptuous^  and 
makes  a  generous  Freedom  and  impartial 
Plainnefs,  to  be  interpreted  a  forgetful nefs 


QQ2        The  0¥¥lCE  of 

of  Diftance :  And  yet  this  fort  of  Plain-deal- 
ing is  not  more  neceffary  toward  any  fort 
of  People,  than  thofe  who  are  Wealthy  and 
Honourable  ^  the  Nature  of  their  Circum- 
fiances  being  fuch,as  make  them  much  more 
apt  to  flatter  themfelves,  and  to  be  flattcr'd 
by  others  5  which  made  St.  Paul  command 
St.  Timothy,  to  charge  thofe  that  v/ere  R?ch, 
that  they  jldould  not  be  High- winded :  The 
Apoftle.  well  knew,  in  what  great  Danger 
fuch  Perfons  were  of  taking  the  height  of 
their  Condition  amifs^  and  ccnfidhis;  too 
much  in  it  5  for  to  this  unhapry  Miftake, 
they  have  not  only  the  common  Artifices  of 
Self-love  to  betray  them 5  but  fevenl  con- 
federate Circumftances  from  without , 
ftrike  in  to  carry  on  the  Impofture^  and  to 
cheat  them  into  a  wrong  Opinion  of  them- 
felves.  They  fee  how  they  are  reverenced 
and  admired,  by  almoft  all  fort  of  People  : 
and  that  Men  frequently  refign  their  Eafe, 
their  Liberty  and  Confcience  too,to  purchafc 
fewer  Conveniencies  than  they  are  already 
poffefTed  of:  They  find,  that  Wealth  and 
Reputation  puts  them  into  a  Capacity 
of  gratifying  their  Senfes,  and  their  Hu- 
mour ^  gives  them  many  Opportunities 
of  obliging  their  Friends,  and  crufhing 
their  Enemies,  and  makes  their  Will  a 
kind  of  Law  to  their  Inferiours  and  De- 
pendants.    Now  thefe  Advantages,  when 


jCHAPLAIN,6'c:.      ^oj 

they  are  not  throughly  examined,  but  ra- 
ted according  to  the  Value  which  vulgar 
Eftimation  fets  upon  them,  are  apt  to  fwell 
them  ino  an  unreafonable  Conceit  of 
themfelves  5  which  Vanity  is  ftill  fed  and 
inflamed,  becaufe  they  are  often  fo  unfor- 
tunate, as  not  to  attend,  that  thefe  world- 
ly Accommodations  arc  things  really  di- 
ftinft  from  their  Owners  5  that  thefe  orna- 
mental Privileges  are  but  a  decent  Var- 
nifh,  which  enriches  no  deeper  than  the 
Surface  3  an  Impreffion ,  which  though 
Royal,  cannot  alter  the  Metal:  But  on 
the  contrary,  they  are  apt  to  fancy  their 
Fortunes  and^-themfelves  to  be  all  of  a 
piece  ^  that  this  glorious  Outfide  grows  out 
of  fome  intrinfick  Prerogative^  and  is  the 
genuine  Luftre  and  Complexion  of  their 
Nature.  And  fince  a  flourifhing  Condition 
is  thus  apt  to  impofe  upon  Men  5  and  hath 
fuch  a  Natural  Tendency  to  give  them  a  falfe 
Idea  of  their  own  Exceljency,  have  they  not 
need  of  a  prudent  and  confcicntious  Friend, 
to  infinuate  that  they  have  no  eflential  Ad- 
vantages above  the  reft  of  Mankind  3  to 
awaken  them  into  right  Apprehenfions  of 
things^  and  refcue  them  from  that  De- 
lufion  which  their  own  Vanity,  and  the 
Ignorance  or  Defign  of  others,  often  puts 
upon  them?  Therefore  if  Men  would  have 
their  Lives  correft  and  Iiappy,  they  ought 

Q04        The  OFFICE  of 

to  encourage  their  Friends,  (efpedally  thofe 
who  are  particularly  concerned  in  the  Re- 
gulation of  their  Confcience)  to  tell  them 
of  their  Faults 5  they  Ihould  invite  them 
to  this  Freedom,  if  not  by  exprefs  Declara- 
tion, yet  by  affable  Deportment^  always 
receiving  the  Performance  of  thcnice  Office, 
with  demonftrations  of  Pleafure  and  Sa- 
tisfaftion.  Did  Men  confider,  how  flip- 
pery  and  difficultly  manageable  an  elevated 
Station  is,  they  would  eafily  difcern,  that 
it  was  not  the  fafeft  way  to  truft  altoge- 
ther to  their  own  Condudt;  but  to  take  in 
the  conftant  affiftance  of  a  BVeligious  Per- 
fon^  that  fo  their  Mifcarriages  might  be 
reprefented  5  their  Confciences  direfted  in 
doubtful  Cafes  ^  and  their  Minds  fortified 
with  Defenfatives  proper  to  the  Temp- 
tations of  their  Condition  and  Tempen 
Indeed,  the  very  Converfe  of  fuch  a 
Guide,  if  his  Character  was  rightly  under- 
ftood,  and  prudently  fupported,  would 
help  to  keep  them  upon  their  Guard  5 
and  by  ftriking  a  kind  of  Religious  Awe 
upon  their  Spirits,  make  their  Convcr- 
fation  more  (launch  and  regular  5  and 
often  prevent  their  falling  into  any  re- 
markable Exceffes:  But  thefe  Advantages 
are  all  loft  upon  thofe  who  Mifapprer 
hend  the  Prieft*s  Office  5  and  entertain  him 
upon  the  fame  Account  they  do  their  Foot- 

Men  5 

Men  5  only  to  garnifh  the  Table,  and  ftufF 
out  the  Figure  of  the  Family.  When 
a  Man  hath  received  fuch  a  difparaging 
Notion  of  the  Priefl:  ;,  and  rangd  him 
amongft  his  Servants  5  there  is  fmall  likeli- 
hood of  his  being  the  better  for  his  Com- 
pany 5  for  this  Conceit  will  make  his  Car- 
riage lofty  and  referv'd^  his  Words,  Ge- 
ftures,  and  Silence,  will  all  carry  marks 
of  Negleft  and  Imperioufnefs  in  them : 
Which  are  plain  and  defigned  Intimations, 
that  the  Prieft  muft  not  infift  upon  the  Pri- 
viledges  of  his  Funftion ;  that  he  muft  not 
pretend  to  any  Liberty,  but  what  his  Pa- 
tron is  pleas'd  to  allow  ^  with  the  Dire- 
ftion  of  whofe  Aftions  he  is  not  to  inter- 
meddle 5  nor  remonftrate  againft  the  un- 
reafonablenefs  of  any  Praftice^  nor  fhow 
him  the  Danger  of  continuing  in  it :  For 
though  all  this  be  done  with  Caution  and 
Tenderncrs,  and  Refpeft,  yet  he  muft  look 
for  nothing  but  Difdain  and  Difappoint- 
ment  in  requital  5  for  prefuming  to  admo- 
nifh  his  Superiours :  Which  is  fuch  an  Ufur- 
pation  upon  Dominion  and  Quality  as  is 
not  to  be  endur'd^  being  neither  agreeable 
to  the  fervile  Employment  of  the  One,  nor 
eonfiftent  with  the  Honour  of  the  Other. 

5.  This  degrading  the  Priefthcod  into 
a  fervile  Office,  takes  off  from  that  Venera- 
tion which  is  due  to  the  folemn  Mvftcries 


oo6        T/^e  OFFICE  of 

of  Religion  5  and  makes  them  look  Common 
and  Contemptible^  by  being  adminiftred 
by  perfons  not  fiii  juris,  but  obnoxious  to  the 
Pleafure  of  thofe  who  receive  them:  God 
therefore,  to  prevent  his  Ordinances  from 
falling  into  Contempt,  and  to  make  them 
effeftual  to  procure  the  happinefs  of  Man- 
kind, hath  given  his  Priefts  Authority  over 
all  they  are  concerned  with  5  they  are  to  blefs 
the  People  in  his  Name  ^  and  the  Author  of 
the  Hebrews  tells  us,  tJoat  without  contradiBion 
the  lefs  is  blejfed  of  the  better^  Heb.  7.  7.  They 
are  called  the  Lord's  Priejis,  i  Sam.  22.  17. 
The  Mejfengers  of  the  Lord  ofHofts^  Mai. 2.7. 
And  in  the  New  Teftament  they  are  ftiled 
the  Stewards  and  AmbaJfadorsofGod*^  and 
made  Overfeers  of  his  Church  by  the  Holy 
Ghoft,  2  Cor.  5.  20.  Afts  20.  28.  The  Senfe 
of  which  Texts,  and  partly  the  Words,  are 
by  the  Appointment  of  our  Church,  appli- 
ed to  thofe  who  are  ordain'd  Priefts,  to  put 
them  in  mindof  the  Dignity  of  their  Office  5 
and  the  great  Care  they  ought  to  take  about 
the  confcientious  Difcharge  of  it. 

I  confefs,  *tis  poffible  for  a  Prieft  to 
make  himfelf  a  Servant^  he  may 'tis  likely, 
be  Steward  or  Clerk  of  the  Kitchin,  if  he 
pleafes^  (as  Biftiop  Lntimer  complains  fomc 
of  the  Clergy  were  forced  to  be  in  his 
Time,  Heylins  Hift.  Refor.  p.  61.)  but  as 
long  as  he  does  not  engage  in  any  Employ- 

^CHAPLAIN,d'c-.     ao7 

ment  which  is  intended  for  State,  or  the 
Convenience  of  Life  ^  as  long  as  he  keeps  to 
his  Prieftly  Funftion,  fo  long  he  may  be  aflii- 
red  he  hath  no  Mafter  in  the  Houfe5  and 
for  any  to  fuppofe  he  hath,  is  an  unreafon- 
able  and  abfurd  Miftake^  (to  fay  no  worfe 
of  it)  'tis  an  inverting  that  Order  which 
God  made  between  the  Prieft  and  People; 
and  denies  that  Authority  which  Cod  hath 
granted  for  the  Edificationof  his  Church. 
It  endeavours  to  deftroy  that  Honourable 
Relation  which  the  Prieft  hath  to  the  Divine 
Majefty  (to  whofe  Service  he  is  appropri- 
ated) which  God  is  pleas'd  to  Dignifie  him 
with,  that  he  might  have  the  greater  In- 
fluence upon  thofe  he  is  concerned  with  ^ 
and  be  fuccefsful  in  the  Execution  of  his 
OfiSce :  And  therefore  for  a  Patron  to  ac- 
count fuch  a  Confecrated  Perfon  his  Prieft, 
as  if  he  belonged  to  him  as  a  Servant,  is  in 
effeft  to  Challenge  Divine  Honours^  and  to 
fet  uphimfelffor  a  God  5  For  if  he  is  any 
thing  lefs,  he  muft  own,  that  the  Service 
of  the  Prieft  does  not  belong  to  him  ^  for 
that  in  the  very  Terms  and  Notion  of  it, 
is  intended  for  no  Being  Inferiour  to  that 
which  is  fuppofed  to  be  Divine. 

If  it  be  objcfted,  That  the  Frieft  hath 
obliged  himfelf  to  remove  with  the  Patron, 
whe^n  and  whither  he  thinks  fit  5  and  there- 
fore feems  to  be  in  the  fame  Condition  with 


2o8       The  OFFICE  of     ■ 

the  reft  of  the  Attendants :  To  this  I  anfvver^ 
That  this  makes  him  no  more  a  Servant 
than  the  travelling  and  ambulatory  way  of 
Living  amongft  the  Tartars.,  would  make 
the  Priefts  Servants  to  the  People  5  provided 
they  were  Chriftians:  To  make  it  plainer, 
Suppofe  a  Bifhop  Ordain'd  over  the  Corn- 
any  of  a  Ship  ^  and  that  his  Diocefs  lay  on- 
ly in  one  Bottom^  can  we  Imagine  that  he 
would  lofe  his  Epifcopal  Power ;  and  fall 
into  the  Condition  of  other  Sea-men,  as 
foon  as  the  Ship  was  ordered  to  weigh  An- 
chor^ and  began  to  make  its  Voyage  from 
one  Port  to  another?  At  this  rate,  a  Man 
may  call  a  Guardian  Angel  one  of  his  Do- 
mefticks^  becaufefor  the  Security  and  Pro- 
teftion  of  their  Charge,  thefe  benevolent 
Spirits  are  pleas'd  to  Accompany  us  from 
one  Place  to  another.  I  grant  the  Scripture 
tells  us,  they  are  fent  forth  to  Minifler  for 
thofe  who  are  Heirs  of  Salvatior?^  Heb.  1. 14. 
but  then  we  muft  allow  them  to  be  God's 
Minifters,  not  ours;  and  fo  likewife  are 
thofe  of  whom  I  am  now  Speaking ;  as 
among  other  Places  may  be  feen  from  2  Cor, 
6,  4.  God  hath  pleased  to  put  the  Clergy  in 
joynt  Commiffion  with  the  Angels  them- 
felves^  for  the  Guidance  of,  and  fuperin- 
tending  his  Church.  When  St.  Johh^ou\di 
liaveworfliippcd  the  Angel  which  appeared 
to  him,  he  is  forbid  to  do  it  ^  and  the  reafon 


gCHAPLAIN^  'trc    009 

alledged  is,  bccaufe  I  am  tlyy  F:UovP'Srrva7?t^ 
Rev.  19.  10.  that  is,  as  Grotins  expounds 
it,  we  are  both  Ambaffadors  of  the  fame 
King.     And  although  St.  John^  and  the  reft 
of  the  Apoftles,  had  Privileges  peculiar  to 
themfelves,  both  in  refpeft  of  the  Extent 
of  their  Jurifdiftion,  the  Infallibility  of  their 
Doftrine,  and  other  miraculous  Gifts  with 
which  they  were  endowed  5  to  which  Bi- 
fhops  themfelves,  much  lefs inferiour  Priefts, 
have  no  reafon  to  pretend  ^  yet  though  God 
was  pleased  for  the  more  fpeedy  and  cffedu- 
al  planting  of  Chriftianitv,  to  qualifie  the 
Apoftles  in  an  extraordinary  M:inr;er3  and 
to  give  them  a  larger  Commiffion  than 
to  the  Clergy  of  fucceeding  Ages  5  yet  they 
all  Aft  by  the  fame  Authority,  and  for  the 
fame  End :  Therefore  theunfixt  and  moving 
Nature  of  a  Cure,  does  not  alter  and  de- 
grade the  Office  of  a  Prieft :  He  is  not  lefs  a 
Shepherd,  becaufe  the  Flock  happens  fome- 
times  to  wander  unaccountably,  from  one 
Pafture  to  another  :  He  is  bound  to  attend 
the  Charge  he  hath  undertaken  ^  and  muft 
anfwer  the  Negled  of  it  to  God  3    and 
when  it  does  not  continue  in  the  dime  Plnce, 
to  accompany  it*s  Motion,  is  no  rrjore  a  Di- 
minution to  his  Office,  than  it  is  to  that  of  a 
Judge  to  go  the  Circuit  5  whofe  Commiffi- 
on  is   as  confiderable,    though   it  travels 
with  him  from  one  County  to  another, 

P  as 

aio         The  0¥¥lCE  of 

as  if  he  had  been  always  fixt  in  WeftmJnfler* 

If  It  be  farther  objefted.  That  the  Patron 
appoints  the  Hours  of  Prayer  5  which 
feems  to  imply  fomething  of  Command  : 
To  this  I  anfwer.  That  in  his  chufing  the 
Time  of  Prayer,  he  does  not  appoint  any 
Service  for  himfelf  ^  but  only  declares,  when 
he  and  his  Houfhould  are  ready  for  God's 
Worfhip,  and  defirous  of  the  Prieftly  Abfo- 
lution  and  Blefling  5  which  is  proper  for  him 
to  do  3  becaufe  the  Family  is  employed  in 
his  Bufinefs,  and  under  his  Command  5  and 
therefore  without  his  Permiffion,  they  have 
not  many  times  an  Opportunity  of  meeting 
to2:ether  for  Divine  Service:  Which  is  ftill 
more  reafonable  3  becaufe  the  Prieft  is  fup- 
pofed  only  to  intend  the  Affairs  of  Religion  ^ 
and  to  be  always  ready  for  the  Performance 
of  his  Office  3  and  confequently,  that  Time 
which  is  moft  convenient  for  thofe  under  his 
Care,  and  in  which  the  Affembly  is  like  to 
be  moft  Numerous,  he  is  by  Virtue  of  his 
Office  bound  to  obferve^  whether  his  Cure 
lies  in  a  private  Family,  or  a  whole  Parifh. 

But  laftly,  it  may  be  urged,  That  the 
15  of  Ben,  8.  dtp.  28.  calls  the  Patrons  of 
Chaplains  their  Mafters;^  and  will  any  Man 
be  fo  hardy,  as  to  qucftion  the  Judgment 
and  Determination  of  the  Parliament  ?  But 
here  we  may  obfervey 


^CHAPLAIN,6^c,     an 

Firfl:,  That  though  the  Parliament  calls 
them  Servants,  yet  it  docs  not  Enadt 
them  fuch.  Now  'tis  not  impoffible,  but 
that  the  Penners  of  a  Bill  may  fometimes 
drav/  it  up  in  improper  Language.  Secondly, 
This  Aft  calls  only  thofe  Patrons  Mafters, 
who  can  give  Qualifications  for  Pluralities. 
H-iving  premifed  this  Obfervation,  I  an- 
iwer,  with  all  due  Submiffion  and  Reaped 
to  this  Legiflative  Council^  That  if  the  Q'^e- 
ftion  was  concerning  any  Civil  Right,  tiien 
'tis  confelTed,  *tis  in  the  Power  of  the  Par- 
liament either  to  limit,  or  take  it  away  - 
becaufe  the  whole  Power  and  Authority  of 
the  Kingdom  is  there,  either  Perfonally,  or 
by  Reprefentation^  and  therefore  they  may 
deprive  any  Perfo^  of  his  Flonour  or 
Eftate  (the  Right  of  the  Succeffion  to  the 
Crown  excepted )  as  far  as  they  pleafe : 
Not  that  'tis  impoffible  for  them  to  ad  Un- 
juftly :,  but  only  that  what  th^y  Determine 
hath  the  force  of  a  Law  ^  becaufe  every 
Man  is  fuppofed  to  have  given  bh  Con- 
fent  to  it.  But  here  we  muO:  obferve. 
That  the  Church  is  a  diftinft  Socix  ty  from 
the  State ^  and  independent  upon  it:  The 
Conftitntion  of  the  Church  is  founded 
in  the  Appointment  of  Chrift^  in  that  Com- 
miffion  which  he  gave  the  Apoftles  and 
their  Succeffors^  and  confequently,  does 
*iot  derive  its  Authority  from  any  Earth- 

P  7  ly 

ail        The  OFFICE  6/ 

ly  Power.  The  Civil  Magiftrate  never  yet 
made  a  Bi(hop,  Prieft,  or  Deacon^  nor 
ever  can  5  and  therefore  we  may  fafely 
affirm,  without  any  injury  or  difrefped 
to  him.  That  he  cannot  make  thefe  Spiri- 
tual Offices  greater  or  lefs  than  they  are  : 
Therefore  if  God  hath  made  the  Priefts 
Office  (as  nothing  is  plainer  in  Scripture 
than  that  he  hath)  an  Office  of  Govern- 
ment, Direftion,  and  Superintendence 
over  thofe  he  is  concerned  with  5  then 
*tis  not  in  the  Power  of  the  Parliament 
to  make  his  Condition  fervile  5  becaufe 
no  Perfon,  or  Society  of  Perfons,  can  take 
away  that  Power  which  they  never  gave: 
The  Parliament  may  with  equal  Right 
Enadi:^  That  Parents  fhall  be  fubjeft  to 
their  Children  3  and  that  the  Wife  fhall 
be  her  Husband's  Miftrefs,  without  a  Com- 
pliment, as  make  the  People  the  Priefts 
Mafters^  and  give  the  Flock  a  Jurifdi- 
ftion  over  the  Shepherd/  They  may  with 
the  fame  Juftice  repeal  the  moft  Efta- 
blifhed  Lav/s  of  Nature  5  and  invert  the 
Right  of  the  two  former  Relations,  as  of 
this  latter  3  for  this  hath  its  Eftablifh- 
ment  from  the  fame  God  that  the  other 
have^  and  for  Ends,  at  leaft  equally 
weighty,  and  momentous.  This  Power 
of  their  Spiritual  Governours  they  have 
no  more  Authority  to  Deftroy,  than  they 


a  C  HAPLA  lN,6't-.      ^ij 

have  to  Vote  down  the  Canon  of  Scripture  5 
or  to  Decree,  Sacrilege  to  be  no  Sin^ 
Tis  granted,  That  all  Ecclefiaftical  Per- 
fons,  as  they  are  Members  of  the  State,  nre 
fubjeft  to  its  Authority  5  and  that  a  Prieft, 
or  Bifhop^  may  properly  be  a  Ser\  ant  to 
the  Magiftrate  5  if  he  holds  any  Secular 
Employment  under  him  5  becaufe  in  this 
Cafe,  he  Ads  by  a  Commiffion  from  the 
Civil  Government  ^  but  this  only  concerns 
him  as  he  is  a  Member  *of  the  State  ^ 
and  does  not  in  the  leaft  afFeft  his  Spiritu- 
al Capacity:  The  Power  v/hich  refults 
from  that,  flows  from  another  Fountain -^ 
and  is  given  by  our  Saviour  himfelf^  and 
therefore  cannot  be  weakened,  or  rccall'd, 
by  any  State-Conftitution  whatever.  Men 
fhould  do  well  therefore  to  confider. 
That  as  a  Prince  hath  no  reafon  to  take  it 
well,  if  the  People  fhould  look  upon  his 
Officers  as  their  Servants;  fo  'tis  not 
over  refpeftful  to  God  Almighty,  to  fup- 
pofe  his  ^Minifters  ftand  in  that  inferi- 
our  Relation  to  thofe  they  are  concerned 

To  go  to  the  Bottom  of  the  Matter  5 
and  to  put  the  Churches  Independency  be- 
yond all  Difpute,  1  fhall  throw  the  Argu- 
ment into  a  Method,  and  Treat  it  a  little 
more  at  Large. 

P  ^  But 

2^4 TbeOFYlCEof 

But  to  prevent  Mifconftrudion,  I  defire 
to  be  underftood,  that  by  Church-Power,  I 
mean  only  that  which  is  purely  Spiritual  i 
And  that  Ecclefiafticks,  as  fuch,  can  make 
no  Dired  or  Indireft  Claim  to  any  other. 
And  therefore, 

Firjl^  They  are  no  lefs  the  Subjefts  of 
Princes  than  the  Laity. 

Secondly^  Their  merely  fecular  Eftates, 
their  Civil  Privileges  and  Jurifdiftions,  are 
aill  under  the  Cognizance  of  the  State  ^  of 
which  they  may  be  Legally  (though  not 
always  Equitably)  Diffeized ,  whenever 
the  Legiflitive  Authority  of  a  Kingdom 
fhall  think  fit  to  do  it :  Having  premifed 
|:his,  I  (hall  endeavour  to  prove  their  Inde- 
pendency in  things  purely  Relating  to  their 

1.  From  the  Original  of  Ecclefiaftical 

2.  From  the  End  and  Defign  of  it. 

5.  From  the  Praftife  of  the  Primitive 

I.  From  the  Original  of  Ecclefiaftical 
Authority:  The  Power  of  Governing  the 
Church,  and  Performing  the  Offices  of  Re- 
ligion is  neither  any  Gift  of  the  People, 
not  held  by  Commiffion  from  Kings  and 
Princes;  It  fprings  from  a  Greater  Qrigi- 
pal  I  and  Derives  no  lower  than  frorn 
Heaven  it  felf  Our  Bleffed  Saviour,  who 
'  -^  '^    ■  Re^ 

aCHAPLAIN,6^c.      a!5 

Redeemed  the  Church,  was  pleafcd  to  fettle 
the  Adminiftration  of  it  by  his  own  Ap- 
pointment: From  him  the  Apoftles  receiv- 
ed Authority  to  Teach  and  Govern,  fuch 
as  were  Converted  by  them^  the  words  of 
their  Commiffion  are  plain,  and  expreffed 
with  all  Imaginable  Advantage.     As  ;;;ji 
Father   hath  ferit   me^    even  fo  fend  I  yow-y 
whofefoever  Sins  ye  remit ^t hey  are  remitted^^c, 
St.  Joh,  20,  21,  23.  Upon  this  account  the 
Apoftles  are  calPd  Ambajfadors  and  Mini- 
fters  ofChrtft,  iCor.4.  I.  And  the  People 
are  Commanded  to  Obey  and  Submit  them- 
felves  to  thofe  who  have  this  Spiritual  Au- 
thority,   Heb.  15.   17.    Neither  was  this 
Power  to  Expire  with  the  Apoftles  ^  but  to 
be  Conveyed  by  Succeffion,    through  all 
Ages  of  the  World  ^  there  being  the  fame 
Caufe  for  it's  Continuance,  as  for  its  firft 
Inftitution  :  And  accordingly  we  find  from 
St.  Paul^  that  one  rcafon  of  his  giving  Titus 
the  fuper-intendency  of  Crete  was,  to  or- 
dain Elders  in  every  City^  Tit.   1.5.  Thus 
Clemens  Romanes  (i.Ep.  adCor. )  tells  us, 
the  Apoftles  in  their  Travels  ufed  to  Or- 
dain Bifhops,   &c,  for  the  Advantage  of 
fuch  as  were  only  Chriftians  inProfpeft^ 
as  well  as  for  thofe  who  were  already  Con- 
verted. And  thus  the  facred  Order  has  been 
Continued,  without  Interruption,  for  near 
1700  Years :  Now  our  Saviour,we  know  was 

P  4  no 

ai6      The  OFFICE  of 

^o  Temporal  Prince.  He  refufed  to  Inter- 
Pofe  in  a  Cafe  of  Property  5  and  declared 
Exprefly,  that  his  Kingdom  was  not  of 
this  World,  St.  Luke  12.  14.  St.Joh.iS. 
36.  from  whence  'tis  plain,  that  the  Au- 
thority which  our  Saviour  gave  the  Church, 
can  have  no  Dependance  upon  the  State  5 
becaufe  it  was  never  derived  from  thence. 
Tis  true,  all  Power,  both  Sacred  and  Ci- 
vil, came  originally  from  God  5  yet  under 
the  Jewifli,  and  efpecially  under  the  Chri- 
ftian  Inftitution,  the  Crown  and  Mitre  have 
been  divided  :  And  though  the  fame  Per- 
fons  are  capable  of  both  ^  yet  the  Claim 
muft  be  made  upon  a  different  Account  5 
and  conveyed  by  Titles  perfeftly  diftindb : 
And  fince  the  Ecclefiaftical  Authority  doth 
not  hold  of  the  Civil  Magiftrate,  it  cannot 
be  forfeited  to  him  :  As  the  State  cannot 
Confecrate  Bifliops  and  Priefts,  fo  neither* 
can  they  recall  their  Charader  5  or  reftrain 
them  in  the  Exercife  of  their  Funftion  5 
there  being  no  reafon,  a  Privilege  (hould  be 
either  Extinguiflied ;  or  limited  by  thofe 
who  were  never  matters  of  the  Grant:  For 
what  a  Man  has  no  power  to  give,  he  can 
have  no  Right  to  take  away.  This  will  fur- 
ther appear,  if  we  confider  the  Means  by 
which  the  Advantages  of  Chriftianity  are 
conveyed  to  us.  Now  that  the  Sacraments  are 
iieccffary  for  this  purpofe,  is  Evident  from 


aCHAPLAIN.d^c.      117 

Scripture :  For  concerning  Baptifm  *tis 
faid.  That  except  a  Alan  be  born  ofWater^  and 
of  the  Sp/rit^  he  cannot  enter  into  the  Kingdom 
of  God/.  Si.  Jiihn  5.  5.  And  the  Lord^s'Sup- 
per  is*  ftiled  by  St.  Vaul  (\  Cor.  10.  6.  J 
The  Commmiion  of  the  Body  and  Blood  of 
Chrijl:^  that  is,  the  Means  by  which  the  Be- 
nefits of  Chrift's  Death  are  applied  to  us. 
So  that  without  being  partakers  of  the  Sacra- 
ments, we  can  have  no  Pretence  to  the  Co- 
venant of  Grace  5  no  Title  to  the  Affiftance 
of  God's  Spirit^  nor  any  Affurance  of  a 
BlefTed  Immortality. 

Nov/  I  fuppofe,  none  of  the  Laity  will 
pretend  to  an  Authority  to  Adminifter  the 
Sacraments :  they  will  not  Challenge  a 
Right  to  Seal  Covenants  in  God's  Name  ^ 
or  to  Reprefent  him  in  Afts  of  folemnBlef- 
fing  and  Abfolution.  No  Man  (as  the 
Apoftle  argues)  ought  to  take  this  Honour  to 
himfelf  but  he  that  is  called  of  God -^  as  was 
Aaron ^  Heb.  5.  4.  The  Fate  of  Corah  and 
ZJzziah^  C  Numb.  16.  2  Chro.n.  26.  )  are 
fufficient  to  deterr  all  Secular  Perfons  from 
an  Encroachment  of  this  Nature  5  which  if 
made,  God  would  both  Punifh  theUfnrpa- 
tion,  and  null  the  Aft:  as  a  Prince  would 
be  obliged  to  do  in  point  of  Govern- 
ment, if  any  Perfon  fliould  Forge  a 
Commiffion  in  his  Name.  Now  fir.ce 
the  Sacraments,  which  are  both  neceilary 


oi8        The  OFFICE  of 

to  make  us  Members  of  the  Church  ^  and 
to  Convey  the  Advantages  of  Chriftianity 
to  us  5  are  by  our  Saviour's  fpecial  Appoint* 
ment  entrufted  with  the  Clergy^  and  the 
Adminiftration  of  them  is  lodged  in  their 
Hands  5  from  hence  it  follows.  That  thofe 
who  have  the  Sole  Right  of  admitting  into 
a  Society,  or  Excluding  fro  ii  it  5  and  of  dif- 
penfing  the  Rewards  and  Punifhments,  are 
the  proper  and  only  Governours  of  chat  Soci- 
ety 5  and  can  have  no  Dependance  upon  any 

Secondly,  The  Independency  of  Eccle- 
fiaftical  Authority,  may  be  proved  from 
the  End  and  Defign  of  it. 

I  f.ippofe,  I  need  not  Prove  that  the  Chri- 
ftian  Religion,  as  contained  in  the  New 
Teftament,  is  the  laji  Revelation  which 
God  intends  to  make  to  the  World.  Now 
this  being  granted,  we  muft  fuppofe,  that 
our  BlelTed  Saviour  Founded  his  Church 
upon  fuch  Laws  ^  and  gave  it  fuch  lafting 
Principles  of  Government,  as  fliould  beft 
maintain  its  Continuance  5  and  fecure  thofe 
important  Truths  He  had  .ntrufted  it 
with:  Leaft  of  all  can  we  imagine,  He 
would  build  it  upon  a  Sandy  Foundation  5 
and  make  it  Depend  upon  the  Arbitrary 
Power  of  its  Enemies.  Our  Saviour  fore- 
faw,  that  all  the  Princes  of  the  World 
would    disbelieve  5    and   many   of  them, 


^CHAPLAIN,  (i'yc.     319 

Perfecute  his  Doftrine  for  feveral  Ao[es  tos^e- 
ther$  and  therefore  would  be  very  impro- 
per Perfons  to  have  been  trufted  with  the 
Sovereign  Adminiftrations  of  Ecclefiaftical 
Affairs.  Had  the  Government  of  the  Church 
been  derived  from  them  5  or  depended  up- 
on their  Allowance  ^  Chriftianity  had  been 
a  very  fhort  liv'd  Religion  5  and  never  out* 
grown  its  Infancy.  In  this  Cafe  the  Pub- 
lick  Affemblies,  Ordinations,  Sacraments, 
and  Difcipline,  muft  have  lain  at  the  Mer- 
cy of  Unbelievers  5  and  the  Clergy  ought 
not  to  have  Executed  their  Funftion,  nor 
taken  Care  of  their  Flock,  unlefs  the  Civil 
Magiftrate  would  have  given  them  leave. 
For  if  the  Spiritual  Suprernacy  were  the 
Right  of  Princes,  tho*  they  might  poffibly 
Abufe  the  Management  of  this  Preroga- 
tive 5  yet  it  ought  to  lie  abfolutely  at  their 
Difpofal^  and  under  their  Regulation: 
And  for  any  Perfon  to  meddle  in  Ecclefi- 
aftical  Matters,  without  a  Commiflion 
from  them  5  but  Efpecially  againft  their 
Commands 5  would  be  an  open  Violation 
of  their  Right  5  which  no  Man  ought  to 
be  Guilty  of,  tho'  for  the  Support  of  the 
beft  Religion  5  hecatife  we  ought  not  to  do  iU 
that  Good  may  come  of  it.  And  fince  no 
Society  can  fubfift  without  Government  and 
Difcipline^  if  the  Bifhops  could  Exer- 
icife  no  fpiritua!  Authority  without  a  Lay- 


aao        The  0¥¥lCE  of 

Permiffion,  it  would  be  in  the  Civil  Ma- 
giftrates  Power  to  make  the  Perpetuity  of 
the  Church  imprafticable  5  and  the  Chrifti- 
an  Religion  would  Depend  upon  the 
Pleafure  of  the  Prince.  But  befides  the 
Abfurdity  of  this  way  of  Reafoning,  we 
have  in  the 

Third  place^  the  Pra£i:ice  of  the  Apoftles, 
and  of  the  whole  Primitive  Church,  to 
prove  that  the  Ecclefiaftical  Authority  was 
perfeaiyy/z/y/zm^  and  never  under  the  Con- 
troul  of  the  Secular  Magiftrate.  Thus 
when  the  Sanhedrim  of  the  Jews^  who 
afted  by  the  Authority  of  the  Romans^ 
and  had  the  Afliftance  of  the  Captain 
of  the  Temple  5  when  they  Imprifoned 
the  Apoftles,  and  commanded  them  not  to 
fpeak  at  aU^  nor  teach  In  the  Name  of  Jcfis. 
A&s  4.  19.  to  this  their  Anfwer  is  plain  and 
pofitive ;  Whether  it  he  right  in  the  fight  of 
God  to  hearken  unto  you  more  than  tinto  God^ 
J^dge  jie,  ver.  20.  that  is  to  fay,  they  had 
a  Commiffion  from  Heaven  to  Preach  the 
Gofpel  ;  which  they  were  bound  to  Exe- 
cute ;  and  which  no  Temporal  Jurifdiftion 
had  any  Authority  to  revoke.  Whereas, 
had  the  Church  been  under  the  Check  of 
the  State  in  Matters  purely  Spiritual  ^  St. 
Peter  and  St.  John  were  much  to  blame  for 
refufing  to  Obey  their  Superiours;  they 
ought  to  have  acquiefced  in  the  Sanhe- 

driaVs  Prohibition  ;  and  not  to  have  purfu- 
ed  their  Funftion  after  they  were  folemnly 
(ilenc'd;  and  that  by  thofe  whom  them- 
f elves  owned  to  be  Rulers  of  the  People^ 
Act,  4.  8.  Either  therefore  the  Church  muft 
beConftituted  Independent  of  the  State;  or 
the  Apoftles  can  never  be  cleared  of  the 
Charge  of  Sedition. 

The  fame  Imputation  will,  upon  the 
Modern  Principles,  afFefl:  the  Bifhops  of 
the  Univerfal  Church  for  the  firft  goo 
Years;  who  held  Publick  Aflemblies,  Go- 
verned their  Clergy,  and  their  People,  and 
performed  all  parts  of  their  OfiSce,  not 
only  without  any  Authority  from  their 
refpedive  Princes;  but  often,  contrary  to 
their  exprefs  Commands;  which  Matter 
ofFaftisfo  well  known,  that  'twould  be 
fuperfluous  to  enlarge  upon  the  Proof  of 

If  it  be  faid,  that  thefe  were  Heathen 
Princes;  but  when  the  Emperors  became 
Part  of  the  Church,  the  Cafe  was  other- 

To  this  I  anfwer.  That  the  Change  of 
the  Emperour's  Religion  could  not  gain 
them  any  fuch  new  Jurifdiftion  as  is 
Pretended.  For  as  Magiftracy  in  gene- 
ral ,  do's  not  imply  Right  to  Spiritual 
Authority  ;  fo  neither  doth  the  denomi- 
nation of  Chrifltan  give  it  any  fuch  Ad- 

ac^g      ^he  OFFICEcf 

vantage.  For,  I  fuppofe  fpiritual  Domi- 
nion is  no  more  founded  in  Grace,  than 
Temporal.  In  (hort ,  if  Princes  receive 
any  fuch  Authority  by  Virtue  of  their 
Chriftianity,  it  muft  be  conveyed  either 
by  Revelation  5  or  implied  in  the  Notion 
of  Baptifm. 

As  to  the  Point  of  Revelation  3  the 
Scripture  nowhere  teaches  us,  That  Princes 
upon  their  turning  Chriftian,  fhould  have 
their  Commiflion  enlarged,  with  the  Ad- 
dition of  Epifcopal,  or  Prieftly  Power.  I 
grant  it  was  foretold.  That  Kwgs  Jhonld 
he  vurfifjg  Fathers  to  the  Churchy  I  fa.  44.  25. 
but  then  it  is  added.  That  they  fluU  hovo 
down  to  her  with  their  Faces  towards  the 
F.arth  5  and  clfe where,  that  they  fi all  Mini^ 
fier  to  Her,  or  Serve  Her^  If  a,  60.  10.  We 
fee  therefore  we  muft  not  ftrain  upon  the 
Letter,  in  thefe  Expreffions  5  nor  prefs  the 
Metaphor  too  far  5  unlefs  we  will  con- 
clude Contradiftions :  Therefore  the  Cha- 
rafter  of  their  being  Nurfing  Fathers,  is 
fufEcicntly  fuUfilled  by  their  affording 
Chriftians  Proteftion  and  Encouragement 
under  their  Government^  and  by  Punifhing 
the  Contempt  of  Religion.  But  that  the  Ma- 
giftratesConverfion  (liould  alter  the  Seat  of 
Eccledaftical  Government  5  put  a  period  to 
th<:^  ApoftoHcal  Succeffion  ^  and  Diffolve  the 
Church  into  the  State,  is  not  fo  much  as  the 


aCHAPLAIN,^'^     ai^j 

leaft  hinted.  And  as  for  Baptifm,  there 
is  no  Authority  of  any  kind  implyed  in 
the  receiving:  that  Sacrament  5  if  there  were, 
every  Chriftian  would  have  an  Equal 
(hare  in  this  Privilege  5  v/hich  would  make 
the  Conftitution  of  the  Church  Monftrous, 
in  which  all  its  Members  would  be  Cover- 
nours^  and  fo  none  under  an  Obligation 
of  being  Governed. 

From  the  Independency  of  the  Church 
thus  Proved,  thefe  Conclufions  naturally 

Firft,  That  it  is  no  more  in  the  Power  of 
the  State,  to  deprive  the  Church  Governors 
of  thQiv  pnrclj/  Spiritiid  Authority^  than  it  is 
in  the  Power  of  the  Church  to  remove  the 
Magiftracy,  or  difincorporate  the  State.  For 
all  Punifhment  and  Cenfure  fuppofes  JuriC- 
diftioninthePerfonwho  Inflids  it.  But  this 
fuppofition,  islnconfiftent  with  the  Notion 
of  Independency :  Thofe  v/ho  are  Indepen- 
dent being  in  this  Senfe  equal,  fo  far  as 
their  Independency  reaches  3  and  have  no 
Privileges  to  Command,  or  Duties  to  Obey 
on  either  fide.     From  whence  it  follov/s, 

Secondly,  That  this  Privilege  of  inde- 
pendency in  Matters  pnely  Spiritual^  will 
Reach  the  Inferior  Clergy  5  for  their  Au- 
thority being  Derived  from  the  Bifhops, 
and  of  the  fame  Nature  with  Theirs, 
it    can  be   fubordinate  or  related   to  no 


an        neO¥¥lCEof      

other  Head  of  Jurifdidion;  and  there- 
fore Thefe  are  no  mere  Liable  to  havef 
their  Rights  Extingniflied,  or  their  Cha- 
rafter  Abated  by  a  Lay-Power,  than  the 

I  fhall  now  proceed  to  the  Second  thing 
at  firft  propounded,  viz.  to  (hew.  That 
whatfoever  fair  Expeftations  the  Patrod 
may  have  given  the  Prieft,  yet  thefe  are 
not  fufficient  Grounds  for  an  imperious  Car- 
riage on  the  one  hand ;  or  a  fervile  Submiffi- 
on  on  the  other. 

I.  This  fort  of  Deportment  were  un- 
reafonable;  fuppofing  the  Patron  had  as 
full  and  abfolute  a  Right  in  Church-Pre- 
ferment ,  as  he  hath  in  any  other  part 
of  his  Eftate.  For  what  can  be  a  more 
ungenerous  and  ungentlemanly  Praftice, 
than  to  require  that  a  Man  fhould  refigtl 
up  his  Liberty,  and  forfeit  the  Privileges 
of  his  Station ;  only  upon  the  probability  of 
receiving  fome  fort  of  Confideration  for  it 
afterwards?  How  unlike  a  Benefaftor  does 
he  look,  who  fets  an  Excife  upon  his  bare 
Word  ;  and  clogs  the  expeftation  of  future 
Advantage  v/ith  prefent  Inconvenience? 
Thus  to  anticipate  the  Pvevenues  of  a  Fa- 
vour, is  like  taking  Ufury  for  Mony  before 
Yis  Lent ;  which  certainly  is  one  of  the 
worft  fort  of  Extortion  ;  becaufe  here  a 
Man  not  only  pays  for  that  he  hath  not,  but 


a  CHAPLAIN,  ?^c-.      11^ 

for  that  which  poffibly  he  may  never  have. 

2.  Let  us  fuppofe  the  Prieft  in  aftnal 
Poffcffion  of  fome  confiderable  Preferment, 
yet  being  'tis  pretended  to  be  given,  it 
ought  certainly  to  come  difencumber'd  from 
all  Conditions  which  may  abate  the  Rind- 
nefs  of  it.  He  that  pretends  to  give, 
fliould  chiefly  refpeft  the  Advantage  of 
him  to  whom  the  Favour  is  Granted.  He 
fliouId  demean  himfelf  towards  the  ob- 
liged Party,  as  if  the  Obligation  had  ne- 
ver been  ;  that  it  may  plainly  appear, 
that  his  Intention  in  conferring  it,  was 
difinterefted  5  that  he  had  no  little  Defigns 
of  Profit  or  State,  to  ferve  in  it 5  but  that 
it  proceeded  purely  from  a  generous  Incli- 
nation to  promote  the  Happinefs  of  an- 
other. Whereas  on  the  contrary,  to  part 
with  any  thing  out  of  a  felfiQi  Defign, 
is  an  Exchange,  not  a  Gift  ^  which  when 
'tis  done  by  a  Perfon  of  Eftate,  is  an  Ar- 
gument of  a  mean  and  mercenary  Spirit. 
But  then  to  purfue  a  Benefit  with  Su» 
percilioufnefs  and  Contempt,  to  expeft  a 
Compliance  with  the  moft  unreafonable 
Humours^  to  give  upbraiding  and  con- 
tumelious Signs  of  the  dependance  and 
unworthinefs  of  the  Receiver  5  to  require  a 
Mm  to  relinquifh  the  necclTary  Free- 
dom   of  one    of   the    mad  folemn   and 

Q  bonourabl-^ 

aa6        The  OFFICE  of 

honourable  Profeflions^  this  turns  an  Obli- 
gation  into  Injury  and  Affront  5  and  looks 
like  a  malicious  Trap  fet  to  catch  a  Man's 
Reputation.  Who,  that  hath  either  Senfe 
or  Honefty,  would  turn  his  Canonical  Ha- 
bit into  a  Livery  5  and  make  himfelf  ufelefs 
and  ridiculous  for  the  greateft  Confiderati- 
on  whatever?  A  worthy  Perfon would fcorn 
a  Kingdom,  profferM  upon  fuch  diflionour- 
able  Terms. 

5.  If  we  put  the  cafe  as 'tis  determined 
by  Law ,    this  Praftice  will  appear    (till 
more  unreafonable.  Tis  fufBciently  known, 
and  were  it  not  for  the  overgrown  Preju- 
dices of  fome  Perfons,  it  were  fuperfluous 
to  mention,  that  the  Patron  is  fo  far  from 
having   a  full  Propriety  in  Church-Pre- 
ferments, that  his  Right  only  confifts  in 
a  Power  to  Nominate  who  (hall  enjoy  them. 
Which  very  Nomination,  muft  be  made 
within   Six   Months  3    and    fixt    upon    a 
Perfon  Canonically    qualified  5    otherwifc 
'tis  wholly  invalid.  His  Intereft  in  Church- 
Livings,   only  enables  him  to  give  them 
away  5    not    to    keep    them.      He    hath 
no  Power  to  enter  upon  any  Part  of  the 
Glebes^  or  Tithes^  or  fo  much  as  to  fe- 
quefter  the  Profits  for  the  next  Incum- 
bent.    He  is  only  a  Truftee  authorized 
under   certain  Conditions,    to  difpofe  of 
the  Patrimony  cf  the  Churchy  which  is 


^CHAPLAIN,  &c.     27y 

fettled  upon  it  by  as  good  Laws  as  any 
he  holds  his  Eftate  by.  That  Right  which 
he  hath,  was  originally  granted  in  con- 
fideration  of  Works  of  extraordinary  Pi- 
ety, in  Building  or  Endowing  of  Church- 
es: Which  is  a  Title  very  few  (except 
the  King)  can  pretend  to^  either  upon 
their  own,  or  their  Anceftors  Accounts. 
From  all  which  it  appears,  that  the  Pa- 
tron's giving  an  Annuity  out  of  his  Eftate 
is  a  quite  different  Thing  from  his  Pre- 
fenting  to  a  Living ;  and  therefore  his  Ex- 
peftations  of  Gratitude  and  Obfervance, 
fhould  not  be  fet  fo  high  in  this  latter  cafe : 
For  here  neither  Law,  nor  Religion,  allow 
the  Donor  to  be  a  Penny  the  better  for 
what  he  difpofes  of  5  he  cannot  Detain  the 
leaft  part  of  it  without  Injuftice  and  Sacri- 
lege 5  nor  Confer  it  upon  exceptionable  Per- 
fons,  without  Breach  of  Fidelity. 

The  Truft  indeed  is  honourable  and 
weighty  5  it  being  in  the  Power  of  thofc 
to  whom  'tis  committed,  to  encourage 
Learning  ^  and  to  provide  the  People 
with  prudent  and  confciencious  Guides :  But 
then  I  muft  add,  that  it  ought  to  be  dif- 
charged  accordingly  5  and  that  thofe  who  do 
not  chiefly  Aim  at  thefe  Ends  in  the  exercife 
of  it,  have  little  either  of  Confciencc  or  Ho- 
nour in  them. 

Q  2  We 

aiS      The  OFFICE  of 

We  have  Reafon  to  believe,  That  when 
the  Church  grave  this  Right  of  Prefentuion 
to  Lay-Patrons,  (for  that  the  Bifhops  had 
Originally  the  Right  of  Judging  the  Qualifi- 
cations of  Priefts,  and  fixing  them  in  their 
refpedive  Cures,  without  being  account- 
able to  a  ^tiare  iwpedit  for  their  refufal  of 
the  Peoples  Choice,  might  be  made  evi- 
dent, were  ii  pertinent  to  the  Bufincfs  in 
.hand,)  When  the  Church  I  fay  parted 
with  this  Flight,  flie  had  no  Sufpicion  of 
the  Degeneracy  of  after  Ages  5  but  imagined 
that  the  Integrity,  and  Confcience,  if  not 
the  Munificence  of  the  firft  Patrons,  might 
have  been  tranfmittedto  the  Heirs,  or  Pur- 
chafers  of  their  Right.  The  Piety  of  thofe 
Times  would  have  made  it  look  uncharita- 
ble, to  have  been  apprehenfiveof  i?ty?y/^2^w/ 
BoTjds  5  of  forced  Compcfiiions^  and  Con- 
tracts for  Far;^/s^  or  V/owerr,  But  fome 
People  have  now  learn'd  to  make  Bold  with 
God  Almighity  ^  beyond  the  Imagination,  as 
well  as  the  Example  of  their  Predeceffors^ 
and  to  beCuiltv  of  thofe  Sacrilegious  Frauds, 
which  by  the  late  Provifion  of  our  Laws 
againfl  fome  of  them,  feem  not  to  have  been 
io  much  as  thouglit  on,  in  thofe  more  Pri- 
mitive and  Religious  Days. 

And  here  in  point  of  Charity,  I  think 
mv  felf  obliged  to  dcfire  thofe  who  arc 
concern'd    in    the   Rights  of  Patronage, 


^CHAPLAIN,  d-t-.     ai9 

to  confidcr  before  'tis  too  late,  How  grer^t 
a  Sin  it  is  to  abufe  their  Power  ^  and 
through  Covetoufnefs,  or  fome  other  un- 
warrantable Principle,to  betray  the  Church  ; 
which  hath  in  fome  meafure  made  them 
her  Guardian:  It  imports  them  very 
much  to  refleft,  how  unworthy  and  un- 
chriftian  it  is  to  play  upon  the  Indigence 
or  Irrefolution  of  another^  and  take  an  Ad- 
vantage from  the  Unfortunatenefs  of  his 
Condition  or  Temper,  to  oblige  him  to 
mean  and  finful  Complyances!  And  what 
an  open  and  undifguifed  Affront  it  is  to 
the  Divine  Majefty,  to  endeavour  to  make 
his  Minifters  cheap  and  infignificint:,  both 
before,  and  after  the  conferring  our  pre- 
tended Favours  upon  them?  To  create  fer- 
vile  Dependences,  and  raife  our  private 
Grandeur  upon  the  Endowments  of  Reli- 
gion, is  a  perfeft  Contradiftion  to  thQ  End 
and  Defign  of  them.  This  makes  the  Church 
contemptible  by  the  Strength  of  her  own 
Revenues^  and  caufes  the  Monuments  of 
our  Fore-fathers  Piety  to  be  inftrumental 
in  undermining,  and  expofing  that  Faith 
they  thereby  intended  to  Secure  and  Ad- 
vance: Which  whofoever  is  guilty  of,  he 
may  be  affured  he  hath  a  Right  to  the  Im- 
precations, as  well  as  the  Patronage  of  the 
firfl:  Endowers  of  Churches  5  which  dread- 
ful Legacy  they  were  generally  verv  care- 

a^o       The  OFFICE  of 

full  to  Settle  upon  fuch  irreligious  Pofteri- 
ty,  SpelrrMJt  de  non  temerand.  EccL 

In  fhort.  To  proftitute  fo  facred  a  Truft 
as  this  is,  to  Pride  and  Ambition,  is  in  ef- 
f eft  to  Sacrifice  to  the  Devil  with  that  which 
is  confecrated  to  God  Almighty  5  and  looks 
like  a  more  provoking  Impiety,  than  Bel- 
jbazzcrs  debauching  to  the  Honour  of  his 
Idols,  in  the  Veffels  of  the  Temple,  Da?/. 
5.  :^,  4.  For  here  is  not  only  an  Abufe  of 
Holy  things,  but  Perfons  too^  and  God  is 
difhonoured  in  thofe  that  Reprefent  him 
upon  a  moft  folemn  and  important  Ac- 

I  fhall  now  at  laft,  crave  leave,  to  defire 
thofe  of  the  Clergy  who  are  engaged  in 
the  Families  of  Secular  Perfons  (for  I  mean 
no  other)  to  refleft  of  what  ill  Confequence 
it  is  to  Keligion,  for  them  not  to  Affert 
their  Office  in  a  prudent  defenfible  way: 
And  how  cheap  in  their  Perfons,  and  un- 
fiiccefsfnl  in  their  Employment,  they  muft 
ncceffarily  be,  if  they  betray  the  Privileges 
of  their  Funftion,  by  fervile  Compliance 
and  Flattery.  People  will  be  apt  to  ima- 
gine (and  not  without  Reafon)  that  thofe 
who  v/ill  Cringe  below  the  Gravity  of 
their  Charafter,  to  gain  a  little  of  this 
World,  can  fcarce  have  any  great*  and  Re- 
ligious Apprehenfions  of  the  Other.  Over- 
much Ceremony  in  a  Ckrgyman  is  fre-- 


VcUAVLAlN.d'C:      251 

quently  mifinterprcted  5  and  fuppofed  to 
proceed  not  from  his  Breeding  or  Humility  5 
but  from  a  confcioufnefs  of  his  Meannefs ; 
and  others  are  willing  to  allow  him  fo  much 
Senfe,  as  to  be  a  competent  Judge  of  his 
own  Inconfiderablenefs^  and  fince  he  con- 
fcfTes  himfelf  contemptible  by  his  Carriage, 
they  think  it  but  Jufl:  to  treat  him  accor- 
dingly. For  Men  of  Figure,  excepting 
thofe  who  are  very  Underftanding  and  Re- 
ligious, are  apt  to  have  Mifapprehenfions 
conveyed  into  them  by  over-proportioned 
Refpeft^  and  to  imagine  the  Diftance  be- 
tween him  that  gives  it,  and  themfelves, 
to  be  much  greater  than  really  it  is.  Since 
therefore  as  things  ftand,  there  is  fome  dan- 
ger left  Church-men  fliould  Complement 
away  the  Ufefulnefs  and  Authority  of  their 
Callifig  5  they  would  do  well  to  decline  fu- 
perlative  Obfervance^  for  fear  they  give 
others  a  wrong  Notion  of  their  Employ  5 
or  be  thought  to  have  Mc^n  Pcrfoffs  in  ad- 
miration  bccanfe  of  Advantage,  It  would  be 
no  more  than  requifite,  if  they  would  re- 
ferve  their  Duty  fpr  their  King,  their  Bi- 
fhop  and  their  Parents,  and  exprefs  their  Gra- 
titude to  their  Patrons  in  Language  lefs  li- 
able to  Mifconftrudion,  and  more  proper 
to  the  Relation  between  them.  For  as 
they  fliould  not  be  unwilling  to  own  the 
Diftinftions  which  the  Kings  Laws  have 

Q  4  raad^. 

252        The  OFFICE  of 

^Tiade,  as  they  ought  to  make  fome  parti- 
cular Acknowledgments  for  the  Favours 
and  Civilities  of  thofe  they  are  more  Im- 
mediately concerned  with,  and  by  inof- 
fenfive  and  agreeable.  Converfation,  pre- 
yent  all  reafonable  Sufpicion  of  their  be- 
ing difpleas'd  with  the  fuperiour  Quality, 
or  fortune  of  others  ^  fo  likewife  are 
they  obliged,  not  to  be  fo  ofEcioufly, 
or  rather  parafitically  mindful  of  the 
Condition  of  any  Perfon,  as  wholly'  to 
be  forgetful  of  their  own.  For  not- 
withftanding  the  Difadvantages  they 
may  fometimes  happen  to  come  into  the 
World  with  5  the  Conftitution  of  the 
Government  hath  fet  them  upon  the 
fame  Level  with  the  Inferiour  Gen- 
try 5  as  a  reward  of  their  Education  ^ 
and  out  of  regard  to  their  Funftion: 
Now  that  the  Laws  w^ere  not  Prieft- 
ridden,  and  fuperftitioufly  lavifh  of  their 
Honour  in  this  cafe  might ,  were  it 
neceffary,  be  abundantly  proved  from 
the  reafon  of  the  Thing,  and  the  ge- 
neral praftice  of  other  Countries  5  both 
with  refpeft  to  ancient  and  modern 
Times.  Thefe  Privileges  therefore  be- 
ing conferr'd  upon  juft  and  publick  Ac- 
counts, a  Man  is  fometirnes  bound  to 
maintain  ^  And  to  furrender  them  up 
fo  the  fupercilioufnefs  of  every  affuming 
"^        ^    ■  '  '  or 

^CHAPLAIN,(grc.      ijj 

or    ignorant    Pretender,    is    a    Reflcftion 
upon   the  Wifdom ,     and   Ingrntitude   to 
the  Religious  Bounty  of  thofe  Rings  who 
granted   them:    and    which    is  worfe,    a 
Churchman  by  malving  himfelf  Contemp- 
tible, hath  parted  with  his  Power  of  do- 
ing  good  5  and    confeqnently,  difappoint- 
ed  the  great  End  of  his  Calling.     Where- 
as without  doubt,  'tis  part  of  the  Defiga 
of  thefe  Privileges,  to  create  a  fuitable  Re- 
folution  and  Prefence  of  Mind   in  thofe 
that  have  them  ^  that  fo  their  Spirit  being 
raifcd  up  to  their  Civil  Station,  their  Cha- 
racter and  Deportment  may  be  the  better 
proportioned  5  and  their   Aftions  keep   a 
truer  Decorum  with   the  Nature  of  their 
OfEce^  that  they  might  not  be  Over-awed, 
and  almofl:  ftruck  Dumb  with  the  Glitter- 
ings  of  Title,  or   Fortune  ^  but   retain  a 
graceful  Freedom  in  Ccnvcrfation  ^  neither 
Idoh'zing    Grcatnefs,    nor    Neglefting    it. 
The  Intention  of  the  Laws  indifl:in2;ui(l]ing 
the  Clergy  from  the  Vulgar,    beficles  the 
Confideration  of  their  Merit,  was  to  put 
them   into  a  better  Capacity  to  maintain 
the  Honour  and  Intereft  of  Relif^ion  amon^ 
all  forts  of  Perfons^  that  theRichas  well  as 
the  Poor  might  be  advantaged  by  their  Mi- 
niftry;    and  when   Perfons  of  Condition 
were  to  be  told  of  their  Faults,  the  Pricft 
rnlght  be  fortified  v/ith  a  convenient  Cou- 

aj4        The  OFFICE  of 

rage  to  give  the  Reproof,  and  the  others 
difposM  to  receive  it  without  difguft  and 
impatience.  Now  to  be  ready  upon  all 
Occafions,  to  refent  any  Difhonour  done 
to  Religion  with  a  prudent  Gravity  and 
Aflurance,  carries  fuch  a  noble  Air  of  Great- 
nefs  and  undefigning  Honefty  in  it,  that  it 
Forces  a  fecret  Veneration  from  Enemies 
themfel ves  ^  and  though  a  Man  may  happen 
to  be  unjuftly  hated  for  fpeaking  unaccept- 
able Truths  5  yet  he  is  fure  never  to  be  de- 
fpifed.  Whereas  a  diffident  and  unfup- 
ported  Behaviour  in  a  Clergyman,  is  often 
fuppos'd  to  proceed  from  ignoble  Qualities  5 
and  confequently,  will  be  fure  to  weaken 
the  force  of  his  publick  Inftruftions  5  it 
being  natural  for  ill  Men  efpecially,  to  diC- 
regard,  if  not  to  deride  the  Admonitions  of 
thofe  they  believe  are  afraid  of  them  5  and 
he  that  cannot  talk  without  Concern  before 
a  Sinner  of  Quality  any  where  but  in  the 
Pulpit,  might  almoft  as  good  fay  nothing 
to  him  there.  For  if  a  Churchman's  Con- 
verfation  be  fervile  and  defigning  all  the 
Week,  his  appearing  with  a  new  Set  of 
Notions  upon  the  Sunday,  will  be  inter- 
preted only  a  formal  Compliance  with  his 
Profeffion :  His  preffing  thofe  Doftrines 
which  his  Praftice  contradifts,  will  fignify 
little  either  to  his  own  Advantage,  or  theirs 
that  hear  him:  For  though  Men  ought 


aCHAPLAIN.^c.      1^5 

to  mind  what  is  (aid,  and  not  who  fays 
it5  yet  the  Prejudices  of  the  Generality  are 
fuch,  that  a  good  Caufe  ufually  fufFers  very 
much  when  'tis  pleaded  by  an  improper 
and  exceptionable  Advocate  :  How  fulfom 
an  Entertainment  is  it,  to  hear  a  Coward 
harangue  upon  Valour  5  or  a  Covetous  Mi- 
fer  Preach  up  Contempt  in  the  World  ?  The 
Man  might  better  have  fpared  his  R.he- 
torick^  for  his  commending  thofe  good 
Qualities  he  neither  hath  the  Honefty  or 
Courage  to  be  Mafter  of,  is  in  effeft  but 
a  Satyr  upon  himfelf 5  and  ferves  only  to 
make  him  more  defpicable  and  ridiculous  5 
and  which  is  worfe,  the  fecret  Difdain  the 
Audience  hath  for  fuch  a  Panegyrift,  often 
Aides  from  his  Perfon  to  his  Subjeft^ 
which  makes  his  Exhortation  naufeous^ 
and  helps  to  bring  Virtue  it  felf  into  Dif- 

If  it  be  objefted.  That  the  Poverty  of 
fome  of  the  Clergy  forces  them  to  fupprefs 
their  Sentiments  in  fome  things  5  and  to 
fuffer  whatever  an  encroaching  Temper  fhall 
think  fit  to  put  upon  them :  To  this  I 
anfvver.  That  the  Temptation  to  this  Sin 
ought  to  have  been  prevented  before  their 
going  into  Holy  Orders:  For  thofe  who 
cannot  be  fupplied  with  a  competent  For- 
tune by  themfelves,  their  Relations,  or  at 
leaft,  by  fome  creditable  independent  Prc- 


g^^       TheO  FFICE^/;&c. 

fernTjnr,  hrirf  much  better  chufc  fome  other 
inferiour  Employment :,  than  expofe  them- 
felves  to  furh  apparent  Dinger  in  this :  But 
if  their  own  or  their  Friends  Imprudence, 
hathfentthem  unprovided  into  the  Church, 
'tis  more  Kepiitable,  Confr  ientious,  and  to 
a  gencrr)us  Mind  more  eafie  too,  to  fubmit 
to  the  fnconveniencies  (A'  their  ov/n  Po- 
verty, tlian  to  tlie  Pride  of  others ;  and  to 
prefer  a  homely  unornamenterl  Liberty, 
to  a  fplendid  Servitude.  And  as  for  thofe 
(if  tliere  be  any  fuch)  who  do  not  dif- 
charge  their  Office  with  that  Plainnefs,  and 
difrreetly  managed  Pvcfolution  which  God 
and  tlie  Church  expects  from  them  ^  it  will 
not  be  improper  to  remind  them  of  what 
Mf.  Herb^.rt  hath  written  upon  this  Occa- 
fion,  CoHnfry  Parfon^  pag.  5.  where  he  tells 
ITS,  "  Th'Jt  Hirh  Perfons  wrrjng  the  Prieil:- 
*'  hood,  neglect  their  Duty,  and  fhall  be  fo 
*'  fir  from  rhit  which  they  feek  l)y  their 
"  Ove^-fubmiffivenefs  and  Cringing,  that 
"  they  fhill  ever  be  defpifed.  Indeed  they 
have  no  reifon  to  expeft  any  better Ufage  ^ 
for  as  Flattery  is  defervedly  accounted  one 
of  the  moft  Contemptible  Vices;  fo  a 
Clergymin  when  he  is  giiilty  of  it,"isthe 
worli:  of  Flatterers.  To  which  we  may 
add,  That  'tis  hard  to  conceive  how  the 
Oith  agii'ifhSimony  can  be  fairly  taken  by 
fuch  Perfons  3  for  certainly  he  thatpurchafes 


aCHAPLAIN^r^c.      137 

his  Preferment  with  the  Prevarication  of 
his  Office,  does  no  lefs  contradift  the  Dc- 
fign  of  this  Oath,  than  if  he  had  paid  down 
the  full  value  in  Money  for  it:  He  that 
hath  bartered  away  liis  Freedom  andUfcfuI- 
nefs,  (and  as  mucli  as  in  him  lies  the 
Reputation  c>f  hisOrder)  cannot  in  any  rea- 
fonahleConftriiftion  be  faid  to  bePrcflntcd 

Thofe  tlicrefore  v/ho  arc  this  way  con- 
ccrn'd,  fhould  do  well  to  confider,  How 
•Mean  it  is  to  be  over-awed,  and  how  Mer- 
cenary to  be  bribed  into  an  Omiffion  of 
their  Duty!  What  a  fordid  and  criminal 
Perfidioufnefs  is  ir,  to  Betray  the  Hr;nour 
of  their  Function,  and  the  flappinefs  of 
their  Charge,  I" or  handful s  of  Barley  and 
pieces  of  Bread  ^  E/.ek.  13.  Mow  ill  do  they 
Reprcfent  the  God  of  Faithfulncfs  and 
Truth 5  who  either  by  verbal  or  filent  Mat- 
tery deceive  Men  into  a  falfe  PerfwaGon 
of  Security^  anddiffemble  their  Apprehcn- 
fions  of  Danger,  v/hen  the  Miflake  is  likely 
to  prove  Fatal  to  thofe  tliat  lie  under  it? 
Can  thev  that  pretend  (and  that  truly^  a 
Commifllrin  frr)m  our  Bluffed  Saviour, 
That  good  She[)herd,  Who  laid  dovrn  his 
Life  for  the  Sheep -^  Can  they  liave  fo  little 
Clarity  for  the  Souls  of  Men,  as  to  let 
tliem  mifcarry  out  of  Ceremony  and  Re- 
i\)LCt'^    and    ratlicr    venture    their    he'ng 


aj8       The  0¥¥lCE  of,  8^c. 

Damn'd,  than  Difobliged?  How  fuch  a 
Treacherous  Obfervance  will  be  look'd  up- 
on in  the  Great  Day  of  Accounts,  is  not 
difficult  to  foretcl  5  were  it  not  too  fad  an 
Argument  to  dilate  upon :  I  (hall  only  add. 
That  thofe,  v/ho  in  profpeft  of  Preferment, 
negleft  any  neceffary  Admonition  or  Re- 
proof, are  Falfe  to  the  Interefts  of  Religion^ 
the  Ends  of  their  Commiffion  ^  and  the  Au- 
thority of  their  Majler.  And  may  in  fome 
fenfe,  be  faid  to  repeat  the  Crime  of  jf//^^/ 3 
and  fell  their  SavioHr4 

O  F 


O  F    T   H  E 

O  F 


THere  are  few  Things  Reafon  can 
difcover  with  fo  much  Certainty 
and  Eafe,  as  its  own  InfufBci- 
ency.  This  is  an  over- officious 
Truth,  and  is  always  at  a  Man's  Heels 5 
fo  that  if  he  looks  about  him,  he  muft  take 
notice  of  it  whether  he  will  or  not.  Thof« 
who  are  ignorant  of  this  Imperfeftion,  are 
the  greateft  Proofs  of  it.  When  the  Woundl 
does  not  complain  upon  Searching^  'tis  ai 
fign  of  Mortification.  He  that  is  almoft 
Blind,  and  can't  fee  it,  feems  to  have  loft 
the  Notion  ,  as  well  as  the  nfe  of  Sight. 
In  fuch  cafes,  to  be  without  Senfe^  is  com- 
monly to  b  e  without  Cure :  And  though  it 
may  feem  an  odd  Undertaking,  to  give  a 
good  Reafon  why  a  Man's  Reafon  is  not 
GoQd :  Yet  upon  the  leaft  Enquiry,  we  (ball 
find  too  many  Experiments  to  keep  up  the 
Paradox.    To  g,ive  fome  Inftances  of  the 


24-0  Of  the  Wcaknefs  of 

Shortncfs.andDiforder  of  this  Faculty .  How 
Languid  it  is  under  the  Impotencics  of  Im- 
maturitv,  and  Age.     How  often  it  Drops, 
or  overQioots  by  the  Difproportions  o^  Di- 
ftance  or  Application.     How  'tis  run  down 
by  Fancy,  and  debauched  by  rntcrLft.     For 
the  purpofe,  as  Monfieur  Fafchall  obfcrves, 
The   Extremes   either  of  Youth  or  Age, 
make  a  Man's  Judgment  fail  him.     If  he 
thinks  too  Liitle  upon  Things,  he  over- 
looks Truth  ^  and  if  too  Long,  he  is  too 
much  dozed  to  perceive  it.     He  that  views 
his  own  Handy-work  juft  as  it  comes  off 
the  Anvil  5  is  apt  to  be  too  favourably  pre- 
pofllffed  to  pronounce:    And  if  he  ftays 
till  'tis  Cold,  and  the  Mode!  is  decayed  in 
Lis  Memory,    *tis  odds  but   fome  of  the 
Finer  Parts  v/ill  efcape  him.     There  is  but 
one  precite  point  proper  tofliew  a  Pifture 
in  ;  The  reft  Mifreprefent  by  Nearnefs,  or 
Diflance^  by  being  too  High,  or  too  Low. 
Pcrfpeclivc  vAW  tell   us  this  Nice  place  in 
Painting;  but  in  Thwh'nig  and  Mcrulify,  *tis 
not  fo  cafily  fixed.     Things  are  often  Mif- 
niarked   both  in  Contemplation  and  Life, 
for  want  of  Application  or  Integrity.     W'c 
are  too  Lazv  to  find  out  Truth  ^  or  too 
much  Interefted  to  confefs  it.     In  fetling 
the  Value  and  Quality  of  an  Obj.d ;  we  ei- 
ther follow   the  Multitude.,  who  j  idge  at 
random,  take  Things  upon  Trud,  and  dote 


HUMAN  REASON     24.1 

upon  Cuftoms  though  never  fo  unreafon- 
ably  begun:  Or  elfe,  we  are  governed  by 
thofe  who  Lead  the  Fafihn;  where  the, 
danger  of  Imitation  is  little  lefs,  through 
the  Vanity  and  Defign  of  our  Guides.  Upon 
this  Bafis  Opinion  is  erefted,  as  it  (lands  in 
Oppofition  to  Reality:  Hence  proceed  the 
Miftakes  of  Choice,  and  Averfion  5  the  Mif- 
calculations  upon  Merit  3  and  the  Mifma- 
nagements  of  Purfuit.  And  the  worft  is. 
Opinion,  or  the  Common  Sentiment  de- 
ceives the  more  dangeroudy,  becaufe  it  do's 
not  Deceive  always:  It  would  be  infalli- 
bly Right,  if 'twas  infallibly  Wron^.  For 
then  we  might  judge  by  Contradiftion, 
But  being  Counterfeit  only  for  the  moft  part, 
it  gives  us  no  Marks  to  difcover  the  Im- 
pofture^  But  ftamps  Truth  and  Falrtiood 
v/ith  the  fame  Impreflion.  What  procures 
Regard  and  Reputation  to  Perfons  and 
Things  ?  Truly  often  nothing  but  Opinion  ^ 
for  if  you  come  to  examine  them  clofely, 
you  will  find  them  fhrink  in  the  Argument. 
What  gives  a  Value  to  Jewels,  and  other 
Little  Curiofities?  What  heightens  the  Ex- 
pences  of  Luxury  in  Rarities  5  and  fets  the 
Dice  upon  a  Mans  Palate?  \Vhy  nothing 
but  Fancy  ftill  ^  for  if  thefe  Trifles  were  ra- 
ted only  by  Art  and  Ufefulnefs,  we  fhould 
have  them  much  Cheapear.  To  go  on  with 
Mr.  Pafchall  ty   Opinion   commands   every 

R  Thins; 

'2^0.  Of  the  Weaknefs  of 

Thing  5  Tis  in  a  great  meafure  the  Foun- 
tain of  Hono^iV'^  and  the  Soveraign  Judge  of 
Sufficiency,  of  Beauty,  and  Behaviour;,  for 
thcfe  Qualities  are  formed  upon  different 
Aftions,  Geftures,  and  Complexions  5  ac- 
cording to  the  Variety  of  Cuftom.  And 
which  is  more  furprizing,  the  Standard  of 
Jitft  and  Virjiijl^  is  often  alter'd  with  the 
Climate  5  Two  or  three  Degrees  of  Lati  nde^ 
is  enough  to  Ruine  a  Lawyer  5  to  make  the 
Twelve  Tables  Ufelefs  ^  and  Repeal  the  Sta- 
tute Book.  A  Meridian  upon  the  Globe,  or 
a  few  Years  of  Poffeffion,  decides  a  Caure3 
for  it  feems  Right  as  well  as  Hrflory^  has  its 
Chronological  Epocha  s 

Another  Inftance  of  the  Impotency  of 
ReaH^-n,  may  be  taken  from  the  Prevalence 
of  Fancy.  For  Example,  Let  a  Bridge  fome- 
what  Broider  then  the  fpace  a  Man  ufually 
takes  up  in  Walking  5  be  laid  over  a  Preci- 
pice, or  deep  River  :  Defire  fome  eminent 
Philofopher  to  take  a  Turn  or  Two  upon  it 
for  Meditation  fake.  I  warrant  you  for  all 
the  Strength  of  his  Notions,  he  begs  your 
Pardon.  For  though  he  can  demonftrate 
himfelf  as  fafe,  as  if  he  was  upon  2iBoxvlifig 
Green  :^  yet  he  is  fo  Ridden  by  his  Imagina- 
tion, that  he  dares  not  venture.  And 
fome  are  fo  ftruck,  that  the  very  Thought 
of  fuch  an  Undertaking,  will  make  them 
turn  Pale,  and  fall  a  fweating,     I  need  not 


HUMAN  REASON.     14.^ 

run  through  all  the  Particulars  of  this  kind* 
'Tis  well  known,  that  the  fight  of  a  Cat,  or 
the  fcratching  of  a  Platc^  will  difcompofe 
fome  People  almoft  into  an  Agony  5  and 
throw  their  Rcafon  quite  off  the  Hinges. 

Who  would  think,  but  that  a  Judge  Ve- 
nerable for  his  Years,  and  Eminent  for  his 
Ability,  (hould  keep  up  his  Charafter^  and 
behave  himfelf  fuitable  toPlace^  and  Occa- 
fion?    One  would  fuppofe  fuch  a  Perfon 
fliould  be  entirely  Governed  by  the  Reafon 
of  Things^  and  not  have  his  Imagination 
diforder'd  by  the  trifling  Amufements,  and 
Diverfions  of  little  People.     However,  for 
once.  Let  us  feat  him  upon  the  Be^/ch  in 
his  Purrs  and  Scarlet-^  with  all  the  Forma- 
lities of  a  Court  about  him.     And  in  the 
mid'ft  of  the  Caufe,  when  one  would  leaft 
expeft  it,  if  any  of  the  Council  or  Witnef- 
fes  happen  to  have  a  Rufty  Voice,  or  a 
fantaftical  Face  5  or  have  been  ill  Treated 
by  the  Barber,  I'll  hold  you  a  Wager  this 
Reverend  Man  forgets  his  Age,  his  Habit, 
and  his  Office  fo  far,  as  to  forfeit  his  Gra- 

The  Mind  of  the  greatefl:  Man  Living  is 
far  from  being  Independent  of  the  moft 
Contemptible  Accidents.  The  leaft  Noife 
is  enough  to  difturb  the  Operation  of  his 
Brain.  You  need  not  difcharge  a  Cannon  to 
break  the  Chain  of  his  Thoughts :  The  Patt 

R  2  of 

24-4-  Of  the  Weaknefs  of 

of  a  (hittle-Cock,  or  the  creaking  of  a  Jack 
will  do  his  Bufinefs.  It  may  be  you  are 
furprizd  to  hear  him  argue  at  an  unto- 
ward incoherent  rate.  Don't  fret  your  fclf, 
there  is  a  Fly  buzzing  at*s  Ear.  That's 
enough  to  make  him  Deaf  to  the  beft  Ad- 
vice. If  you  would  have  him  come  to  him- 
felf,  you  muft  take  off  his  little  Teazer^ 
which  holds  his  Reafon  at  Bay  5  and  difor- 
ders  that  Soveraign  Underftanding,  which 
gives  Law  to  Towns  and  Kingdoms. 

To  proceed,  Difeafes  may  likewife  be  rec- 
koned among  the  Principles  of  Miflake :  For 
they  fpoil  the  Temper  of  the  Blood  and 
Spirits  5  and  by  confequence,  impair  the 
Judgment  5  and  dull  the  Senfes  which 
fhould  give  us  Intelligence.  And  if  great 
Sickneffes  make  a  fenfible  Alteration  in  the 
cafe  5  I  doubt  not  but  fmaller  Indifpofitions 
do  a  proportionable  Differvice. 

Farther  ^  Our  Intereft  and  Inclinationf 
have  a  ftrange  Power  in  Deceiving  us.  A 
ftrong  AfFeftion  or  DiOike,  is  apt  to  Repre- 
fcnt  Matters  in  a  different  Light  3  and  to 
alter  their  Moral  Appearances.  A  Coun- 
cil retained  before  hand,  finds  the  Juftice  of 
tho  Caufe  improve  ftrangrely  under  a  good 
Fee  On  the  other  fide  5  fome  are  fo  hu- 
mourfomely  fearful  of  being  betray'd  by 
Partiality,  that  they  are  governed  by  a  moft 
unreafonable    Counter-Byafs.      The    only 


HUMAN  REASON.    245 

way  to  mine  a  Concern  depending  before 
them,  is  to  get  it  Recommended  by  their 
near  Relations.  Then,  They  will  be  fure  to 
give  it  againft  you.  Right  or  Wrong. 

To  wind  up  thefe  Refleftions  in  an  In- 
ftance  or  two  more.  A  Regard  for  Anti- 
quity, does  not  only  hold  us  in  unreafona- 
Dle  Servitude^  The  Charms  of  Novelty 
have  an  equal  Afcendant  over  us.  Hence 
it  is,  that  you  (hall  hear  Men  Charge  each 
other  in  Difputes,  either  with  being  govern- 
ed by  the  Impreffions  of  their  Childhood  5 
or  with  Rambling  after  new  Chimera's  and 
Fancy's.  Tis  an  hard  Matter  not  to  en-* 
dine  to  one  of  thefe  Extremes.  I  would 
be  glad  to  fee  the  Man  who  can  prove  him- 
felf  Exaft.  There  are  few  Natural  Prin- 
ciples (excepting  thofe  relating  to  Religion) 
againft  which  there  may  not  be  plaufible 
Objeftions  drawn  up:  Infomuch,  that  they 
may  be  made  to  pafs  for  falfe  Impreffions  ei- 
ther of  Senfe  or  hJiruSion.  For  the  pur- 
pofe.  One  ftarts  up  and  fays,  'Becaufeyou 
'  have  been  ufed  from  your  Childhood  to  be- 
'  lieve  a  Veir.1  empty  when  you  fee  nothing 
^  in't,  this  makes  you  fancy  the  probability 
'  of  a  Vaniiitn,  But  under  favour,  'tis  a 
'  meer  Dclufion  of  your  Senfes  fortified  by 

*  Cuftom  ^  which  you  muft  reftify  by  Sci- 
^  c^ce^  and  Second  Thoughts,  if  you  intend 

*  to  make  any  thing  of  your  Underftanding. 


046        Of  the  Weaknefs  of  &c. 

In  good  time  replies  another,  '  You  have 
'  heard  them  Difpute  againft  a  Vaatum  in 

*  the  Schools  5  Now  the  Reputation  of  the 

*  Place,  and  the  Jargon  of  Logick,  has  made 

*  you  diftrufl:  your  Senfes  ^  and  grow  mad 
'  in  Mood  and  Figure.     Prethee  let's  have 

*  no  more  of  this  Philofophical  Foppery . 

*  Return  to  your  firft  Miftrefs  Nature  ;  and 

*  believe  your  Eye-fight,  unlefs  you  have 

*  a  mind  to  be  Remarkable. 

But  to  leave  thefe  Difputants,  and  con- 

We  may  plainly  perceive,  That  the  Pre- 
judices of  Education  have  a  great  Stroak  in 
many  of  our  Reafonings^  and  that  the  Sen- 
timents of  Men,  difcover  the  Colour  of 
their  Original  Tinftures.  And  as  there  are 
fome  Inbred-Principles  impregnable  againft 
Cuflom  ^  fo  there  are  fome  Cuftoms,  which 
Nature  finds  very  Difficult  to  deal  with. 

F    I    N    I    S. 

-  Books  Printed  for  Richard  S  a  r  e. 

THE  Works  of  Flavins  Jofeplius,  Tranllatecl  into  En- 
gli(h.  Folio. 
Fables  of  itfop,  and  other  eminent  Mytholo2;ifts,  with 
Morals  and  Retiedlions.  Folio. 

Fables  and  Stories  Moralized,  being  a  fecond  Part  of  the 
Fables  of^fop,  and  other  Eminent  Mythologills.  Folio. 
Seleil:  Colloquies  oiitof  Erafmus.  Octavo. 
Qiievedo's  V  iaons.    Thefe  five  by  Sir  Roger  L'Eftrange, 
The  Gi:nriine   Epiftles  of  St.  Barnabas,  St-  Ignatius, 
St.  Clement,  St.  Polycarp,  the  Shepherd  of  Hermas,  with 
a  large  Preliminary  Difcourfc,  Oftavo. 

A  Practical  Difcourfe  againft  Profane  Swearing,  Oftavo. 
The  Authority  of  Chriftian  Princes  over  Eccleliaftical 
Synods,  in  Anfwer  to  a  Letter  to  a  Convocation  Man,  ^\ 
An  Appeal  to  all  the  True  Members  of  the  Church  of 
England  on  behalf  of  the  King's  Supremacy,  Oftavo. 

The  Principles  of  the  Chriitian  Religion  Explained  in  a 
Brief  Commentary  upon  the  Church  Catechifm.  The  Se- 
cond Edition.  O£lavo. 

The  Church  of  Rome  no  Guide  in  Matters  of  Faith,  In 

anfwer  to  a  late  Letter  from  a  Nephew  to  his  Uncle,  &c.  8\ 

The  State  of  the  Church,  and  Clergy  of  England,   in 

their  Councils,    Synods,  Convocations,  Conventions,  and 

other  Publick  Affemblies;  Hiftorically  Deduced  from  the 

Converfion  of  the  Saxons,  to  the  Prelent  Times.     With  a 

large  Appendix  of  Original  Writs,  and  other  Inftruments. 

Thefe  by  Dr.  Wake  Dean  of  Exeter. 

Epiftetus's  Morals,  with  Simplicius's  Comment,  inEng- 

lifh.  The  Second  Edition,  with  the  Addition  of  the  Life 

of  EpiC^etus.  Oftavo. 

The  Chriftian  Pattern,  or  aTreatife  of  the  Imitation 
ofChrift,  in  Four  Books  Written  Originally  in  Latin  by 
Thomas  a  Rempis,now  rendred  into  Englifh.To  which  are 
added  Meditations  and  Prayers  for  SickPerfons,  in  Oftavo, 
with  Cuts,  and  alio  in  12'. 

Parfon  his  Chriitian  Direftory,  being  a  Treatifc  ofHoly 
Refolution,  in  two  Parts,  Purged  from  all  Errors,  and  put 
into  Modern  Englifh,  &c.  Octavo. 

The  Chriftian  Religion  no  ]uft  Defence  to  the  Jews. 
Eight  Sermons  Preached  at  the  Cathedral  Church  of  St. 
Paul,  in  the  Year  1702,  being  the  Lecture  Founded  by  the 
Honourable  Robert  Boyle,  4  . 

Alfo  feveral  Sermons  upon  fpecial  Occafions, 

Thefe  by  Dr.  Stanhope.  Mo- 

Books  Printed  for  Richard  Sare. 

Moral  Maxims  and  Refle£lions,  by  the  Duke  of  Roach- 
foucault,  12  \ 

A  (hort  View  of  the  Profanenefs  and  Immorality  of  the 
Englifh  Stage,  with  the  Senfe  of  Antiquity  upon  this  Argu- 

A  Defence  of  the  Short  View  of  the  Profanenefs  and 
Immorality  of  the  Englifh  Stage,  &c.  Being  a  Reply  to 
Mr.  Congreve's  Amendments,  &c.  Oftavo. 

A  Second  Defence  ofthelhort  View,  &c.  In  Anfwer  to  a 
Book  Entitled  the  AntientandModern  StagesVindicated,8^ 

The  Emperor  M.  Antoninus  his  Converfation  with  him- 
felf,  together  with  the  Preliminary  Difcourfeofthe  Learn- 
ed Gataker.  As  alfo  the  Emperor's  Life,  written  by  M. 
b'Acier,  and  liipported  by  the  Authorities  Colle£led  by 
Dr.  Stanhope,  to  which  is  added  the  Mythological  Pifture 
of  Cebes  the  Theban :  Tranflated  into  Engliih  firom  their 
Refpe^live  Originals. 

Thefe  four  by  Mr.  Collier. 

Maxims  and  Reflections  on  Plays,  written  in  French  by 
the  Biihop  of  Meaux,withan  A dvertifement concerning  the 
Book  and  the  Tranflation,  by  Mr.  Collier,  O<:tavo. 

The  Turkifh  Spy  in  8  Volumes.     The  2d  Edition.  12% 

Humane  Prudence.     The  Ninth  Edition. 

Lemoynes  Art  of  Writing  and  Judging  of  Hiftory, 

Mackenzie's  Eflay  upon  Reafon. 

Sir  S.  Degg's  Parfons  Councellor,  or  the  Law  of  Tyths,  8% 

An  Anfwer  to  all  the  Excufes  and  Pretences  which  Men 
ordinarily  make  for  their  not  coming  to  the  Holy  Commu- 
nion, Price  3d. 

A  Gentleman's  Religion  in  3  Parts,  the  firft  contains  the 
Principles  of  Chriftian  Religion.  The  fecond  and  third  the 
Doctrines  of  Chriftianity,  both  ^s  to  Faith  and  Practice, 
with  an  Appendix,  wherein  it  is  proved  that  nothing  Con- 
trary to  our  Reafon  can  poiTibly  be  the  Objed:  of  our  Belief: 
but  that  it  is  no  juft  Exception  to  fome  of  the  Doftrines  of 
Chriftianity  that  they  are  above  our  Reafon,  i2\ 

Some  ihort  and  plain  DireOions  for  fpending  one  Day 
well,  Price  id. 

Plain  Inftruftions  to  the  Young  and  Ignorant,  Price  3  d. 

The  Cannon  of  the  New  Teltament  Vindicated,  in  an- 
fwer to  the  Objeftions  of  J.Toland.  By  John  Richardfon, 
B  D.  formerly  Fellow  of  Emanuel  Col.Camb.  the  2d  Edition. 

The  Chriftian  Scholar,  Price  3d. 

Fortune  in  her  Wits,  or  the  Hour  of  all  Men,  written  in 
Spanifh  by  Don  Quevcdo,  now  Eng.  by  Capt.  Stephens,  8°. 

Examen  de  Ingenios,  or  the  Tryal  of  Wits.  Price  55^ 


Upon    Several 

Part  ir. 

By  feremy  Collier ^  M.  A. 

Clje  !ftfti)  CDitt'on,  Co?red:cD  anti 


Printed  for  Rich.  Sare^  Dan.  Brown,  John 
Nicholfon,  Benj.   Tooke,    and  G.  Strahan. 


TO     THE 


Nothing  feems  lefs  under- 
.  jlood^  than  the  true  In- 
__  terejl  ofManl^nd.  "Tis 

granted^  many  vigorous  Eforts 
are  niade^  hut  oftentimes  to  til 
purpo/e.  JVe  love  to  dijlinguijj? 
our  [elves  by  Exceffes^  and  be 
Great  in  T)ij proportions^  as  if 
^twas  more  creditable  to  be  a 
Monjler  than  a  Man.  Our  At- 
taimnents  cannot  be  overlarge^ 
and  yet  ive  manage  a  narrow  For- 
tune^ very  Vnthriftily.  Some 
T^ruths  are  over4ooked^  and  o- 
thers  are  fifed  and  betray  d  :  So 
that  when  Ignorance  and  Hu- 
A   2  mour^ 

To  the  Reader. 

mour^  and  Flattery^  have  dons 
their  parts^  there's  little  remain- 
ing.  And  'which  is  rporje^  fome 
Failings  are  fo  Jlrongly  Entrench- 
ed^ that  'tis  hard  coming  at  them. 
T^hej  have  the  Protedlion  of 
Names  and  Numbers^  and  claim 
a  Trivilege  from  Arreit.  "But 
J^ith  Sibmijjion  ;  Errors  have  no 
better  Ktght  to  this  fort  of  San- 
Huary^  than  Treafon  had  to  the 
other.  It  can  be  ?jo  harm  there- 
fore to  drag  them  out  and  bring 
them  to  fujlice.  For  Cuftom 
has  no  Authority  to  prefcrtbe  a- 
gainft  Ke.ijon.  Actions  have 
not  their  Quality  from  Aden^  but 
Men  from  ABions.  iVhats  do?je^ 
and  why  -^  not  who  did  tt^  is  the 
right  way  of  Enquiring.  "But 
'tis  a  T^errible  "Thing  to  fern  the 


To  the  Reader. 

Stream  ofTraBice  :  JVe  mujl  he 
in  the  Falllion^  hovp  ill  or  unrca- 
fofiable  foever.  And  yet  if  the 
Leading  People  floould  Fire  their 
Houfes  in  a  Frolic k^^  or  catch  the 
TlagHCy  the  Humour  ivouldjcarce- 
ly  go  round :  T^hey  might  een  die^ 
and  he  undone  hy  themjehes. 

I  have  endeavour  d  to  remove 
thefe  Adijlal^es  in  the  Former  Ei^ 
fays :  T^he  defign  of  ivhat  Fol-  . 
lows  is  much  thejame.  It  is  to 
di/ingage  us  from  Prejudice  and 
falje  Keafoning.  To  "Proportion 
our  Hopes  and  our  Fears.  To 
l^eep  us  from  dramng  our  T  ret  en- 
Jions  too  ^ig>,  and  our  Faults  too 
Little.  'T/j  to  expo/e  the  iVeal^ 
nefs  of  Atheifm^  and  to  Vnmasl^ 
the  T>eformities  of  Vanity  and  ill 
Nature.  Injhort^'tis  to  direct  the 
A   3  Ojjices 

To  the  Reader. 

Offices  of  Life^  and  reach    into 
"^ufinejs^  and  Converfation. 

Some  of  the  ^\Ai]Qiisfeem  to  re- 
quire brighter  Colours  5  And  there 
the  T'urn    is  fonmvhat  diferent 
from  rvhat  it  had  heen^upon  a  more 
folemn  Argument.  As  for  the  Ter- 
formance^  I  can  only  riijlo  it  would 
have  held  up.  I  amfen/tble  Suffici- 
e?icy^    and  ExpeBations^  and  Cen- 
fure/un  high  at  prefent.  There's  no 
Proportion  between  Senfe  andCon^ 
fcience.    Aden  iVrite  and  Reli/Jj 
much  better^  and  Live  much  worfe 
than  formerly,  ^e fides ^  a  Caufe  of 
Concern  ought  to  be  pleaded  to  Ad- 
vantage. Virtue^  if  one  could  go  to 
the    Exp^nce    ont^    deferves  an 
Equipage^  both  to  marJ^  her  Qua- 
Ittj^  and  Command  KeJpeB. 
fm  Jure  the  Reader  is  heartily 


To  the  Reader. 

hefpol^e  on  the  other  fide.  Some  An- 
thors^QIamjorry  it  may  hefaidfo^ 
fee?n  to  Solicit  for  Vice.  One  would 
thinly  Atheifm  and  Lewdnefs  were 
fome  very  ufeful  Di/coveries^  they 
arefo  carefully  cultivated  and  im- 
proved. With  what  Magnifcence 
of  Art  are  thefe  T^hings  Jet  off  ? 
Withwhat Affellingldeas^  Toints 
of  Wit  ^and  pompom  T)efcriptions  ? 
As  if  it  was  a  glorious  Exploit  to 
Jap  the  Foundations  offuftice^  to 
Jlri\e  at  the  Vitals  ofKeligion.^and 
T)ehafe  Mankind ifito^rutes !  No 
doubt  ont  Mode jly  and  Conscience 
are  great  Enemies  to  Society ;  tis 
pity  therefore  they  are  not  thrown 
oftheir'^BafiSj  and Lauglo  d  out  of 
Countenance.  What  then-^  mufl  fine 
T^houghts  be  fifed  and  the  Flange 
of  Fancy  chec/(^d :,  Is  not  this  to 
A  zj,  cramp 

To  the  Reader. 

cramp  our  %)nderjlandmgs^andim- 
pofe  T>ullnefs  on  the  iVorld  ?  Yes^ 
fuch   Rejlraints  mthout  quejlion^ 
are  great  Grievances'.  IfaMm  did 
notMurther  now  andthen^he  might 
poJjiUj  forget  the  V[c  of  his  Wea- 
pon. Well !  IfSenfe  he  fo  iU  Na- 
turd  a  Quality^  I  iviJJ)  we  had  lejs 
071 1.    What  f  fome  Teople  have 
Wit  ?  Mujl  we  therefore  have  no 
Religion  ?  mtijl  the  Scriptures  be 
ill  Treated^the  Nohlejl  TrofeJJions 
ridiciiled^andthe  T)tgnityof  things 
made  an  Argument  for  Contempt  ? 
I  grant  there  may  he  Rhiming  in 
fuch  Conjequences^  hut  certainly  no 
Reafoii.    To  he  Muje-ridden  at 
this  rate   is  fomewhat  hard.     IJ 
thefe  Outrages   are  repeated^  we 
mujl    think^  of  Keprn^als  ;  and  - 
that's  aUI  Jloallfay  at  prefent. 

O  F 

O  F 

F  A  M  E 

I  N    A 



Thilalethes  and  Thilotimus. 

Philal.'yt^y'OuY  Servant.  I'm  afraid  I  may 
j^     difoblige  your  Bufineft  :  You 
-*"     feem  to  fit  in  a  Pofture  of 

Fhilot.  I  am  (b  :  And  without  more  Ce- 
remony, for  that  R^afon  am  glad  to  fee 
you  :  For  'tis  in  your  Power  to  affifl  me  in 
the  Argument  I  am  upon. 

Thilal.  I  dare  not  (ay  fo.  But  pray  what 
is  it  ? 

Philot.  I  was  confidering  the  Shortnefs 
pf  Life,  and  what  ill  Husbands  we  are  of  fo 


0/  F  A  M  E. 

flender  a  Fortune.  We  manage  at  that  rate 
of  Sluggifhnefs  and  Negled,  as  if  we  had  a 
thoufand  Years  for  Leifure  and  Improve- 
ment. The  greater  part  enter  only  like 
Mutes,  to  fill  the  Stage.  Sure  they  think 
themfelves  born  to  fiiew  their  Infignifican- 
cy  :  Why  eh'e  do  they  make  the  Voyage  of 
Life  to  fo  little  Purpofe,  and  fpend  their 
Taper  in  fmoke.and  fmother  ? 

Philal.  Look  you !  AH  Metals  will  not 
fliine  alike.  Bcfides,  the  Generality  want 
opportunity  to  brighten  and  burnifli.  They 
are  difabled  by  Labour  and  Indigence ;  and 
cannot:  diftinguifli  themfelves  with  that 
Advantage  you  feem  to  expedJ:. 

Thilot.  However,  if  they  would  put  on, 
they  might  be  remarkable  in  their  own 
way.  Glow-worms  will  fliine  though  un- 
der a  Hedg  ;  and  when  the  Wine  is  gene- 
rous the  leaft  drop  will  fparkle.  But,  like 
Beggars,  People  are  willing  to  diffemble 
their  Ability  ;  and  charge  their  Sloth  upon 
their  Impotence;  Whereas  if  they  would 
rovvfe  their  Spirits,  and  awaken  their  Vi- 
gour, they  might  probably  in  a  ihorttime 
command  the  Force  of  Nature,  reduce  their 
Bufinefi  to  the  Arc  of  Clock-work,  and  make 
it  ftrike  of  its  own  accord.  For  if  you  ob- 
ferve,  the  Drudging  part  of  Life  is  chiefly 
owing  to  Clumfinels  and  Ignorance ;  which 
either  wants  proper  Tools,  or  Skill  to  u(e 


0/FAME.  ^ 

them.  But  this  ^'s  not  all :  For  in  my  Opi- 
nion, the  Credit  cfthe  Improvement  would 
exceed  the  Conveiiifnce. 

Philal  If  every  Body  did  their  Befl,  and 
ftrain'd  to  the  extent  of  pofTibility,  I  grant 
you,  Things  and  Perfons^  would  be  really 
valuable;  and  Admiration  an  Argument  of 
Worth :  But  now,  confidering  the  Dege- 
neracy of  Mankind,  the  comm.on  Cry  iig- 
niiics  not  much.  If  any  Man  does  well, 
let  him  think  fb,  and  reward  himfelf.  To 
creep  after  Applaufe,  is  a  fervile  and  preca- 
rious Satisfaction. 

Thilot.  Without  Reflexion  ;  thofe  who 
defpife  Fame  feldom  deferve  it.  We  are 
apt  to  undervalue  the  Purchafe  we  cannot 
reach,  to  conceal  our  Poverty  the  better. 

ThilaL  What  if  'tis  held  too  high,  or  I 
don't  need  it  ,•  Is  it  any  harm  to  fay  fo? 

Philot.  It  argues  a  Tindure  of  Conceit  ; 
f  jr  v;e  cannot  leflen  the  common  Opmion, 
without  preferring  our  own. 

Philal.  You  know  I  am  not  fmgular,* 
but  if  I  were,  I  might  modeflly  enough  ap- 
peal from  Numhers  to  Reafon ;  for  there  the 
Caule  mufl:  be  tryed  at  laft. 

Philot.  I  am  willing  to  caft  it  upon  that 
lilue.  And  to  my  thinking  the  general  De- 
fire  of  Fame,  if  we  had  nothing  more  for't, 
proves  it  reafonable.  People  of  all  Condi- 
tions have  a  Regard  forpublick  Elteem,  and 


Of   FAME 

are  willing  to  be  remember'd  as  long,  and 
to  as  much  advantage  as  may  be ;  Now  Na- 
ture does  not  u(e  to  fpread  an  Inclination  fo 
wide  but  for  fignificant  Purpofts.  It  ftcms 
to  be  given  for  an  Incitement  to  Induflry,a 
Ferment  thrown  into  the  Blood  to  work  it 
up  to  Adion.  It  reconciles  Men  to  Labour 
and  Hazard,  fupports  their  Conftancy,  and 
helps  them  to  (hake  ofF  Sloath  and  Defpair. 
And  as  there  are  few  unaffefted  with  it  in 
(bme  meafure,  fo  it  takes  the  firmed  hold  of 
generous  Minds. 'Tis  a  Spark  which  kindles 
upon  the  beft  Fuel,  and  burns  brighteft  in 
the  braveft  Breaft.  Wealth  and  Pleafure 
are  vulgar  Alms,  but 'tis  Glory  which  is  the 
Ambition  of  a  Hero.  And  when  Honour  has 
once  gained  the  Affedions,  they  fcorn  to 
admit  a  Pvival.  Eafe,  and  Luxury,  and  Love, 
and  all  mufl  give  way  to  the  Favourite  De- 
fire.  The  Man  is  not  to  be  engaged  by  any 
Diverfions,  excepting  thofe  which  fecond 
his  Paffion,  and  ferve  him  in  his  Defign. 
And  it  mud  be  granted,  the  World  has  not 
been  a  little  obliged  this  way  :  The  famous 
Generals,Hi(lorians,Poets,  and  Painters  of 
Antiquity,  whence  were  they  produced  but 
from  this  generous  Principle  ?  This  was  the 
Paflion  that  pufiied  on  Themijlocles  ^nd  Bra- 
fidas^  that  raifed  the  Style  of  thucydidts ; 
that  formed  the  Greatnefs  of  Philip  and  Al- 
exander. This  is  that  which  gives  the  Heart 


Of    FAME. 5^ 

and  the  Head  their  lad  improvement ;  fliar- 
pens  the  Invention,  and  the  Sword  ;  and 
(hews  us  all  the  wonders  of  Art,  of  Con- 
dud,  and  Courage.  Had  it  not  been  for 
this  noble  Ardour,  Men  would  have  flopped 
at  bare  Convenience  :  The  growth  of  Sci- 
ence and  Ingenuity  had  been  checked,  and 
Life  not  Grac'd  with  fo  much  Ornament 
and  Magnificence.  The  RhodianColoJfus  had 
been  loft ;  the  Carian  Maufokum^  and  the 
Egyptian  Pyramids  unbuilt.  Now  why  a 
Quality  thus  beneficial  may  not  be  che- 
rilhed  and  admired,  is  paft  my  underftand- 

PhilaL  After  all  your  magnifying  of 
Farpe,  I  am  afi  aid  'twill  not  hold  up  to  your 
Standard.  'Tis  a  rich  Soil  I  grant  you  ;  but 
oftner  cover'd  with  Weeds  than  Grain. 
You  fay  it  produces  Heroes ;  fo  much  the 
v/or(c.  ' Twas  well  if  there  were  fewer  of 
them  ;  For  I  fcarcely  ever  heard  of  any,  ex- 
cepting Hercules JoiUt  did  more  mifchief  than 
good.  Thefe  overgrown  Mortals  common- 
ly ufe  their  PT/Z/with  their  Right  hand,and 
their  Reafon  with  their  Left.  Their  Pride 
is  their  Titky  and  their  Power  puts  them  in 
Poflcflicn.  Their  Pomp  is  furnilhcd  from 
Rapine,and  their  Scarlet  dy'd  with  Humane 
Blood,  to  drive  Jufticc,  and  Peace,  and 
Plenty  before  them,is  a  noble  Vid:ory  ,•  and 
the  progrefs  of  Violence  goe$  for  Extent  of 


Of   FAME. 

Empire.  To  mention  feme  of  your  own 
Inftances :  Pray  how  did  Fbil/p's  Glorious 
Humour  difcover  it  felf?  Why  mcflly  by 
Debauching, Outraging,  and  Murdering  his 
Neighbours.  'Tistrue,  the  Man  was  brave, 
and  had  been  feverely  handled  by  flicwing 
it.  He  had  fought  himfelf  almofl:  to  the 
flumps,  but  flill  he  went  on :  And  had  ra- 
ther have  neither  Limbs  nor  Senfes,  than 
Greece  ftiould  have  any  Liberty.  And  am 
I  to  admire  a  Man  becaufe  he  will  ufe  him- 
felf ill  to  ufe  me  worfe  ?  And  as  for  Alex- 
ander^ what  extent  of  Country  did  he  Ra- 
vage; and  how  many  thoufands  were  Sa- 
erificed  to  his  Caprice  ?  What  Famine,what 
Inundation,  what  Plague  could  keep  pace 
with  him  ?  Did  he  not  burn  the  Capital  of  an 
Empire  in  a  Froiick  ?  If  his  Power  had  been 
equal  to  his  Ambition,  God  could  fcarcely 
have  made  the  World  fader  than  he  would 
have  deflroyed  it.  If  Wrecks,  and  Ruins, 
and  Defolations  of  Kingdoms  are  Marks 
of  Grcatnefs ;  Why  do'nt  we  worfliip  a  Temr 
pell,  and  ered:  a  Statue  for  the  Plague  ? 
a  Panegyrick  upon  an  Earthquake  is  eve- 
ry jot  as  reafonable,  as  upon  fuch  Con- 
quefts  as  thefe.  As  for  the  adJive  and  pref- 
ftng  Induilry  of  thefe  Men,  and  the  hard- 
fliips  they  fubmit  to ;  what  is  it,  in  plain 
Englifli,  but  indefatigable  Ill-nature;  and 
Laborious  Malice?  And  arc  we  in  love  with 

Of    FAME. 

a  Wolf  for  his  Diligence,  or  a  Highway- 
man for  being  on  the  Road  late,  and  in  bad 
weather  ?  But  they  have  Courage  too.  What 
then  ?  Courage,  when  'tis  only  a  Second  to 
Injuftice,  and  falls  on  without  Provocation, 
is  a  difadvantage  to  a  Character.  Is  a  Ty- 
ger  to  be  courted  for  its  Fiercenefs  ?  Does 
the  ftrength  of  a  Poifon  make  it  the  more 
Glorious  ?  or  is  a  Fire  to  be  commended 
for  being  fb  bold  as  to  burn  a  Houfe  down  ? 
If  you  fay  they  hazard  their  Perfbns  ;  let 
them  take  what  follows  ,•  that  will  not 
mend  the  matter,  unlefs  their  Quarrel  was 
more  defenfible.  He  that  will  venture  the 
cutting  his  own  Throat,  rather  than  not 
cut  mine,  ftiall  ne'er  be  an  Hero  of  my  ma- 
king,  I  promile  you.  In  a  word,  this  thirft 
after  Glory  often  tranfports  Men  into  very 
dangerous  Excefles,  and  makes  them  the 
Bane  of  the  Age  they  live  irr.  'Tis  true,  it 
helps  to  keep  the  World  from  being  over- 
flock'd  ;  and  if  that  be  a  Credit,  let  them 
make  their  moll  of  it.  Your  improvement 
of  Arts  and  Sciences,  I  grant,  deferves  Com- 
mendation ,•  provided  they  were  laboured 
to  oblige  the  World.  But  if  Men  beat  their 
Brains  only  to  be  talk'dof;  I  think  their 
Skill  can  hardly  exceed  their  Vanity.  And 
as  Tor  thofe  Magnificent  Structures  you 
mention'd,  I  conceive  them  but  fmall  Ad- 
ditions to  thofe  who  built  them.  For  what 


8  0/    F  A  M  E 

Connexion  is  there  between  a  great  heap 
of  Stones,  and  a  great  Man  >  Or  how  can 
you  infer  the  one  irom  the  other  ? 

Phtlot.  Certainly  fuch  a  ftupendioiis  Pile 
befpeaks  the  Power  of  him  that  raifed  it. 

PhilaL  Yes,  It  proves  a  Prince  had 
Men  and  Money  in  abundance;  and  is  that 
fuch  a  Wonder  ? 

Philot.  I  thought  the  Noblenefs  and  Cu- 
riofuy  of  the  Work  had  proved  fomething 

PhilaL  It  does  fb.  But  the  credit  of  that 
does  not  belong  to  the  Monarch,  but  the 

Philot.  However,the  Prince  has  the  Name 
on't.  Now,  methinks,  'tis  a  Glorious  Privi- 
lege to  have  onesMemory  honourably  hand- 
ed down  to  after  Ages;  and  to  (land  upon 
Record  to  the  1  ateft  Periods  of  Time.  To  be 
contented  with  three  or  four  (core  years  of 
Breathy  looks  like  a  vulgar  Satisfadion. 

PhilaL  As  much  Breath  as  you  pleafe.- 
But  pray  let  it  come  from  my  own  Lungs, 
not  from  the  Trumpet  of  Fame  ;  for  tl^at's 
too  thin  to  live  on. 

Philot.  'Tis  Life  at  fecond  hand,  and  in 
fome  degree  preferable  to  the  firfl: ;  becaufe 
'tis  freer  from  Envy;  and  lafts  longer  into 
the  bargain. 

PhilaL  A  Man  is  longer  Dead  than  Liv- 
ing; therefore  it  feems  he  had  better  be 


0/  F  A  M  E, 

the  firft.     This  Logkk  won't  do.     And  as 
for  your  (ccond  hand  Living,  before  you 
depend    too  much  upon  it,  you  would  do 
well  to  try  !t  in  a  parallel  Inftance. 
Ph/lot,  How  is  that  ? 
PhilaL  Why  by  fecond  hand  Eating  and 
Drinking  ;  or  doing  it  by  Proxy.     Be  not 
furpri2ed,  the  Cafes  are  plainly  alike:  For 
if  another   Man's  Talking  can  give  me  a. 
Sort  of  Life,  why  not  his  Eating  too ;  efpe- 
cially  when  'tis  done  upon  my  Account  ^ 
NovV,   if  you  pleafe,  I   will  acfl  for  you  in 
this  latter  Bufinefs,  and  then  fee  how  yoii 
will  thrive  upon  the  Reprefentation. 

Philot.  Well !  When  vou  have  faid  all,' 
I  would  not  have  my  Name  thrown  into 
my  Coffin,  if  I  could  help  it.  Oblivion 
rtiethinks  looks  like  Annihilation  :  And 
riot  be  Talked  of,  is  almoft  not  to  Be, 

PhilaL  Your  Mame  I  A  Chimerical  Ad- 
Vantage  !  Tm  forry  you  are  Co  folicitous  to' 
immortalize  a  Sound.  What  is  G^/^r  the 
better  for  our  knowing  he  was  called  fo? 
VVas  it  worth  his  while  to  charge  in  Fifty 
Battles,  only  to  leave  a  iew  Letters  of  the 
Alphabet  behind  him  ? 

Si  decora  novimus  vocahida^ 

Nam  fcire  confumptos  daiur  ? 
A  Name  is  but   a  weak  Reprefentation  : 
And  if  the  Piece  was  never  fb  well  finilhedj 
What  f.gnifies  that  which  is  never  feen  ? 

B  Wdot. 

Of  ¥  AM  E. 

Vhilot.  You  mean  by  him  for  whom  it 
was  drawn  ? 

PbilaL  Yes.  For  (uppofing  a  Man's  Me- 
mory never  fo  honourably  treated  at  J^patj^ 
if  he  was  not  to  come  there,  nor  receive  in- 
telligence of  the  Refpe^a-,  what  could  he 
make  on't?  Such  an  unknown  Ceremony 
would  fignify  juft  as  much  as  Adoration  to 
a  Statue  :  He  that  is  infenfible  of  the  Fa^S:, 
muft  be  infenfible  of  the  Pleafure. 

Phi  lot.  Why  cannot  the  Prefumption  of 
what  is  done  give  him  fome  Satisfadtion  ? 

Vhtlal.  The  Certainty  of  fuch  an  Advan- 
tage cannot  be  reafonably  prefumed.  Many 
a  one  dies,  and  makes  a  large  Provifion  for 
his  Memory  ;and  leaves  it  very  rich  in  Tomb- 
ftones,  Pidlures,  Records,  and  fuch  other 
Chattels  of  Reputation  :  But  he  is  no  fooner 
gone,  but  comes  a  Fire,  a  Dgluge,  or  an 
Earthquake,  fweeps  away  all  the  Diftin- 
ftions  of  Condition,  and  buries  the  Great 
and  Small  in  a  common  Ob(curity.  Now 
the  Concern,  for  fear  of  fuch  an  Accident, 
mallfpoi!  the  Pleafure  of  your  Prefumpti- 
on. Befides,  take  things  at  the  befr,  you 
mull:  expedl  your  Memory  will  be  much 
confined,  and  as  it  were,  banillied  from  the 
greater  part  of  the  World.  You  are  abfo- 
iure'y  loft  to  all  the  Ages  before  you.  And 
as  for  the  reft,  if  you  were  a  Prince,  you 
v.GuId  be  farther  unknown  than  known, 


0/  F  A  M  E.  1  , 

which  makes  your  Obfcurity  greater  than 
your  Renou  n.  What  Tribute  of  Honour 
had  the  four  Empires  from  China^  or  Ame^ 
rka>  How  many  Nations  have  there  been 
which  never  fo  much  as  heard  of  the  Roman 
Name  >  Alas!  whjt  can  a  private  Man  ex- 
pedat  this  rate?  What  a  (lender  Portion 
mufl:  fall  to  his  Share  ;  and  that  without 
Security?  The  Cuftoms  of  his  Country 
may  be  changed,  the  Notion.s  of  Honour 
renverfed,  and  the  Language  which  iliould 
commend  him  worn  out.  Thus  the  con- 
quering Goths  altered  the  State  of  Things,^ 
defaced  the  Monuments  of  Antiquity,  ri- 
fled the  Living  and  the  Dead,  and  (uffered 
no  Marks  of  Greatncfs  but  their  own. 

Vhilot,  Thefe  Cafualties  mud  be  ventu- 
red ;  what  may  be,  may  be  otherwife.  Let 
us  overflioor  the  Grave  as  far  as  we  can^ 
and  make  the  moll  of  our  Materials. 

VbHal.  What  arc  thofe  ? 

Philot.  Ihey  aie  thofe  Advantages  of 
Ferfon,  Fortune,  or  Improvement  ,•  which' 
every  one  values  himfelf  mod  upon. 

VhilaL  Let  s  fee  then  how  durable  and 
fliining  they  are.  Now  take  them  in  ge- 
neral, and  you'll  find  tbem  no  more  than 
fbme  little  Progrefs  in  Art,  fome  Smatter- 
ings in  Science,  fome  Prctenfions  in  Figure 
and  Station  ;  fbmcthing  remarkable  it  may 
be  in  Eati?ig^  ^rejfingy  or  Diverfions,  Thcfe' 
B  z  are 

12  0/  F  A  M  E. 

are  the  Inclinations  of  no  fmall  Number  : 
Thefe  arc  the  Qiialitics  they  flrive  to  (  xcel 
in  5  and  this  oftentimes  is  the  true  Inven- 
tory of  their  Glory.  And  can  they  think  it 
worth  their  w  hile  to  be  remember'd  by  fach 
Tokens  3S  thele  ?  I'm  forry  they  think  their 
Underllandings  will  be  no  better  improved 
by  Dying. 

^hilot.  After  all,  there  mud:  be  fome- 
t'ling  more  in  the  Mnter  :  For  every  one 
is  driving  to  Ibrtify  againft  the  Aflaults  of 
Time.  You  lee  Artificers,  Men  of  Learn- 
ing and  Fortune,  get  their  Names  wrought 
into  their  iVorks^  and  Ejlates^  as  far  as  they 
can  :  And  for  this  reafon  the  Bulk  of  the 
Inheritance  is  cafe  upon  a  fmgle  Perfon. 

VhilaL  The  Vanity    of   Ibme   Parents 
makes  them  unnatural  ;  and  ad  as  if  they 
were  of  kin  to  none  but  t!ie  Eldefl:  Son.  *  i  is 
true,  their  Projedl  of  perpetuating  is  com- 
iFiOn  and  ancient  too.   The  Scripmre  (PfaL 
49. 3  mentions  Tome  who  called  tkeir  Lar?ds 
after  their  own  Names^  out  of  the  fame  fan- 
ciful Profpedt :    But  mark   what  follows. 
This  is  their  Foolijhnefs^  and  yet  their  Pojte- 
rity  praije  their  Saying;  thit  is,  they  did 
as  Foolillily  too.     Not  that  'tis  a  Folly  for  a 
Man  to  leave  his  Name  upon  his  Eftate": 
But  to  imagine  that  this  Provilion  will  do 
him  any  iervice  when  he  is  Dead,  There  is 
the  Weaknefi,     People  may  talk  what  they 


0/  F  A  M  E.  ,  3 

pleafe  of  Titles  for  ever,  and  Fees  Smple ; 
but  to  rpeak  properly,  there  is  none  a  Te- 
fjant  longer  than  for  Lrfc :  If  this  be  not 
La\v,  'tis  Senfc,  and  that  is  as  good. 

To  come  clofer.  W  hen  People  Die,  'tis 
cither  very  Weli^  or  very  111  with  them  ;  If 
they  mifcarry,  they  will  take  but  little  Plca- 
fure  in  the  Ceremony  and  Civilities  of  the 
Living,  Then  they  will  underfland  them- 
felves  too  weli  to  be  flattered.  Pray  what 
would  the  Refpe^of  the  Company  Hgnily 
to  a  Man  flretched  upon  the  Rack  .>  Alas'! 
He  is  not  to  be  relieved  with  fuch  Fooleries. 
All  the  Homage  and  Rhrtorick  in  the  vVorld 
can  ne'er  perfwade  him  cut  of  his  Mifcry. 
He  that  is  contemn'd  by  the  Wife,  and  pu- 
nifh'd  by  the  Mighty  ;  u  hat  comfort  can 
he  receive  by  the  Applaufr  of  the  Little  and 
Infignificant?  1  he  Acclamations  of  an  In- 
fant, or  a  Parrot,  would  be  a  (lender  Satif- 
faition  to  one  that  lay  bleeding  under  the 
Sentence  of  his  Prince  j  that  was  degraded 
and  fligmatizM,  tortur  a  With  Pain  and  Ig- 
nominy. Now  this  is  the  Fate  of  thofe  who 
raife  themfclves  upon  the  ruins  of  Con- 
fcience,  v/reft  their  Figure  from  Law  and 
Juflice,  and  feize  a  Grcatnefs  Gcd  never 
meant  them.  And  as  for  thofe  v»  ho  hind 
on  the  right  fide  of  x\\t  Shore ;  they  uill 
have  much  bigger  Company,  much  better 
Entertainments,  than  tliis  World  affords; 
'         '  D  3  The\'ll 

H  0/FAME. 

They'll  leave  their  childifli  Fancies  behind 
them,  out-grow  the  Stature  of  mortal  De- 
fires  and  fcorn  theft  little  Amulements 
which  pleafcd  them  here.  All  this  is  {aid 
on  ibppoficion  that  departed  Spirits  have  rhe 
knowledge  ol  humane  Affairs,  which  is  not 
very  probable.  The  other  World,  and 
this,  feem  too  far  afundcr  to  be  within 
Hearing,  And  for  the  Liberty  of  returning 
incognito^  I  believe  'tis  no  common  Privi- 
lege. When  weare  once  dead,  in  all  like- 
lihood the  Scene  of  this  World  is  wholly 
withdrawn  :  And  that  we  either  have 
not  the  Curiofity,  or  the  Power,  to  reco- 
ver it. 

Philof,  I  muft  repeat,  That  this  Earnefl- 
nefs  for  recommending  the  Memory  to 
Pofterity,  is  an  unextinguilhabie  Dcfire.  It 
governs  in  all  Places,  Times,  and  Condi- 
tions. And  to  think  a  little  Philofophy  can 
check  the  force,and  damm  up  the  current  of 
Nature,  is  a  fanciful  Undertaking.  You 
might  as  good  attempt  to  lay  a  Storm  by 
Reaioning;  and  flop  a  Sea-breach  by  pro- 
ving the  Water  gets  nothing  by  overflow- 

Philal,  There  are  {everal  Difeafes  as  uni- 
verfal  as  the  Defire  you  mention,  and  as 
much  fixed  in  the  Conftitution  ;  but  be- 
caufe  they  are  natural,  it  feems  we  muft 

not  go  about  to  cure  them. 


0/  F  A  M  £.  15 

Vhilot.  One  Word  and  I  have  done.  I  fay 
then,  To  baffle  the  Expectations  of  Fame  is 
to  diftourage  Deftrt.  It  (Irikes  Induflry 
almofl:  dead,  damps  the  Spirits,  and  makes 
the  Pulfe  beat  lazily.  If  your  Maxims 
(hould  take  Place,  Mens  Undcrftandings 
would  grow  downwards  ;  their  Courage 
and  Capacity  flirink  up  ;  and  a  little  time 
would  return  us  into  the  unpolifli'd  Igno- 
rance of  the  firfl:  Ages. 

Vhilal.  No.  Prefcnt  NeceflTity,  and  Con- 
venience, would  prevent  that  Confequence. 
And  to  filence  your  Fears  more  effectually, 
there  are  a  great  many  other  Motives  to 
Merit  ftill  remaining. 

A  Man  may  afFed  an  Excellency  for  the 
fake  of  Improvement;  for  the  Satisfadion 
of  Significancy.  He  may  do  it  to  excite  an 
Emulation  in  others,  to  oblige  his  Poflerity, 
to  ferve  his  Country  ;  and  to  furnifii  out 
Life  to  the  bed  Adv^antage.  Difcoveries  of 
Truth,  Defence  of  Juitice,  Examples  of 
Courage ,  and  fuch  other  diftinguifhing 
Qualities,  are  allowed  to  entertain  the 
Owner,  and  reward  him  for  the  Expence 
of  the  Pradice.  We  may  pleafe  our  felves  by 
confidering,  that  cur  good  Deeds  will  fur- 
vive  us  ,•  and  that  the  World  is,  and  is  like- 
ly to  be,  the  better  for  our  coming  into  it. 

And  if  this  will  not  fatisfy  you,  as  indeed 
it  ought  nor,  you  may  carry  your  Ambition 

13  4  to 

I  6  0/  F  A  M  E. 

to  a  nobler  Height.     I  fay,    to  a  nobler 
Height ;  for  I  cannot  help  reminding  you, 
that  the  Opinion  of  poor  Mortals  fignifies 
not  much.     They  pronounce  upon  imper- 
fcd  Views,  fhoot  their  Bolt  at  random  ;  and 
want   either   Strength  or  Steadineft  to  hit 
the  Mark.  Their  Partialities  fpoil  their  Judg- 
ment,  and  make  them  Praife  and  Cenfure 
without  Reafon  or  Meafiire.     Like  fome 
SpecSators  in  a  Flay,  they  are  apt  to  Laugh 
and  Admire  in  the  wrong  Place  ;  To  com- 
mend a  Man  for  his  Follies  and  his  Faults  ; 
or  for  that  which  is  not  properly  his  own. 
But  to  fpeak  familiarly,  There  are  great 
People  in  the  other  World  :  For  Rank,  for 
Merit,  and  Sufficiency,  extremely  valuable, 
TheRefped:  of  thcfe  I  confefs  is  worth  the 
Working  for.     Their  Comxmcndation  is  a 
Title   indeed;  enough  to  affed  the  m oft 
mortified  Humility.     But  if  we  exped:  this 
Honour,  we  muit  Live  as  it  were  under 
their  Obfervation ;  and  govern  our  Beha- 
viour by  their  Maxims.     Taking  this  for  a 
Rule,  that  with  them,  there  is  no  being 
Great,  and  good  for  Nothing;  noPoilef- 
jing  without  Purchafe  ,  and  nothing  cur- 
rent, but  Honefty  and  Virtue. 
Good  niahto 

Q  F 


G    F 

U  S  I  C  K. 

Shall  (ay  nothing  concerning  the  The- 
ory oiMufeck:  Thofe  who  have  a  mind 
to  inform  themfelves  about  it,may  con- 
ixAt  Boethius.Glarearnis  fialtruch'nis  .?.x\^ 
others,  who  have  written  upon  this  Sub- 
jed.     My  bufinefs  fliall  only  be  to  touch  a 
little  upon  the  Antiquity,   the  Reputation 
and  the  Force  of  this  Science.     The  Anti- 
quity of  Mufick  reaches  beyond  the  Flood : 
JuhaLNoalis  Brother,is  faid  to  be  the  Father^ 
or  firft  Teacher^    of  thofe  who  handled  the 
Harp^  and  the  Organ,     And  how  iar  a  Ge- 
nius which  lay  that  way  might  improve  his 
Invention,  in  {even  or  eight  hundred  years 
ofLiie  and  Vigour,  is  not  eafie  to  imagine. 
So  that  for  ought  we  know,  an   Antedilu- 
vian Air  might  as  far  exceed  all  the  latter 
Performances  of  Greece  and  Italy ^  as  that 
World  is  fuppofed  to  have  done  the  prefenr. 
And  how  much  (bever  this,  as  well  as  other 
entertaining  Arts,  might  fiiiler  by  the  Flood^ 
\>y  the  fliortnefs  of  Life  and  the  nccefiity 


i8  0/  MUSIC  K. 

of  Labour ;  It  was  not  long  before  it  emer- 
ged again  ;  As  we  may  learn  from  the  Song 
of  Mofes^  and  the  Tiwhrel  of  Miriam.  Job 
likewife,  who  is  fuppofed  no  lefs  ancient 
than  the  other,  mentions  feveral  forts  of 
>4ufical  Inftruments,  (Ch,  ii.)  And  which 
is  obfervable,  neither  of  thefe  Divine  Au- 
thors fpeak  of  them  as  things  newly  inven- 
ted, hs  for  the  Heathen,  they  did  not 
forget  to  divert  themfelves  this  way  in  thofe 
earUer  ages:  Lintis  and  Amphion^  and  Or- 
pheus^  and  Chiron^  who  aliliv'd  before  the 
Trojan  War,  were  famous  Muficians  in  their 
Times.  Some  of  thefe  Heroes  were  at  the 
Head  of  the  Argonautick  Expedition.  And 
therefore  f  cannot  fee  why  the  Welch  Harpy 
if  it  was  Dubb'd,  might  not  make  as  Ho- 
nourable a  Knight-hood  ^st\\Q  Golden  Fleece; 
efpecially  fince  they  would  have  Apollo  for 
the  Sovereign  of  their  Order,  To  come  a  lit- 
tle lower  : Homer  brings  in  A/?i//f5,reUeving 
his  Melancholy  with  his  Lute,  And  Tully 
tells  us,  that  the  ancient  Grecians^  the  moft 
poliilied  Nation  at  that  time,  did  not  think 
a  Gentleman  well  bred,  unlefs  he  could  per- 
forqi  his  part  at  a  Confort  of  Mufick.  In- 
fomuch  that  Themijlocles,  though  otherwife 
a  great  Perfon,  was  tax'a  for  being  defe- 
ctive in  this  accomphdiment.  'Tis  true,  he 
turn'd  oil  the  Cenfure  with  a  rough  fort  of 
a  JeR-.  He  knew  hqw  to  take  a  Town,  he 

faid  ,• 

of  MUSICK.  19 

{aid;but  as  for  Thrumming  upon  a  Fiddle, 
he  left  it  to  fijch  Finical  Sparks  as  they 
were.  Mufick  was  anciently  u(ed  in  the 
beft  Company,  and  upon  the  greateft  Oc- 
cafions.  'Twas  the  Entertainment  of  People 
of  Qiiality :  k  bore  a  part  in  the  Magnifi- 
cence of  Triumphs,  and  in  the  Solemnities 
of  Religion.  The  Heathen  Liturgy  confifted 
partly  in  Hymns  ,•  and  their  Sacrifices  were 
Offered  up  with  Mufick;  as  Plutarch  in- 
forms us  :  The  Jemfb  Service,  tho'  with 
a  proper  diverfity,  was  likewife  thus  regu- 
lated :  And  by  theScripture-defcriptions 
feems  to  be  performed  with  that  exquifice- 
neft,  as  if  nothing  but  the  New  Jerufilem 
could  reach  the  Harmony  of  the  Ohl.  The 
bed  Poets  thought  this  Entertainment 
great  enough  for  the  El) fan  Fields.  And 
St.  John  has  brought  it  into  Heaven,  or  into 
the  Millenaal  Paradifinical  Earth,  which  is 
next  to  it.  (Rev.  14.)  Indeed  Mufick,  when 
rightly  ordered,  cannot  be  prefer'd  too 
much.  For  it  recreates  and  exalts  the  Mind 
at  the  (ame  time.  It  compofes  the  Paffions, 
affords  a  ftrong  Pleafure,  and  excites  a  No- 
blenefs  of  Thought.  But  of  this  more  af- 

The  manner  of  the  Conveyance  of 
Sounds,  which  is  as  it  were  the  Bafis  of 
Mufick,  is  untciligible.  For  what  can  be 
piore  ftrange,  than  that  the  rubbing  of  a 


20  0/    MUSIC  K. 

little  Hair  and  Cat-gut  together,(hou'd  make 
fuch  a  mighty  alteration  in  a  Man  that  fits 
at  a  difiancc  ?  But  this  wonder  of  Perception 
is  not  peculiar  to  the  Ear :  For  the  Operati- 
ons o{  z\\t\\t  Sen fes  ^XQ  in  fome  refped  in- 
comprehenfible.  The  Senfe  of  Hearings  as 
well  as  that  of  5/^,i/,feems  to  be  of  a  fuperi- 
our  Order  to  the  reft.  It  commands  a  Satif- 
faftion  at  a  greater  diflance,  ftrikes  a  finer 
ftroak  and  makes  a  fingle  Objed:  divide 
it  felf  without  Lefi^ening.  For  Infiance:  A 
Man  may  Tee  the  light  of  a  CandlejSnd  hear 
a  Voice  or  Inftrument,  as  well  if  there  be 
ten  in  the  Room,  as  if  he  was  there  alone. 
The  ftream  of  Sounds,  though  cut  into  fe- 
vera!  Rivulets,  comes  as  full  to  the  Ear  as 
if  it  had  but  one  Channel  to  feed.  The  Taft 
and  Touch  are,  if  one  may  fay  fo,  more  nar- 
row Spirited.  They  engrofs  an  objed-  to 
themfeves,  and  will  not  let  the  Company 
(liare  with  them.  They  take^Tafter  hold, 
'tis  true,  but  then  they  do  not  Salute  fo  Ce- 
remonioudy.  They  are,  comparativelj^,  a 
fort  of  RobufijPeafantly  Senfes  :  And  thofe 
who  indulge  them  are,  in  Reality,  of  the 
loweft  Pvank  of  Mankind.  The  Force  of 
Mufick  is  more  wonderful  than  the  Con- 
veyance. How  ftrangely  does  it  awaken 
the  Mind  >  It  infufes  an  unexpeded  vigour, 
makes  the  imprefiion  agreeable  and  fpright- 
ly,  and  (eeiBS  to  furnifli  a  new  Capacity,  as 


0/*    Mil  SICK.  2  1 

well  as  a  new  opportunity  of  Satisfadion. 
It   raifts  and    falls,    and  counter-changes 
the  Pallions  at  an  Unaccountable  rate.     It 
Charms  and   Tranfporis,  Ruffles  and  Be- 
calms, and  Governs  with   an  almoft   Ar- 
bitrary Authority,    There  is   fcarcely  any 
Conllitution  fo   heavy,  or  any  Reafon  fo 
well  fortified,    as  to  be   ablblutcly  proof 
againfl  it.     Ulyjfes^  as  much  a  Heroe  as 
he  was,  durit  not trufl;  himftlf  with  the*?/- 
rens  Voices  :    He   knew,  if    he  had   not 
waxed  up  his  Ears,  they   would  quickly 
have  fpoiled  his  Fhilofopl>y.    I  believe  the 
fofter  Mufick  may  the  more  be  irrefiftible  of 
the  two ;  becaufe  the  Soul  has  a  fort  of  Ge- 
nerolity  in  it,  which  loves   rather  to    be 
Courted   than  Stormed.      However,    the 
rougher  Sounds  are   not  without  their  ef- 
fed".     Have  you  not  obferved  a  Captain  at 
the  Head  of  a  Company,  how  much  he  is 
altered  at  the  Beat  of  a  Drum?  what  a  vi- 
gorous Motion,  what  an  ereded  Pofcure, 
what  an  enterprizing  Vifge,  all  of  a  fiid- 
dain?    His  Blood  charges  in  his  Veins,  his 
Spirits   jump  like  Gunpowder,  and  feem 
impatient  to  attack  the  Enemy      The/^n- 
tients  were  much  our  Superiors  in  this  My- 
llery.     They  knew  how  to  Arm  a  Sound 
better,  and  to  put  more  Force  -ind  Con- 
queft  in  it  than  we  underftand.  1 ',;  give  an 
lnftaf>ce  or  two:  Timotheus^^  GreciaHy  was 


22  0/  MUSICK. 

fo  great  a   Mafler^  that  he  could  make  a 
Man  ftorm  and  fwagger  Hke  a  lempeft^ 
And  then, by  ahering  theNi7/^^,and  the  Time. 
he  would  take  him  down  again, and  fwceten 
his  humour  in  a  trice.  One  time,when  Alex- 
ander was  at  Dinner,  this  Man  play'd  him  a 
Thrygian  Air :  The  Prince  immediately  rifts, 
fnatches  up  his  Launce,and  puts  himlelf  in- 
to a  Pofture  of  Fighting.     And  the  Retreat 
was  no  fboner  Sounded  by  the  Change  of 
the  Harmony,  but  his  Arms  were  Ground- 
ed, and  his  Fire  extind: ;    and  he  fate  down 
as  orderly  as  if  he  had  come  from  one  of  A- 
riflotle's  LeBures.  I  warrant  youDemo(}henes 
woutd  have  been  flourilhing  about  fuch  a 
Bufmefs  a  long  .hour,  and  may  be  not  have 
done  it  neither.  But  Tmotheus  had  a  nearer 
Cut  to  the  Soul :    He  could  Neck  a  Paffion 
at  a  firoke,  and  lay  it  afleep.     Pythagoras 
once  met  with  a  parcel  ofDrunken  fellows, 
w^ho  were  likely  to  be  troublefome  enoughe 
He  prefently  orders  the  Mufick  to  play- 
Grave,    and  chop  into  a  Dorion:    Upon 
this  they  all  threw  away  their  Garlands, 
and  were  as  fbber  and  as  (hamefaced  as  one 
would  wi(h. 

That  the  Mufick  of  the  Ancients  could 
command  farther  than  the  Modern,  is  paft 
Difpute.  Whether  they  were  Matters  of  a 
greater  Compafs  of  Mofes^  or  knew  the  Se- 
cretof  varying  them  more  artificially  .-whe- 

Of    M  U  S ICK.  2; 

therthey  ac^juftcJ  the  Intervals  of  Silence 
more  ex^-.lly,  had  their  Plands  or  their 
Voices  iardier  improved,  or  their  Inftru- 
ments  better  contrived  :  Whether  they 
had  a  deeper  infight  into  the  Fhiiofophy 
of  Nature,  aisd  underllood  the  Laws  of 
the  Union  of  the  Soul  and  Body  more 
throughly  ;  and  from  thence  were  enabled 
to  touch  the  Paflions,  ftrengthen  the  Senfe, 
or  prepare  the  Medium  with  greater  Ad- 
vantage:  wliether  they  excellM  us  in  all, 
or  in  how  many  of  tliefe  ways,  is  not  fb 
clear.  However,  this  is  certain,  That  our 
Improvements  of  this  kind  are  little  better 
than  Ale  houfe  Crowds  with  refped:  to 

'Tis  likely  this  Declenfion  ofMufickhas 
laid  fome  Powers  of  the  5oul  perfedly  a- 
fleep,for  want  of  an  Occafion  flrong  enough 
to  call  them  up.  But  poflibly  we  are  no 
great  lofers  by  it :  For  the  Heathens  otten 
made  an  ill  ufe  of  this  Advantage.  1  he 
Fathers  declaim  againfl:  their  Theatre  Mu- 
fick,  as  Lewd  and  Licentious.  No  doubt 
'twas  capable  of  being  Reformed  to  Manly 
and  Religious  Purpofes.  And  on  the  other 
hand,  'tis  no  Ie(s  probable  we  might  have 
mifimploy'd  it  as  much  as  they  did. 

And  here  it  may  not  be  improper  to  con- 
fider,  whether  there  may  not  be  (bme  Coun- 
ier:foti}jds;    which  may  give  the  Mind  as 


24  0/   MUSIC  K, 

high  adifgufl:,  as  the  other  can  a  pleafure. 
For  the  Purpole  :  I  believe  'tis  pofTible  to 
invent  an  hjlrument  that  (hall  have  a  quite 
contrary  Ehfed:  to  thofe  Martial  ones  now 
in  u(e.  An  hiirument  that  (hall  fink  the  Spi- 
rits, and  iliake  the  Nerves,  and  curdle  the 
Blood,  and  infpire  Defpair,  and  Cowardife^ 
and  Confternation,  at  a  furprifing  Rate. 
'Tis  probable  the  roaring  of  Lions,  the  war- 
bling of  Cats  and  Scritch-Owls,  togeiher 
with  a  mixture  of  the  howling  of  Dogs,  ju- 
dicioufly  imitated  and  compounded,  might 
go  a  gr.'i^ac  way  in  this  Invention.  Whe- 
ther (uch  Anti-mufick  as  this  might  not  be 
of  Service  in  a  Camp,  \  (hall  leave  to  the 
Military  Men  to  confider.    To  return. 

Though  the  Entertainments  of  Mufick 
are  very  engaging  ;  though  they  make  a 
great  difcovery  of  the  Soul ;  and  (hew  it 
capable  of  ilrange  Diverfities  of  Pleallire: 
Yet  to  have  our  Paflions  lie  at  the  Mercy 
of  alittleMinllrelfy;  to  be  fidled  out  of  our 
Reafon  and  Sobriety  ;  to  have  our  Courage 
depend  upon  a  Dr^w  or  our  Devotions  on 
an  Organ^  is  a  fign  we  are  not  fo  great  as 
we  might  be.  If  we  were  proof  againit  the 
Charming  of  Sounds ;  or  could  we  have  the 
Satisfad'ion  without  the  Danger  ,•  or  raife 
our  Minds  to  what  pitch  we  pleas'd  by  the 
9ixtngxhoiThitjkb2g^  it  would  be  a  Nobler 
Inftance  of  Power  and  Perfedion,-  But  fuch 


Of  MUSICIC  25 

an  Independency  is  not  to  be  expeded  in 
this  World ,  therefore  we  mufl:  manage 
wifely,  and  be  contented. 

One  word  oF  Church- Mufick^  and  I  have 
done.  The  end  of  Church  Mufick  is  to  re- 
heve  the  wcarinefs  of  a  long  Attention; 
to  make  the  Mind  more  chearful  and  com- 
pofed ;  and  to  endear  the  Offices  of  Religi- 
on. It  fnould  therefore  imtiate  the  Perfume 
of  the  Jeivifh  Tabernacle^  and  have  as  lit- 
tle of  the  Compofition  of  common  Ufe 
as  is  podible.  There  mull  be  no  Voluntary 
Maggots^  no  MW'xt'^Yy  Tatoosy  no  Light  and 
Gailiardizing  Notes;  nothing  that  may 
m.ake  the  Fancy  trifling,  or  raife  an  impro- 
per thought  :  This  would  be  be  to  Pro- 
phane  the  Service^  and  bring  the  Play-houfe 
into  the  Church.  Religious  Harmony  mud 
be  Moving,  but  Noble  withal ;  Grave,  So- 
lem.n,  and  Scraphick:  fit  for  a  Martyr  to 
play,  and  an  Angel  to  hear.  It  ihould  be 
contrived  fo  as  to  warm  the  beft  Blood 
within  us,  and  take  hold  of  the  fineft  part 
of  the  Atiediions :  To  Tranfport  us  with 
the  Beauty  of  Holinefs ;  to  raife  us  above 
the  Satisfadions  of  Life,  and  make  us  Am- 
bitious of  the  Glories  of  Heaven.  And 
without  doubt  if  the  Morals  of  the  Quire 
were  fuitable  to  the  Defign  of  the  Mufick,it 
were  no  more  than  requifite.  To  come 
reeling  from  a  Tavern,  or  a  wor(e  place, 

C  into 

26  0/ MUSI  C  K. 

into  a  Church,  is  a  monftrons  Incongruity. 
Such  irregular  People  are  much  fitter  tor 
the  Exercifes  of  Tenance^  than  Exultation. 
The  ufe  of  them  defervcs  the  Jnterefl:  of 
Religion  :  And  is  in  Efted  little  better  than 
Singing  the  Praifes  of  God,  through  the 
Organ  Oi  the  Devil 



OF     THE 


O    F 


TO  quarrel  with  the  prefent  State  of 
Mankind  is  an  ungrateful  Refledi- 
on  upon  Providence.     What  if  the 
Offices   of  Life  are  not  fo  fine,  and  great, 
as  we  can  fancy;  they  are  certainly  much 
better  than  we  can  challenge?    What  pre- 
tence could   Nothing  iiave  to    infift  upon 
Articles  ?  As  long  as  the  Conveniences  of 
Being  may,  i^  we  plcafe,  exceed  the   In- 
conveniences, we  ought  to  be  thankful  ; 
For  the  overplus  oF  Advantage  is  pure  un- 
merited Favour,     He  that  repines  becaufe 
he  is  not  more  than  a  Man,  deferves  to  be 
lefs;    Indeed  the  very  complaint  makes 
him  (6.   But  the  Errors  on  this  hand  are  not 
fb  common :  People  are  not  fo  apt  to  be  too 
big  to  Live,  as  too  little  to  Die.     They  are 
much  more    frequently  over  fond  of  the 

C  z  World, 

28    0/r/;^  VALUE   of  LIFE. 

World,  than  afliam'd  on't,  Not  that  there  is 
a  perfed:  indifferency  requir'd.  The  Laws  of 
Self  prefe»'vat;on,  the  long  acquaintance  oF 
Soul  and  Body,  the  un  try 'd  Condition  of 
a  Separation,  and  Pvefped:  to  our  Friends, 
are  fufficient  Reafbns  not  to  turn  our  Backs 
upon  Life  out  of  an  Humour.     The  very 
iincafinefs  of  taking  Leave,  is  a  fairexcufe 
to  flay,  when  it  may  be  done  handfomely  : 
For  no  body  is  bound  to  put  himfclf  to 
pain   to  no  purpoi^-     No\v  'tis  odds  buf 
that  there  will  be  a  Pang  at  parting  ;    For 
the'  a  Man  is  born  into  this  World  with 
his  MotherV  Labour,  yet 'tis  his  own  that 
mult  carry  him  to  the  other.     Beildes,  he 
that  does  not  go  off  with  a  goodConfcience, 
mud  expedt  a  very  bad  Reception.     This 
Confideration  was  overlooked  by  moil  of 
the  Heathen  Philofophcrs.     They  thought 
AKr^ihi  lilt  ion  was  the  hardefl:  of   the  Caie  .* 
That  Death   would  make  a  Man  defar  ant 
nullus^  Happy,  or  Nothing.    This  Miftake 
made  their  Arguments  bear  up  w^ith  a  more 
negligent  Romantick  fort  of  Bravery,  than 
othervv  i(e  they  would  have  done.     But  Re- 
ligion, which  gives  us  a  pro[pe<5i  of  Horror 
beyond  the  Grave,  lliould  make  us  carelul 
how  w^e  go  thither.     Life  was  given  for 
noble  Purpofes;  and  ther-cfcre  we  mud  not 
part  With    it   fooliihly.     It    muil  not  be 
thrown  up  in  a  Pet,  nor  Sacrific  d  to  a  Quar- 


of  the  VALUE  of  LIFF.    29 

rel,  nor  whined  away  in  Love.  Pride,  and 
Pafllon,  and  Difcontent,  are  dangerous  Dif- 
cafes  to  die  of.  VYe  are  Lifted  under  Pro- 
vidence, and  muft  \a  ait  till  the  Difchirge 
comes.  To  Defert  our  Colours  will  be  of 
more  than  mortal  Confcquence.  He  that 
goes  into  the  other  World  before  he  is  fcnt 
tor,  will  meet  with  no  good  Welcome. 
On  the  other  fide,  a  Man  may  be  too  back- 
ward as  v/ell  as  too  forward,  in  Ref'gning. 
Life  miay  be  over- valued,  as  well  as  other 
Things ;  and  he  that  buys  it  at  the  Expence 
of  Duty,  purchafes  too  dear.  Some  People 
feem  refolved  to  Spm  out  Liie  as  long  as 
they  can  :  They  are  for  going  to  the  utmoll: 
Extent  of  Nature  :  And  will  not  venture  a 
fingle  Fulfe  upon  any  Confideration.  But 
to  dote  upon  Breathing  (Jot  'tis  little  more) 
at  this  rate,  is  to  turn  Slave  to  all  forts  of 
Meannefs  and  Vice.  Fright  fach  a  one  but 
with  the  Fear  of  Death,  and  you  may  make 
him  fay  or  do  what  yo'j  pleaf^ ;  though  nc- 
ver  fo  infamous  or  ridiculous.  And  if  his 
Cowardize  is  not  tryed  thus  far,  yet  this 
Lean  Principle  will  be  fure  to  keep  him  Ser- 
vile and  Infignificant-  Fie  wil!  never  touch 
at  a  great  Propofal  ;  nor  run  any  generous 
FJazards  -or  his  Friends  or  Country.  And 
is  it  worth  ones  \\  hile  thus  to  vi\v/d  Lile, 
above  the  Ends  and  Purpofes  of  Living  ? 
The  Refoluticn  of  F^/jv^^9' Vv'asniiicii  more 
C  I  be. 

30   Of  the   VALUE  0/  LIFE. 

becomings  who  \\hen  he  was  diiTwaded 
from  embarking  hecaiife  the  VV eather  was 
tempeftuous ,  replied  very  handfomely. 
Gentleraen^  Make  no  r.wre  Words  ont.  My 
Voyage  is  r,cceffar}\  my  Life  is  not  fo. 

The  true  Eftimate  of  being  is  not  to  be 
taken  from  Age,  but  Action.  A  Man,  as 
he  manages  himfcl-,  may  die  Old  at  Thir- 
ty, and  a  Child  at  Foiirfcore.  To  nurfe 
up  the  vital  Flame  as  long  as  the  Matter 
will  lad,  is  not  always  good  Husbandry. 
'Tis  much  better  to  cover  it  with  an  Extin- 
guijher  oiHonouY^  than  let  it  confiime  till 
it  burns  Blew,  and  hcs  Agonizing  withm 
the  Socket;  and  at  length  goes  out  in  no 
Perfume,  if  the  Sun  wcr-r  not  to  rife  again, 
methinks  it  would  look  bigger  for  him  to 
tumble  from  the  Sky  at  Noon,  with  all  his 
Light  and  Heat  about  him,  than  to  gain  a 
Courfe  of  four  or  five  Hours,  only  to  Lan- 
guiili  and  Decline  in. 

When  a  noble  Occafion  prefents  ;  an 
Occafion  that  will  bear  a  cool  Debate,  and 
(land  the  Teil  of  Rcafon,  and  may  be  plea- 
ded to  Advantage  in  the  other  World  ; 
When  a  Man  is  called  upon  to  offer  up 
himfelfto  his  Confcience,  and  to  Refign  to 
Juftice  and  Truth  :  In  (uch  a  Cafe,  one 
would  think,  helhould  be  fo  far  from  avoid- 
ing the  Lifts,  that  he  fliould  rather  enter 
w^ith  Inclination^and  thank  God  for  the  Ho- 

Of  the  VALUE  of  LIFE.    31 

nour  of  the  Opportunity.  He  (hould  then 
be  more  fblicitous  about  his  Behaviour  tlian 
hi)  Life.     Then, 

Fortem  pofce   animum  &  mortis  terrore 
Let  him  pray  for   Refoluticn  to  ad:  up 
to  the  Height  of  the  Occafion.     That  he 
may  diftover  nothing  of  Meanncfs,  or  Dif- 
order  :    nothing  that    may  difcredit  the 
Qanfe^  tarnifli  the  Glory,  and  weaken  the 
Example  of  the  SufFe  ring.     There  are  fome 
Opportunities  of  going  out  of  the  World, 
which  are  very  well   worth  ones  while 
to  come  in  for.     The  laft  Ad:  of  Life,   is 
fometimes  like  the  laft  Number  in  a  Sum^ 
Ten  times  greater  than  all  the  reft.  To  flip 
the  Market  when  we  are  thus  faiily  offer'd, 
is   great  Imprudence;  efpecially  confider- 
ing  we  muft  part   with  the  Thing  after- 
wards for  Lefs.     But  is  it  not  a  fad  Thing 
to  fall   thus  plum  into  the  Grave  ?  To  be 
well  one  Minute,  and  dead  the  Next  ?  Not 
at  all !  If  we  are  prepared,  the  iliorcer  the 
Voyage  is,  the  better.     Is  it  not  more  eli- 
gible  to  come  in  with  a  fmooih  Gale,  than 
to  be  tolled  at  Sea  with  a  Storm  ,•  and  then 
thrown  a  Shore  when  the  Vcflll  is  wrecked  ? 
Is  it  fo  defirable  a  Condition  to  run  ^hrough 
a  long  Courle  of  Pain,  to  conlume  by  In- 
ches, and  lofe  ones   Blood  by  Drops  ?  A 
Death- bed    Figure  is  certainly  the  moft 
C  4  humbling 

^1    Of  theY  ALVLE  of  LIFE. 

humbUng  Sight  in  the  World.  To  fet  in 
fb  dark  i;  Cloud,  and  to  go  oiT  with  Lan- 
guor, Convulfions,  and  Deformity,  is  a 
terrible  Rebuke  to  the  Dignity  of  Hu- 
mane Nature.  Befides,  People  are  fright- 
ed by  Phantoms  of  their  own  raifing,  and 
impofed  on  by  Words  and  Things  ill  joined 
together.  A  Natural  Death  is  generally  the 
moft  Violent.  An  Executioner  does  the  Bu- 
finefs  more  gently  than  a  Difeafe.  He  that 
can  conquer  his  Imagination,  may  pollibly 
die  eafier  of  a  Faggot  than  of  a  Fever  :  And 
had  better  chufe  to  have  the  Fire  kindled 
without,  than  within  him. 

To  fay  Fkfb  and  Blood c^LVinot  be  recon- 
ciled to  this,  is  a  Miftake.  People  have 
fbmetimes  too  much  Courage  this  way  ; 
How  often  does  Revenge,  and  Poverty,  and 
Difappointment  ,  make  Men  force  their 
Paflage  into  the  other  State  ?  A  Slave  has 
Stomach  enough  to  kill  himfelf :  And  he 
that  is  not  Mafter  of  his  Liberty,  will  be 
Mafler  of  his  Life.  There  is  no  Age  nor 
Sex,  no  Pafnon  or  Condition,  fo  difpirited 
and  low,  i)ut  affords  Inftances  of  the  Con- 
tempt of  Death.  The  old  Goths,  from 
whence  the  Saxons  are  probably  defcend- 
ed,  were  fo  hardy,  that  it  w^as  part  of  their 
Difcipline  and  Religion  to  fcorn  their  Lives. 
If  they  were  afraid  of  any  Thing,  it  was 
of  dying  in  their  Beds. 


Q/f/;g  VALUE  of  LIFE.    33 

In  Alexanders  Time  the  Indian  Philofo- 
phers  when  they  were  weary  of  Living, 
ufed  to  lie  down  upon  their  Funeral  Pile, 
without  any  vlfible  Concern.  And  after- 
wards, about  the  Reign  of  Adrian^  Lucian 
mentions  one  Peregrhus,  who  jump'd  into 
a  fiery  Furnace  at  the  Olympick  Games, 
only  to  (hew  the  Company  how  far  his  Va- 
nity could  carry  him.  At  this  day,  the 
Heathen  Women  under  the  Moguls  offer 
themfelves  to  the  Flames  at  the  Death  of 
their  Husbands.  'Tis  true,  the  Mabtme^ 
tans  will  not  always  let  'em  have  their  will : 
But  they  think  they  are  hardly  dealt  with, 
whenrefufed;  and  make  all  the  Intereft 
they  have  for  the  Honour.  I  need  not  men- 
tion the  Primitive  Chriflians,  whofe  Forti- 
tude was  both  General  and  Extraordinary. 
Infomuch  that  Latiantm^  and  others,  ob- 
(erve,  That  the  Women  and  Children  did 
not  iliew  the  lead  figns  of  Complaint,  ei- 
ther in  Looks,  Voice,  or  Motion,  when 
they  Teemed  to  lie  under  the  Extremity  of 
Torture.  But  it  may  be  replied,  and  that 
truly.  That  theft  were  fupported  by  Tii. 
pernatural  ftrength.  However,  the  for- 
mer Inftances  may  fuffice  to  (hew,  That 
there  is  aGreatnefs  in  Humane  Nature  not 
to  be  over  awed  by  Death.  The  v/ay  to 
be  PoiTefled  of  this  Quality  to  purpofe,  is 
to  live  welL    There  is  no  fuch  Bravery  as 


34  Of  ^/:>g  VALUE  of  LIFE. 

that  of  a  good  Chriftian.  He  that  can  look 
the  other  World  in  the  Face,  needs  fear 
nothing.  But  as  the  Courage  of  Bullies 
and  Town-Sparks^  who  are  fo  hardy  as  to 
rifque  Body  and  Soul,  upon  a  point  of  pre- 
tended Honour,  There  is  no  Language  can 
reach  their  Extravagance.  They  are  Di- 
ftempered  beyond  the  Lunacy  of  Bedlam^ 
and  fhould  be  taken  care  of  accordingly. 

O    F 


O  F     T  H  E 

S  P  L  E  E 

THE  Spleen  is  often  times  nothing  but 
a  nice  and  exceptious  Tern  per,  which 
takes  check  at  every  little  Difappointment. 
A  Tindure  of  Conceit  will  make  a  Man 
fubjed  to  this  Difiemper.      Thofe  who 
over-value  their  Pretentions  are  apt,  upon 
every  little  Occafion,  to  think  they  are  ill 
ufed.  That  Quality  (liould  grow  thus  cheap, 
and  Merit  be  thus  over-lookt!   who  could 
have  imagined  People  (b  ftrangely  ftupid 
and  unacknowledging?  well!  ill  lock  up 
my  Face,  and  draw  in  my  good  Humour, 
and  do  my  (elf  the  Juftice  of  a  private  Re- 
fentment.    Theft  Expoflulations  in  words 
would  be  ridiculous,  and  therefore  they  are 
fuppreHed  ;  but    they    (eem    to    be    the 
Thoughts  of  fome  Perfbns.    You  need  not 
provoke  their  Spirits  by  Outrages,  either 
in  Fame  or  Fortune,  or  by  any  Injury  of  a 
greater  Size.     A  carelefs  Gefture,  a  Word, 
or  a  Look,  is  enough  to  difconccrt  them. 
Such  a  (uppofed  negledt  fpreads  a  glcomi- 
nefs  upon  their  humour,  and  makes  them 
grow    fullea   znd    unconverfable.      And 


^6         Of  the  SPLEEN. 

when  they  are  difturbed  only  by  their  own 
weaknefs,  and  doing  Penance  for  their 
Vanity,  they  lay  tlie  fault  upon  their  Con- 

'Tis  commonly  faid  the  Spleen  is  a  wife 
Difeafcy  which,  I  believe,  makes  fome  fond 
of  catching  it.  'Tis  pofTible  it  may  be  the 
only  fymptom  of  Senfe  they  have  about 
them.  But  if  a  Man  can  fliew  his  Under- 
Handing  no  better  way  than  by  troubling 
himfelf  and  the  Company,  let  him  e'en 
pretend  to  it  no  longer;  but  rather  make 
It  his  bufineG  to  be  a  Fool.  However,  it 
mud  be  granted  that  thefe  Fits  of  Chagrin 
proceed  fometimes  from  Natural  Caufts. 
The  Fumes  of  Indigeftion,  infenfible  Abate- 
ments of  Health,  fudden  Changes  of  wea- 
ther affed:  the  Brain,  though  they  make 
no  fenfible  imprefiion  elfewhere.  This  di- 
flurbs  the  Imagination,  and  gives  a  new 
and  Melancholy  Complexion  to  the  Ap- 
pearances of  Things.  Wife  thinking 
and  good  Humour,  unlefs  People  look  to 
it,  are  precarious  Advantages  ;  a  Cloud  is 
enough  to  overcaft  them  ;  they  rife  and 
fall  with  the  Mercury  in  the  Weather-Glafs, 
Some  Men  can  fcarcely  talk  Senfe^  unlefs 
the  Sun  fhines  out.  Underflanding  re- 
quires a  kind  Climate,  as  well  as  Plants. 
And  if  a  Man  would  make  nice  Remarks, 
he  might  almoft  tell  in  what  Latitude,  Sea- 


Of   the  SVI.E  EN.  37 

fon,  and  Circumllanccs,  a  Book  was  writ 
in.  Generally  fpeaking,  Northern  and 
Southern  Wit  differ  almoft  as  much  as 
Fruics  ;  by  Confequcnce,  Summer  and 
VVinter  mud:  have  a  proportionable  Influ- 
ence. Ovid  detiiJlihush^iS  nothing  of  the 
Air  of  bis  Metamorphofis ;  and  Tully  affer'd  to 
prove  himfelf  not  deprefled  by  a  Misfor- 
tune, by  the  Spirit  he  wrote  with  under  it. 
When  outward  Caufts  concur,  the  Idle, 
the  Anxious,  and  the  Unfortunate,  are 
foonefl:  feized  by  this  Infedion.  At  fuch 
a  time,  a  Man  fliould  awaken  hiaifelf  ^  and 
immediately  ftrike  ofl  into  Bufmeis,  or  in- 
nocent Diverfion.  Next  to  Religion,  there 
is  nothing  like  a  vigorous  Mind.  Refoluti- 
on,  and  Spirit  will  quickly  repel  the  Ma- 
lignity, and  difcufs  the  Humour.  Now 
every  one  is  bound  in  Honour,  as  well  as 
Interell:,  to  do  his  Beft.  For  to  lie  at  the 
Command  of  fb  many  little  Accidents,  can 
be  no  pleaHng  difcovery.  To  loft  the 
Comforts  of  Life  in  a  few  Vapours^  and  to 
be  fmoaked  and  fmothered  out  of  ones  Rea'^ 
fon^  are  far  from  Circumftances  of  Credit. 
What  wife  Man  would  bring  the  Night- 
mare upon  his  Fancy  ;  and  conjure  up  Ap- 
paritions to  frighten  himfelf?  Who  would 
double  his  Mistortunes,  and  fpoil  the  habit 
of  his  Body  and  his  Mind,  if  he  could  help 
it  ?    The   Evils  of  Neceffity  arc  numerous 


^8  Of  the  SPLEEN. 

enough,  without  being  multiplied  by  thofe 
of  Choice. 

And  as  the  Spleen  has  great  Inconveni- 
ences, fo  the  Pretence  of  it  is  a  handfome 
Cover  for  many  Imperfeftion^.     It  oftea 
hides  a  Man's  Temper,  and  his  Condition, 
from  breaking  out  to  Difadvantage.     For 
the  Purpofe  ;  One  Man  is  prefs'd  with  un- 
ufual  Poverty,  and  looks,  as  he  hasreafon, 
fbmcvvhat   odly  upon  it.     What  makes 
this  Alteration  ?  why,  his  Blood  is  over-run 
with  Melancholy  ;  whereas  if  you  examine 
farther,  you  will  find  thz  Seat  of  the  Di- 
ftemper  hes  in  the  Pocket,     Another  is  fe* 
verely  mortify 'd  by  (bme  great  Difappoint" 
ment;  but  this  mud  not  be  own'd  :    No> 
The  Man  is  Impregnable,  he  has  his  xMind 
in  a  String;  but  no  body  can  com.mand  a 
Conftitution.     He  that  has  difpirited  him- 
felf  by  a  Debauch,  drank  away  his  good 
Kuniour,  and  it  m^ay  beraifcd  his  Confci- 
cnce  a  little  upon  him,  has  this  pretence  to 
guard  againft  Cenfure  :  A  civil  Gueffer  will 
believe  him  H}'pocondriacal,  and  all  is  well. 
If  he  is  filent  and  unentertaining  to  a  Vifiter, 
the  Spleen  is  his  excufe,    and  conveys  his 
Pride  or  Difaffed-ion    out  of   fight.      In 
ihort,  the  Spleen  does  a  great  deal  of  Ser- 
vice in  Converfation :    It  makes  ill  Nature 
pafs  for  ill  Health,  Dulnefs  for  Gravity,  and 
Ignorance  for  Refervednefs. 


of   the  SPLEEN.  39 

The  way  to  prevent  this  Diftempcr,  and 
cure  it  u^hen  it  lies  in  the  Mind,  is  not  to 
be  over  Expe^ing,  If  we  take  it  amifs  that 
our  Acquaintance  are  not  always  ready  to 
folicitour  bufinefs,  to  fludy  our  inclinati- 
ons, and  to  compliment  our  humour,  we 
are  likely  to  have  work  enough.  To  look 
for  To  rbliging  a  World  as  this  comes  to, 
h  xo  mir-^alcul^.te  extremely.  When  all  is 
done,  irioil  People  will  love  themftlves 
beft.  Ihvrelore  we  Ihould  not  be  furpri- 
zed  when  we  (ee  them  prefer  their  own 
Intereft,  break  a  Jeft  at  ourCoft,  or  raife 
thcmfeives  by  our  deprelTion.  'Tis  poffible 
they  may  only  makt  Reprifals,  and  return 
our  own  uftge  upon  us.  However  'tis  good 
nor  10  build  too  much  upon  the  Fairnefs  of 
odr:rs.  More  efpecially ;  thofe  who  wou'd 
be  tafie,  mud  not  be  Nice  in  trivial  Mat- 
ters,- nor  infiHon  Pundtualities  in  Behavi- 
our ;  nor  be  afRided  at  the  Omiifion  of 
a  little  Ceremony.  All  People  do  not  love 
to  be  ty'd  down  to  Forms,  nor  to  walk  in 
Trammels.  If  a  Man  values  Regard,  he 
needs  not  ask  the  Company  ,•  he  may  give 
it  hinr^i'elf  ii  he  plea&s.  Thefe  Disputes 
commonly  diforder  none  but  Weak  and 
Fantaft^ck  Minds,  who  have  taken  a  Surfeit 
of  Profperity  :  And  fince  God  has  fent 
them,  no  CrofTes,  they  are  refolved  to 
make  ibme  out  of  their  own  Indifcretion. 


40         Of  the  S  P  L  E  E  N. 

To  conclude:  He  that  would  live  at  Eafe 
iliould  always  put  the  bcft  Confirudionon 
Bufmefs,  and  Converfation.  He  ihould 
not  fuppofe  there  was  MaU'ce,  or  Contempt, 
meant  him  in  every  Adion  he  does  not 
underiland.  To  interpret  up  to  this  Ri- 
gour, will  make  him  often  miftaken,  and 
always  upon  the  Fret :  And  is  the  way 
neither  to  be  juft  to  others,  nor  kind 
to  himfelf. 

O  F 


O     F 


O     F 


DEfire  is  a  Confcious  Emptinefs,an  un- 
farisfied  Capacity  ;  It  implies  want 
in  the  very  Notion,  and  fuppofes  the 
Abfence  of  the  Thing  defired.  Was  our 
Power  equal  to  our  Will,  Defire  would 
be  a  lliort-liv'd  Pailion  ;  it  would  generally 
begin  and  end  at  a  fingle  Thought.  For 
then  wefliould  put  our  felves  in  PofTcflion, 
at  the  firft  fight,  of  whatfoever  we  belie- 
ved agreeable.  Every  fntelligent  Being, 
if  its  Force  was  not  limited,  would  foonbe 
Mailer  of  all  known  Perfedtions.  And  as 
Defires  are  the  Confequence  of  Imperfedli- 
on,  fo'^tis  likely  they  are  naturally  enliven- 
ed to  awaken  our  Induftry,  and  make  us 
purfiie  an  Advantage.  Did  our  wifhes 
keep  a  due  proportion  to  the  goodnefs  of 
D  Things^ 

42    0/  EAGERNESS  0/  DESIRE. 

Things,  and  not  mount  above  the  proba- 
bility of  Succefs,  all  were  well  enough. 
But  Men  are  apt  to  mifcalculate,  both  upon 
the  Fahe  and  the  Event :  And  then  wrong 
Judgments,  and  vifionary  Hop-es,  always 
produce  extravagant  Defirts.  And  how 
gay  (bever  the  Fancy  may  be  made  this 
way,  yet  there  is  great  reafcn  for  Caution 
and  Temper.  To  deiire  witli  Eagernefi 
is  a  beggarly  Conditlcn  ;  It  argues  a  keen 
Senfe  of  Want^  and  makes  the  J^ind  r-gji 
frroliing  after  foreign  Chjeds,  and  grow 
Clamorous  arK^  Impc  rtu!;ate.  Apd  he  that 
begs  hard»  is  ciiher  very  poor,  or  very  co- 
veious.  A  wife  Man  Ihould  be  fatisfied 
with  him.felf,  and  live  upon  the  Fund  of  his 
own  Sufficiency,  fie  fiiould  keep  his  incli- 
nations  within  the  compafs  of  his  Power, 
and  wiili  himfelf  always  juft  what  he  is. 
There  is  Freedom,  and  Greatneft,  and  Plea- 
fure,  in  (uch  a  management  as  this.  But 
to  over-look  the  Entertainment  before  him, 
and  languilli  for  that  which  lies  out  of  the 
way,  is  fickly  and  fervile.  To  fay,  he 
mult  have  fuch  a  thing,  is  to  fay,  he  mufi 
be  a  Slave.  It  lays  him  at  the  Mercy  of 
Chance  and  Humour,  and  makes  his  I-iappi* 
ncfs  precarious.  Now  he  that  cannot  give 
himfelf  leave  to  be  earie,u'ill  hardly  ever  be 
fo  long  together.  What  a  long  courfe  of  Sub- 
iiiifHon  and   Attendance  muft  a  Man  run 


of  EAGERNESS   of   DESIRE.   43 

through  when  his  Appetite  prefcribes  to 
him  ?  Refolvingto  Purchafc  at  any  Rate,  is 
in  e(Ie5t  to  fend  a  Blank  to  the  Seller,  It 
encourages  him  to  draw  up  the  Conditions 
at  Pleaiure,and  to  rife  upon  us  at  the  difcre- 
tion  of  Avarice,  or  111  nature.  If  we  ex- 
amine thefc  violent  Purftiits,  we  dial!  find 
they  have  more  of  heat  than  light  in  them. 
The  Objed  is  over-fiou rifted  by  iheFond- 
nefs  of  Imagination,  which  ufually  paints 
beyond  the  Life,  and  fticks  in  the  outward 
Varnifh,  without  having  either  Lcifure  or 
Capacity  to  difcover  the  Coarfenefs  under- 
neath. How  happy  ihould  I  be,  cries  one, 
if  I  had  fuch  an  Eftate,  fuch  a  Place  at 
Court,  or  Poll  in  the  Army  ?  'Twould  fuit 
my  Genius,  and  my  Humour  exaflly. 
Give  me  but  That,  and  I  have  done  Wifh- 
ing  for  my  Life  time.  You  have  it  alrea- 
dy, Ten  times  finer  than  'tis  any  where 
elfe.  Make  much  of  vour  Imagination  : 
for  you'll  fcarcely  ever  Pattern  it.  'lis  not 
poilible  to  Build  up  to  the  Model  of  the 
Brain  :  Nature  does  not  furnidit  io  faft  as 
we  can  think.  For  often  times  the  Scenes 
of  Fancy  are  richer  than  thofe  of  Creation. 
Gold  fhincs  no  where  fb  Glorioufiy  as  111 
the  Mifer's  Head  :  And  Ambition  makes  a 
Crown  fparkle,  more  than  the  Jewels  of 
the  Indies.  Nothing  draws  fo  finely  as 
Affedlion :    There  mufl    be  fom.e  Colou- 

D  2  ring 

44    0/  EAGERNESS  of   DESIRE. 

ring  extraordinary  to  julLfy  the  Ardour, 
and  reconcile  the  Dorrge  to  Scnfe.  And 
thus  things  are  often  half  rpciied  Lcfcre 
they  are  gained,  and  grow  cheap  under 
Uft  and  Experiment.  He  that  would  re- 
liih  Succeft  to  purpofe,  fhould  keep  his  Paf- 
fion  cool,  and  his  Expedation  low  ,•  and 
then  'tis  polhble  his  Fortune  might  exceed 
his  Fancy.  Now^  a?^  advantage  always 
rifts  by  (urprizej  and  is  almoil  doubled 
Ly  being  un'ook'd  for.  To  go  on,  thcfe 
who  deiire  too  eagerly,  generally  hope  too 
faft,-  'tis  natural  to  pals  irom  wishing,  to  be- 
lieving. And  thus  their  Affcdions  impofe 
upon  their  Reafon,  put  them  upon  exped- 
ingCmprobabilities;  and  (b  lay  them  open 
to  Mifcarriages.  Now  Deflre  and  De{J3air 
when  they  are  both  at  the  height,  are  Ibme 
of  the  ftrongcil:  Ingredients  of  Unhappinef?. 
He  that  gets  a  Fall  upon  tlie  Speed,^  comes  oH:' 
w^ell  if  he  does  not  break  his  Limbs.  To  mi(s 
that  whicli  a  Man  (its  his  heart  upon,  purs 
his  Fancy  into  aFcaver^  it  drinks  up  his 
Blood,  and  fires  his  Spirits  ,*  and  throws 
him  into  ali  t'lo  Poftures  of  Impatience. 
Such  a  grating  Difjppointmentflupincs  the 
Senfe,  and  Ipcils  the  Palate,-  and  makes  the 
remaining  Satisladtion  of  Life  i\Qt  and 
infipid.  Like  Children,  when  we  lo(e  our 
Favourite  Play-thing,  we  throw  away  the 
r^il  in  a  Fit  oV  Pettiilinefs.     VVc  fee  there-- 


Of  EAGERNESS  of   DESIRE.  4^ 

fore  if  \vc  u  ouki  play  a  fafc  gamr^and  keep 
xMattcrs  quiet  :>i  liome,  we  nuifi  engage 
with  Temper,  and  fecure  a  Retreat^  and 
nor  love  an}  thing  w  ichout  Referve,  or 
Meafurc.  Farther, 

Strong  deHrcs  lue  commonly  attended 
with  Eears  proportionabb.  The  Man  is 
kept  waking,  and  felicitous:  He  fiarts  at 
the  leaft  check  in  Motion  ,•  every  Cloud 
over  cafts  him  v/ith  the  Spleen;  and  he  is 
equally  anxious  both  how  to  get  and  fecure. 
And  w  hat  can  be  expeuied  in  this  Region 
of  Incondancy,  where  accidents  are  (0  nu- 
merouSjWhere  h3pes  appear  and  vanifh  like 
Phantoms  ;  w  here  neither  Things  nor  Per- 
fons  contmue  the  fame  Jong  together? 

Befides,  v»ere  there  no  other  Motive^ 
the  iliortn^fs  of  our  fight  ongin  to  mode- 
rate cur  Affedions.  To  vviih  violently  ior 
tilings,  unlefs  we  underilood  ourf^lves  and 
them  better,  is  like  running  in  the  Dark; 
a  Man  may  happen  to  juftle  a  Port.  How- 
ever, the  hurry  of  the  Purfuit  \v\\\  make 
but  a  fiuriTiing  Pace,  and  fpoil  the  Grace- 
iulnefs  of  the  Motion.  But  the  Luftre  of 
the  Surface  dazlcs  the  Senfe^  and  conceals 
the  more  inward  Defeits.  People  do  not 
confider^thatthe  bed  Metal  is  not  wirliouc 
Alloy  ;  and  that  there  are  fpots  in  the  Sun. 
To  this  we  may  add,  That  the  Name  of 
Misfortune    is    often   miiappiy'd :  There 

D   3  arc 

4^     0/ EAGERNESS   of  DESIRE. 

are  many  Adventures  would  Plague  more 
than  Pieafey  if  they  were  driven  home. 
And  yet  when  Men  are  rcfcucd  from  the 
danger  of  their  own  Choice,  they  com- 
monly want  the  Dlfcretion  to  be  either  ea- 
fie  or  thankful.  But  let  the  event  be  never 
fb  lucky,  the  fatisfadlion  Vv  ill  wither,  and 
the  appetite  wear  oft'  in  time.  Diamonds 
grow  dim,  by  being  long  look'd  on  :  And 
Mufick  may  play  tijl  the  ears  are  almofl: 

To  proceed :  Strong  defires  are  Tempta- 
tions to  the  ufe  of  ill  means.  In  the  Tu- 
mults of  PniTion,  Reafon  is  feldom  heard. 
He  jhat  will  have  a  thing,  will  have  it 
right  or  wrong.  When  Covetoufnels  or 
Ambition  are  in  their  iuil  Career,  there  is 
no  flopping  them  with  Notions.  Si  v/o- 
landum  ejl  jus  reg}iaru!i  ca-.tja^  "violandum  ejl^ 
iind  there  is  an  end.  Akah  could  neither 
eat  nor  drink,  till  he  had  i\\t  Vineyard^ 
and  thereiore  e'en  left  it  to  'jezaleCsQow- 
fcience  to  put  him  in  Poflcdioo.  And  if  the 
Purfuit  were  never  fo  innocent,  the  Pur- 
chafe  is  not  tantt :  The  Mind  is  over-pro- 
portioned to  the  advantages  of  Life;  they 
will  not  hold  out  to  the  length  of  Defirc, 
And  (ince  they  are  not  big  enough  to  latisr 
fie,  they  fboiild  not  be  big  enough  to  difla- 
tisfie,  Solomon  tells  us,  All  is  hut  Vanity  and 
Vexation  of  Spirit.  And  does  any  Man  think 


O/' EAGERNESS   of   DESIRE-   47 

to  make  more  of  the  World  than  6"^/^^^;^? 
Can  he  cxpcd  to  Command,  or  improve  it 
farther  than  that  Wile  and  Mighty  Prince  ? 
We  do  but  ditlurb  our  Q^il.^t,  and  mifpend 
our  Thoughts,  and  make  our  {qIvqs  Mean, 
by  throwing  away  our  Inclinations  upon 
thefe  Things.  To  make  ftioit  work  on't  : 
Let  a  Man  defire  to  be  Wife:  And  if  he  has 
this  WifhyWs  likely  he  may  ne'er  be  trou- 
bled with  another, 


D  4        ^'^       OF 


O  F 


I  N     A 



Thilander  and  So^hronm. 

Phil,  O  I  R,  You  are  welcome  to  Town. 
^3  Methinks  'tis  almoft  an  Age  fincc 
I  faw  you  laft. 

Sopb.  Sir,  I  thank  you  :  I  had  been  here 
fooner  at  your  fervice,  had  I  not  been  de- 
tained by  a  Misfortune. 

Phil.  I  am  forry  for  the  Occafion  :  Pray 
what  is  it  ? 

Soph.  I  have  lofl  my  old  Friend,  on 
whole  Acquaintance  you  have  heard  me 
value  my  lelf  fo  much. 

Phil.  Is  he  dead?  That  is  a  Misfortune 
indeed  !  He  was  a  mofi:  admirable  Perfon, 
by  the  Report  of  all  that  knew  him. 


50     0/  F  R  I  ENDS  H  IP. 

Soph.  Yes.  His  Charadler  could  fcarce- 
ly  be  raifed  too  much.  Were  1  not  well 
adured  he  was  remov-cd  to  Advantage,  I 
fhould  pals  my  Time  extremely  III  without 
him.  But  now  1  am  almoft  ailiamcd  to 
Grkve,  becaufe  it  looks  more  like  Self  love ^ 
than  Friendiliip. 

Phil  Truly  to  be  forry  a  Friend  is  not 
with  us,  when  he  is  better  from  us,  is  a 
Sign  we  rate  our  Convenience  higheft  ; 
and  mourn  more  for  the  Living  than  the 
Dead.  However,  'tis  cuftomary  to  do  fo  j 
and  it  paiTcs  for  Affcdlion  well  enough  ,•  and 
1  believe  isfo  in  a  lefs  perfect  Degree. 

Soph.  1  am  glad  you  have  m^ade  me  an 
Excufe  ,*  for  I  was  carried  off  my  Philofb. 
phy  a  little  at  firft,  do  what  I  could. 

Fhil.  Be  nor  concerned.  A  Sigh  or  a 
Tear,  juft  at  Parting,  is  natural  and  gene- 
rous. But  you  have  quickly  conquer'd 
the  common  Infirm.ity,  and  refign'd  your 
felf  to  the  Happinefs  of  your  Friend.  Tm 
confident,  he  that  acquits  himfelf  fohand- 
.  fomly,  mud  have  a  jufl:  Idea  to  form  his 
Pradiice  :  And  I  heartily  wifli  you  would 
pleafe  to  lay  it  before  me. 

Soph.  YoLi  are  rcfblved  to  treat  People  in 
MoumiKg  with  Ceremony.  I  thank  you 
for  your  Civ  lity  ,*  and  for  propofing  fo 
agreeable  a  Suhjet},  Were  I  qualified  to 
defcribc  the  Olfices  of  Friendihip,   none 


Of  FRIFNDSHIP.       51 

could  undertake  it  more  willingly.  Such 
an  Employment  would  afFed  me  to  that 
Degree,  that  I  iliould  almofl:  fancy  my 
Friend  alive  again.  But  I  think  I  had 
better  decline  the  Task,  than  injure  the 
Argument.  However,  if  you  pleafe  to  afilft, 
and  fet  me  In,  I  will  endeavour  to  recoi- 
led: my  felf  for  a  (hort  Conference,  as  well 
as  I  can. 

Thil,  To  begin  then,  fince  you  will  have 
itfo:  I  remember  'tis  a  fame  us  Saying  in 
Ariftotkj  That  he  who  is  pleas  d  with  Solitude 
tnuji  he  either  a  wild  Beaft.^  or  a  God,  This 
Sentence,  though  it  favours  what  we  are 
upon  in  the  Apphcation,  yet  methinks  it  is 
a  ftrange  Paradox  in  the  Pofition.  But  for 
the  Credit  of  the  Author,  if  it  can  be 
made  ferviceable,  I  (hould  be  glad  to  fee 

Soph.  Iconfefs  it  looks  fomevv'hatfurpri- 
zing  at  firft  S/g/;^,  that  Two  fuch  different 
Natures  fliould  agree  in  any  Difpofttion,  or 
Branch  of  Life.  But  with  Submifiion,  the 
Saying  carrys  a  very  fignificant  Meaning  : 
And  imports,  That  thofe  Beir^gs  who  can 
live  without  a  Sociable  Correfpcndence,are 
extraordinary  either  in  their  Defel:ts^ox  Per- 
fe^ions.  They  muil  be  under  the  Standard 
of  humane  Nature,  or  above  it :  and  have 
(bmething  that  is  either  Savage^  or  Div'jr.e^ 
in  their  Compofition.  The  hrft  is  not  ge- 

52       0/  FRIENDSHIP. 

nerous  enough  to  relifh  fuch  a  Communi- 
cation ;  the  other  is  above  the  Ufe  o(  it. 
That  humane  Fmndfhips  are  partly  foun- 
ded upon  the  Wants  and  Imperfedions  of 
Nature,  may  be  (iid  without  Difparage- 
ment  ^o  (b  noble  a  Relation.  A  Man  has  not 
every  thing  growing  upon  his  own  Soil  and 
therefore  is  willing  to  Barter  With  his 
Neighbour.  This  Exchange  of  Oiliccs, 
when  'tis  managed  with  Franknefs  and  Fi- 
delity,  excites  native  Generofity,  and  im- 
proves into  Confidence  and  Affedion.  But 
God  is  all  things  to  himfelf  :  He  needs  no 
foreign  Commerce  to  furnilli  his  Happinels, 
And  as  he  cannot  receive  an  Advantage,  (b 
neither  does  his  SatisfacSion  depend  upon 
giving  one. 

Phil  As  to  what  yo'j  remark  upon  the 
Divine  NatureJ  agree  with  you.  But  for  the 
reft,  if  it  is  the  Author's  Meaning,  I  am 
not  over- fond  of  it.  To  derive  Friendfliip 
from  Indigence,  is  in  my  Opinion  to  mi- 
Hake  its  Original,  and  alTign  it  too  mean  an 
Extraftion.  Inclination,  and  Efteem,  and 
GeneroO^^y,  feem  more  creditable  and  likely 
Caufes  offo  noble  a  Production. 'Tis  Worth, 
and  Bravery,  and  good  Humour,  which 
engages  one  virtuous  Perfon  to  another. 
Thefe  Q;ialities  excite  Admiration  ;  and 
Admiration  improves  into  Love  ;  and  Love 
proceeds  to  Intimacy  and  Union.     And  all 


0/   F  R  I  E  N  D  S  H  I  p.       5 ; 

this,  without  any  httle  Expedtationsof  Ad- 
Viinrage.  To  give  Iiiterefl  a  Share  in  Friend- 
fliip,  is  in  cflcd  to  fell  it  by  I^jch  of  Candle, 
He  that  bids  mod  ihall  have  ir.  And  when 
'tis  thus  mercenary,  there  is  no  depending 
on't.  'Twiil  be  always  (hiking  irom  one 
Point  to  another,  and  defert  upon  Danger 
and  Diflrefs,*  and  when  a  Man  has  mod 
need  of  his  Friend,  he  may  go  look  him. 

Soph,  Don't  miilake  me,  1  am  far  frrm 
giving  Interell  the  Afcendent*  I  would 
have  Honour  and  Inclinaticn  manage  the 
Affair,  over-rule  the  Choice,  and  govern 
in  the  Progrels.  But  after  all,  I  mull  (ay  a 
ProfpeCl:  of  Advantage  may  come  under  a 
lower  Conl'ideration,  without  doing  either 
Damage  or  Di(credit.  For  why  fliould  not 
a  juil  Regard  be  allow'd  tothat  which  bet- 
ters my  Condition  ?  The  Appearance  of 
G^^<^ moves  the  W'lllXvj  natural  Neceflity  : 
And  that  which  excites  De(ire,  will  have  a 
Weight  in  Conliiltation,  and  help  to  deter- 
mine for  the  Defjgn. 

?hil.  If  Profitis  atall  concern'd,  Iwon^ 
der  thofe  v\  ho  have  leaft  need  of  it,  and  feem 
moll  above  it,  (hculd  be  mofi;  forward  to 
engage?  Are  not  the  greateii  Men  often- 
times ftrongly  difpos'd  ior  Friendibip  ?  Do 
they  not  invite  Fairly  to  it,  and  reward  it 
Liberally  ?  To  give  an  Indance:  What  oc- 
cafion  had  Lccltus  and  Afrkanus  for  Ai\u 


54      0/  FRIENDSHIP. 

fiance  ?  Perfors  of  their  Fortune  and  Qua- 
lity could  well  have  fiood  upon  tb';ir  owri 
Legs,  and  needed  not  to  lay  in  tor  Coun- 
tenance and  Support :  And  yet  none  c! ofed 
more  heartily,  or  carried  their  Friendfhip 

Soph.  Under  Favour,  Great  Men  want 
Supporters  as  well  as  others,-  and  wife  Men 
will  provide  them.  But  allowing  your  In- 
ilance :  I  grant  you  Money,  or  Protection, 
may  not  be  always  projeded  inFriendfliip. 
A  Man  may  engage  to  entertain  himfelf 
with  a  wife  and  agreeable  Acquaintance, 
Now  Pleafure  is  an  Intereft  of  the  higheil 
kind.  'Tis  the  laft  End  of  Adion  and  De- 
fire.  Why  does  any  Man  take  Pains,  but 
to  live  eafier  either  in  his  Mind,  or  fome 
way  elfe  ?  Why  is  he  fond  of  Wealth,  of 
Power^  or  Company,  but  only  to  pleafe 
himfelf?  Now  'tis  aimoft  impodible  to  live 
pleafintly  without  Friendihip.  Humane  Na- 
ture is  imperfed:.  It  has  net  found  enough 
to  furnifli  out  a  Solitary  Life.  Paradifc, 
barr'd  from  all  Commerce,  would  be  infup- 
portable ;  and  make  a  Man  run  mad  with  his 
Happinefs.  But  without  a  Friend  a  Man  is 
almofl:  alone  in  Company.  Referve,  and 
^Sufpicion,  and  guarding  againft  Mifcon- 
ftruftion,  cramp  the  Freedom  of  Strangers, 
and  dilute  the  Entertainment.  I  may  add, 
that  Virtue  it  felf  is  not  fufficient  to  attain 


of   FRIENDSHIP.      55 

its  End  frnglc.  A  gO(x]  Man  oi'ten  warts 
an  Alliftanc  to  diret^  his  Judgment  and 
qaickcn  his  Indullry,  and  foriily  h;s  Spi- 
rits. Infomuch  that  the  very  IncHnatioii 
to  an  intimate  Corrcfpondencc,  ftcins  con- 
trived for  Advantage. 

Phil.  As  I  take  it,  a  Friend  is  calkd^Aller 
Irlem.  From  whenc:^  I  conclude  the  Mo- 
tives to  Friendihip  and  Se!l-love  ihould  be 
the  \j.wx.  No'vV  a  Man  docs  notexpe(?cto 
maKe  a  Penny  of  himi'elf.  'Tis  not  the 
Profpcd:  or  Reward  which  makes  him  af- 
feded  to  his  Perfon,  Lut  Jhrk  Love  and 
Khjdnejs,  And  h.ovv  then  can  we  be  jull 
to  the  Relation  we  are  Treating,  unleR  our 
Inclinations  go  upon  tiie  fame  generv'^us 

Soph,  With  Submilfion,  ycin  Objedion 
goes  upon  a  Miltake.  ror  tAi^.xi'  it,  a  great 
deal  of  Intereft  in  Self-Love  A  Man  is  con- 
fiderably  paid  for  his  Pains.  The  Cafe  fivMds 
thus  :  Every  one  is  more  intimately  [cnfi- 
ble  oiPleafure or  Pain^  in  his  o  vn  Perlon, 
than  in  that  of  another.  For  this  Reafoa 
he  will  find  himfelf  extremely  concern-d  to 
herilh  that,  which  entertains  him  'o  well. 
And  uniefs  he  cakes  care,  w ill  give  him  the 
greatell  Difturbance.  Now  Intereft  lici  on- 
ly in  a  Proportion  of  Lofs,  or  Gain  ;  And 
where  thefe  run  higheft,  as  they  do  at  honie, 
Intereft  is  moft  concern'd.     From  whence 


^6        Of  F  RIENDSHIP. 

it  follows,  That  Self-Love^  is  one  of  the 
mofl:  Mercenary  Actions' in  Nature. 

Vhil,  'Tis  the  firfl  time  I  have  heard  Co, 
I  perceive  you  are  refblvcd  to  (lick  to  your 
point  of  Interefl:  :  But  fmcc  you  have  allow- 
ed it  fo  moderate  a  Share,  refined  the  No- 
tion, and  corred:ed  the  Malignity,  I  (hall 
e'en  let  it  pafs.  And  before  we  go  any  far- 
ther, give  me  leave  to  add,  That  Confor- 
mity of  Judgment  and  Temper,feems  no  in- 
confiderable  Motive  to  begin  a  Friend(hip. 

Soph.  Right.  A  Refemblance  in  Humour 
or  Opinion,  a  Fancy  for  the  fame  Bufinefs 
or  Diverfion,  is  oftentimes  a  Ground  of  Af- 
fection :  Men  love  to  fee  their  Thoughts 
and  Inclinations  approved.  This  confirms 
them  in  the  good  Opinion  of  them{elves  : 
And  therelore  they  feldom  fail  of  being 
grateful  to  the  Occafion.  Nature,  like  Nar- 
cijfus^  is  ftrangely  taken  with  its  own  Re- 
flexion. A  Conformity  of  Opinion  and  De- 
fire,  looks  like  a  Multiplication  oi  ones  Self. 
A  Man  fees  his  own  Beings  as  it  were, 
doubled  and  extended  in  his  Friend  ;  and 
then  'tis  no  wonder  if  he  loves  him. 

P/;i/.  I  think  now,  we  may  have  ac- 
counted for  the  Rife  of  Friendihip ;  I  wiih 
you  would  run  over  the  Means  of  Culti- 
vating and  Preferving  it ;  the  Extent  of  the 
Offices^  an  ;  the  Advantages  of  the  Relation. 
For  novv  I  have  you  engaged,  I  (hall  leave 
yju  to  your  iel£  Soph, 

0/ friendship;      57 

Soph.  Then  brieOy  to  oblerve  your  Or- 
der. There  goes  a  gnat  many  Qualificati- 
ons to  the  conipleating  this  Relation.  There 
is  no  fmall  iliare  of  Honour,ancl  Confcience, 
and  Sufficiency  required.  There  will  be 
Occafion  for  largenefs  of  Mind,  and  Agree, 
ablencfs  of  Temper.  For  Prudence  of  Be- 
haviour ;  for  Courage  and  Conftancy  ,•  for 
Freedom  from  Palfion  and  Self  conceit. 
A  Man  that's  fit  to  make  a  Friend  of,  muft 
have  Condu6t  to  manage  the  Engagement, 
nnd  Refolution  to  maintain  it.  fJe  mufl: 
ufe  Freedom  without  Roughnefs,  and  Ob- 
lige without  Defign.  Cowardife  will  be- 
tray Friendihip  ;  and  Covetoufnels  will 
rtarve  it.  Folly  will  be  naufeous ;  Pailion  is 
apt  to  ruffle  ;  and  Pride  will  fly  out  into 
Contumely  and  Negled*.  Pride  is  fb  unfo- 
ciable  a  Vice,  and  does  all  Things  with  £o 
ill  a  Grace,  that  there  is  no  clofing  with  it 
A  proud  f4aa  will  be  fure  to  challenge 
more  than  belongs  to  him.  You  muft  ex- 
ped:  him  ftiff  in  his  Converfation,  fulfbm 
in  Commending  himftlf,  and  bitter  in  his 
Reproofs.  'Tis  well  if  his  Favours  are  not 
turn'd  into  Injury  and  Affront  ,•  fpoiled  ei- 
ther by  the  Contemptuous  way  of  doing,or 
by  upbraiding  after  they  are  done.  Such 
Behaviour  as  this  frights  away  Friendfliip, 
and  makes  it  ftand  off  in  Diflike  and  Aver- 
fion.  Friendiliip,  though  not  nice  and  ex- 
E  ceptious, 

58      Of   FRIENDSHIP. 

ceptious,  yet  muft  not  be  coarfely  treated, 
nor  iifed  with  Diftance  or  Difdain.  A  Cor- 
refpondence  managed  at  this  Rate,  may  be 
fupported  by  Neceility,  but  neverby  incli- 
nation. The  Man  may  be  kept  for  Ibme 
time,  but  the  Friend  is  loft.  Friendlhip,  to 
make  it  true,  mull  have  Beauty  as  well  as 
Strefjgth  :  Charms  to  entie^ir  ^  as  well  as 
Poiver  to  fupply.  An  obliging  Air  is  a  Cir- 
cumftance  of  great  Moment.  'Tis  a  good 
Sign  of  a  benevolent  Mind ;  which  to  fpei^k 
properly  gives  the  whole  value  to  a  Cour- 
tefy.  To  improve  the  Relation^  there  muft 
be  a  Willingnefi  to  receive  a  Kindnefs,  as 
well  as  to  do  one.  He  who  always  re- 
fufes,  taxes  the  Profferer  with  Indifcretion 
and  declares  his  Afliftancenccdieis.. 

An  inodenfive  Pleaftntncis  -  is  another 
good  Quality  for  the  fame  purpofe.  This 
Talent  enlivens  Converfation,  and  relieves 
Melancholy,  and  Conveys  Advice  Vv'idi  bet- 
ter Succefs  than  naked  Reprehcnfion.  This 
guilding  of  the  Pill,  reconciles  the  Palate  to 
the  Preicription,  without  weakning  the 
Force  of  the  Ingredients.  And  he  that  can 
cure  by  Recreation,  and  make  Pleafure  the 
Vehicle  of  Health,  is  a  Doclor  at  it  in  good 

ThiL  Spare  me  a  Word,  or  I  ftiall  loft 
the  Opportunity  of  a  Queftion.  Tis  faid, 
That  Friendihip  either  finds  People  equal, 


of  FRIENDSHIP.     59 

or  makes  them   fo:  Do  you  think  it  fo 
much  a  Leveller  as  this  comes  to? 

Soph,   No,  There  is  no  more  nccefilty  for 
an  Equality   of  CoruhtTO)u  than  thut  rhcir 
Knowledge,  or  Stature,  lliould  be  of  the 
fame  Proportion.  I  conicis  where  the  Difle- 
rence  is  confidcrable,  the  Invitation  muftbe 
the  fairer.     A  Man  mufl:  ftoop  his  Hand  for 
his  Friend,  and   raife  him  up  towards  his 
own  Ground.    The  Advantage  muft  be  laid 
afleep.     There  muft  be  no  challenge  of  Su- 
periority, or  difconntenancing  of  Freedom, 
on  the   one  hand :  Nothing  of  Envy,  or 
Repining,  on  the  other.     In  my  Opinion, 
Difparity  in  Age,  (eems  a  greater  Obltacle 
to  an  intimate  Friendfliip  than  inequality  of 
Fortune.     For  the  Humours,  Bufinefs,  and 
Diverfions,  of  young  and  old  Men,  are  ge- 
nerally very  diSerent.     So  that  if  they  ufe 
a  full  Freedom,  and  let  their  Inclinations 
ftrike  out,  they  will  difpleafe  ;  if  they  balk 
them,   they'll  be  uneafy.    Befides,  the  Oc- 
cafion  of  the(e  different  Thoughts,  is  not  to 
be  removed.     A  wealthy  Perlbn  may  cure 
the  Indigence  of  \\\$  Friend,  aad  make  him 
as  Rich  as  himrelf,if  he  pleafes.  But  Age  and 
Youth  cannot  be  made  over^  or  adjufted. 
Nothing  but  Time  can  tak^  away  Years,  or 
give  them.  However,  this  Impediment  does 
not  always  take  place  :    Socrates  and  Alci^ 
liades  may  ferve  for  an  Inftance.    And  old 

E  X  Lcclhis 

6o      0/  F  R  I  E  N  D  S  H  I  P. 

Lcelhis  prorcircs  he  had  an  extraordinary 
Kindnefs  for  ievcra!  young  People. 

FbiL  Now  ifycu  pieaie  to  the  Extent  of 
the  Office.  How  far  is  a  Man  obliged  to 
(erve  his  Friend  ? 

Soph.  As  far  as  he  is  able,  and  die  Jnte- 
refl:  of  the  other  requires  it.  As  far  as  Oppor- 
tunity, Di(cretion,  and  former  Preingage- 
ments  will  give  leave.  To  Break  upon  the 
Score  of  Danger,  or  Expence,  is  to  be  mean 
and  narrow  Spirited.  Provided  always  the 
Afiiftance  may  be  given  without  undoing  a 
Man,  or  prejudice  to  a  third  Ferfon  ;  with- 
out Violations  of  Conicience,  or  Honour. 
Where  the  thing  is  unlawful,  we  mufc  nei- 
ther Ask,  nor  Comply.  All  Importunities 
againft  Juftice,  are  Feveriili  Defires,  and 
not  to  be  gratified.  Where  Virtue  is  not 
made  the  Meafure  of  a  Correfpondence,  'tis 
no  better  than  that  of  Thieves  and  Pyrats. 
'Tis  a  fcandalous  Excuie  to  fay,  I  murther'd 
a  Man,  or  betray'd  my  Country,  at  the  In- 
Itance  of  a  Friend.  When  Principles  and 
Duty  lie  thus  at  the  Mercy  of  a  little  Cere- 
mony, we  are  likely  to  have  a  good  Time 
on't !  He  ihat  would  engage  me  unwar- 
rantably, takes  me  for  an  illPerfon.  His 
Motion  is  an  Affront;  and  I  ought  to  re- 
nounce him  for  the  Injury  of  his  Opinion. 

Phil.  \  am  perfedly  of  your  Mind  ,•  and 
fi-jail  go  on  to  aoother  l>iaeilion.   Is  it  fair  to 


0/  FRIEN  DSHIP.      6i 

conceal  any  tiling  from  a  Friend  ?  Or  muft 
theCommunicntion  be  entire,  and  vvitliout 
Limitation  ?  Are  not  Secrets  in  Referve,  un- 
generous Sufpitions  ;  and  inconfiftent  with 
the  Confidences  of  Friendilup  ? 

Soph.  'Tis  poflible  fome  People  luve 
drain'd  Courtcfy  in  this  point :  And  made 
their  good  Nature  over-ballance  their  Cau- 
tion. My  Anfwer,  fince  you  are  pleated  to 
ask  it,  is  This  :  Whatever  my  Friend  is 
concerned  to  know,  I  ought  to  acquaint 
him  with  ;  and  iland  the  hazard  of  the  Dif- 
covery.  But  in  other  Cafes,  a  Man  may  be 
allowed  to  keep  a  Corner  of  his  Sou!  to  him- 
ieir.  While  the  Secret  is  lodged  at  Flome, 
it  can  never  hurt  mic.  For  'tis  certain  I  Ihall 
always  be  true  to  my  own  Intereft ;  and 
have  a  Kindnefs  for  m.y  fclF:  But  1  cannot 
fo  well  Er?fure  the  Conftancy  of  another. 
And  why  then  ihould  I  put  my  fe!f  in  his 
Power  to  no  Purpofe  ? 

To  difpatch  the  whole  Point.  Asfar  c'^s 
Prudence  and  JuiHce  will  permit,  we  ought 
to  ufe  a  Friend  with  all  the  Franknefs  and 
Generofity  imaginable.  There  mufi  be  no 
flinting  of  Inclination,  no  computing  upon 
Favours  ;  for  fear  we.fliould  do  morethcin 
we  receive.  This  is  to  State  Accounts^  and 
looks  more  like  Merciiandize  than  Friend- 
fliip.  Exadnefs,  and  Management,  and  Ob- 
ftrvation,  is  a  Sign  of  Inditferency  and  D'u 
E  I  urulh 

6r      Of  FRIENDSHIP. 

ftruft.  It  may  do  well  enciigh  among 
Strangers,  but  a  Friend  fijould  be  treated 
at  a  nobler  Rate  ;  and  ufed  with  more  Con- 
fidence and  Affeirion.  Vv'c  ftould  examine 
his  Occaiions,  and  prevent  hif^  Defires,  and 
fcarce  give  him  time  to  think  he  wanted  an 
Afiillancc.  A  forwardnefs  to  oblige,  is  a 
great  Grace  upon  a  Kindnefs,  and  doubles 
the  intrinuck  Worth.  In  thefe  Cafes,  that 
which  is  done  with  Tleafure^  is  alwa^/s  re- 
ceived fo. 

To  pafs  on  to  the  Advantages  of  Friend- 
fiiip  :  Now  thefe  are  fb  noble,  and  fo  necef- 
fary,  that  Empire  it  felf  is  infipid  without 
it.  Augujlus^  and  T'lherius^  had  Loftinefs 
enough  in  their  Temper,  and  affcd'ed  to 
make  a  Sovereign  Figure ;  and  had  their 
Nature  been  more  independent ,  would 
have  liked  a  Solitary  Pride  very  well,  But 
this  difiance  woukl  not  do  their  Bufinefs. 
They  were  glad  to  part  with  the  Singulari- 
ty of  their  5aare  in  fomc  Meafiire^  to  lay 
their  Majcdy  afide ;  and  to  purchafe  Free- 
dom and  Familiarity  at  the  Expence  of  Pre- 
rogative. Where  they  faw  the  Difpofition 
agreeable,  they  made  no  Scruple  to  raife 
mean  Subieits  to  the  higheft  Flonours,  to 
quahiie  them  for  Intimacy  and  Converfa- 
tion.  They  found  the  Satisfactions  of  Grear- 
neis  imperfed:,  without  the  Additions  of 
Friend iliip.     They  thoudit  themfelves  un° 

of  FRIENDSHIP.       (5j 

fafe  without  the  fupports  oiTrufi;  and  un- 
eafy  without  the  Permifnons  of  Freedom, 
To  appear  in  their  Roies  always,  would  be 
a  troublefome  Piece  of- State.  Unlefs  they 
can  be  contented  with  the  Happinefs  of  a 
Pageantjthey  muft,  to  fome  Perfons  at  leafl, 
condefcend  to  the  Hahit^  and  wear  the  Hu- 
mour of  other  Mortals. 

'Tis  fomewhat  Remarkable  what  Com^ 
mines  obferves  of  Charles  Duke  of  Burgun^ 
fly  :  This  Prince  was  fo  very  referv'd,  that 
he  would  impart  his  Sfc-r(?/^  to  No  body  ; 
efpccially  thcie  which  troubled  him  mofl. 
Whereupon  the  Hiftorian  tells  us,  That 
this  Clofenefs  did  Impair^  and  a  little  Perijh 
his  Underfianding.  Fompeys  Ambition  was 
as  great  as  Ca^Jar's ;  his  Projed  was  the 
fame,  but  his  Over-refervednefs  undid  him. 
He  might  have  been  Mafter  of  the  Entcr- 
prize  before  Ceefa/s  Competition :  But  he 
was  Co  Myfterious,  that  his  Party  knew  not 
what  he  would  be  at.  And  their  having 
no  Aim  to  dired  and  proportion  their  Afii- 
ftance,  was  the  Caufe  of  his  Mi(carriage. 
But  befides  the  Di(appointmenrs  r.ttcnding 
this  Humour,  the  Uneafinefs  of  it  mufi  be 
almolt  infiippoitabie,-  cfpecially  to  thofe 
who  are  in  Bunncfs,  or  Trouble.  Thofe 
who  have  no  Friend  to  difcharge  their 
Cares,  and  their  Grievances upc;:,  are  (K 
one  may  ufe  fo  hard  an  Expruiiionj  a:'Jorc 
E  4  cf 

64      0/  F  R  I  E  N  D  S  H  I  P. 

of  Carniil^^ls  to  ihcmCdves;  and  prey  upon 
their  own  Vitals.     A  fwelling  Difcontcnt  is 
apt  to  Suffbcate  and  Strangle,  without  Faf- 
fagc.     Whereas  tho(c  who  live  within  the 
Communication  of  Friendihip,  have  a  Vent 
lor  their  Misfortunes.     They  may  falely  go 
to  the  Bottom   of  the  Matter,  report  the 
niceft  Cafe,  and  expofe  the  affected  part  to 
Cure  and  Compalhon.  Fricndfbip  has  a  no- 
ble Effe6l  upon  all  Accidents  and  Conditi- 
ons :  It  relieves  our  Cares.raifes  our  Hopes^ 
and  abates  our  Fears.    It  doubles  our  ]oys, 
and  divides  our  Griefs.     A  Friend  who  re- 
lates his  Succefs.,  talks  himfelf  into  a  new 
Pkafure.  And  by  opening  his  Misfortunes, 
leaves  part  of  them  behind  him.  Friendfliip, 
like  feme  univerfal  Medicine,  works  con- 
trary ways  ,vbut   always  to  the  Benefit  of 
Nature.    And  as  the  Union  of  Bodies  iox 
tifies  the  Adion  at  tiomc,  and  weakens  the 
Imprefiions  of  Fiolence^  To  there  is  a  propor- 
tionable Improvement  from  the  Union  of 

Neither  is  Friendjhip  only  ferviceable  to 
heighten  our  Pleafurcs,  and  compofe  our 
Pafiions.  'Tis  likewife  of  Sovereign  Ufe  to 
theUndcrfianding.  The  Benefit  of  Conver» 
fation  ,  if  there  was  nothing  glfe  in  it, 
would  be  no  inconfiderable  Improvem„enr. 
Difcourfe  (  without  Enthufiafm  )  creates  a 
^ight  within  uSj  and  difpels  the  Glqom  and 


0/  FRIEND  SHIP.      65 

Confufion  of  the  Mind.     A  Man  by  tumb- 
ling his  Thoughts,   and  forming  them  into 
ExpreiTions,  gives  them  a  new  kmd  of  Fer^ 
mentation;  which  works  them  into  a  finer 
Body,  and  makes  them  much  clearer  than 
they  were  before.  A  Man  is  willing  to  flrain 
a  little  for  Entertainment,  and  io}urniJhior 
Sight^  and  Approhafkn,  The  very  Prcftnce 
oi  a  Friend,fcems  to  infpire  with  new  Vigor. 
It  raifes  Fancy,  and  reinforces  Reafbn ;  and 
gives  the  ProducT:ions  of  the  Mind  better 
Colour  and   Proportion.     Convcrfation  is 
like  the  Difcipline  o'l  Drawingout^  and  Mu- 
ftering ;  it  acquaints  a  Man  with  his  Forces^ 
and  makes  them  fitter  for  Service.  Beiidcs, 
there  are  many  awakening  liints  and  Ren- 
counters in  Difcourfe  ,•  w  hich  like  the  Col- 
lifion  of  hard  Bodies,  make  the  Soul  ftrike 
Fire^  and  the  Imagination  fparkie  :  Efieds 
not  to  be  expedcd  from  a  fclitary  Endea- 
vour. In  a  Word,  The  Advantage  of  Con- 
vcrfation is  fuch,  that  for  want  of  Compa- 
ny a  Man  had  better  talk  to  a  Foft^  than 
let  his  1  houghts  lie  Smoking  and  SrBpther- 
ing  in  his  Head. 

Another  Advantage  of  Frkndlhip^  is  the 
Opportunity  of  receiving  good  Advice:'Iis 
dangerous  relying  upon  our  own  Opinion. 
Affedion  is  apt  to  corrupt  the  judgment. 
Men,  like  faUe  Glades,  generally  rcprefcnc 
their  Complexion  better  than  Nanirc'hns 


66     0/  F  R  I  E  N  D  S  H  I  P. 

made  it.  And  as  they  are  likely  to  over- 
flourifh  their  own  Cafe,  fo  their  Flattery  is 
hardeR  to  be  difcover'd.  For  who  would 
fufped  fuch  Treachery  at  Home  ?  Who 
would  imagine  his  Reafbn  fuborn'd  againft 
his  Interefl  ,•  and  that  himfelf  was  guilty  of 
putting  Tricks  upon  himielf  :  Now  no- 
thing is  fo  eiTedual  to  refcue  a  Man  out  of 
his  own  hands,  as  the  plain  Dealing  of  a 
Friend.  For  Inftrudion  from  Books,  (Irikes 
the  Im^agination  more  faintly,  than  that 
which  is  delivered  F^va  voce.  And  obfer- 
ving  refembling  Mifcarriages  in  others,may 
raiflead  us  by  thedifparity  of  the  Inftance. 
Befides,  People  are  not  fond  of  (earching 
after  their  own  Faults.  To  lie  poring  up- 
on their  imperfcdions,  and  Deformities,  is 
a  dull  Entertainment.  A  Man  has  no  Plea- 
fure  in  proving  that  he  has  plaid  the  Fool  : 
And  therefore  had  rather  go  upon  any  other 
Difcovery.  Accordingly  we  may  obferve, 
That  they  who  are  too  Bigg>  or  too  Wife, 
for  Admonition,  do  a  great  many  ill,  un- 
becoming, and  ridiculous  Things.  As  for 
Bufinefs^  the  alTiftance  of  a  Friend  is  mofl 
ufeful  ;  to  form  the  Undertaking,  and  fe- 
cure  the  Steadinefs  of  the  Condud.  In 
matters  of  Moment,  our  Hopes  and  Fears 
are  commonly  ill  ballanced.  A  Man  is  apt 
to  be  too  eagerly  engaged,  to  make  juft  Fle- 
marks  upon  the  Progrefs  and  Probability 


Of  FRIENDSHIP.       67 

of  Things-  Nothing  fo  proper  as  a  judici- 
ous  Friend  in  fuch  a  Cafe  ;  to  temper  the 
Spirits,  and  moderate  the  Purfuit:  To  give 
the  Signal  for  AcSion,  to  prcfi  the  Advan- 
tage, and  ftrike  the  Critical  Minute. 

Foreign  IntelHgence  may  have  a  Spy  in 
it,  and  therefore  fliould  be  cautioufly  re- 
ceived. Strangers  (I  call  all  fuch  excep- 
ting fr/f;/^^)  are  often  Defigning  in  their 
Advice,  and  make  a  Property  o{  their  Cli- 
ent, And  though  their  Inclinations  are 
hearty,  they  may  give  wrong  Mcafures,  by 
miftaking  the  Caft.  An  old  Friend  hoiS  the 
whole  Scheme  in  his  Head.  He  knows  the 
Conftitution  ,•  and  the  Difeafe,  the  Strength 
and  the  Humour  of  him  he  affifts  :  What 
he  can  do,  and  what  he  can  bear.  And 
therefore  none  fo  fit  to  prefcribe;  todired: 
the  Enterprize,  and  fecure  the  Main-Chance, 

Farther :  Friendjhip  is  net  confined  to 
the  confulting  Part ;  it  comes  in  likewife  at 
the  Execution.  Some  Cafes  are  fo  nice  that 
a  Man  cannot  appear  in  them  himfelf,  but 
muft  leave  the  Soliciting  wholly  to  his 
Friend,  For  the  purpofe  :  A  Man  cannot 
Recommend  himfelf  without  Vanity,  nor 
Ask  many  times  without  Uneafincfs.  But 
a  kind  Proxy  will  do  Juftice  to  his  Merits^ 
and  relieve  his  Modefly,  and  eiTcd:  his  Bu- 
finefs;  and  all  without  Trouble,  Blufliing, 
OX  Trnputation. 


68       0/  FRIENDSHIP. 

Thefe  Confidcrations  ought  to  make 
Fricndfliip  (acred,  and  guard  off  all  Injury 
and  Mifundcrftanding.  'Tis  great  Folly, 
as  well  as  Injufticc,  to  break  off  fo  noble  a 
Relation  ,•  efpecially  one  which  has  flood 
the  Tcil  of  a  long  Experience.  For  Fricnd- 
fhip  is  one  of  thofe  kw  Things  which  are  the 
better  for  the  Wearing,  Alphonfus  the  Wife, 
King  o\^Aragon^  tells  us,  That  a//  the  Acqui- 
fitions  and  Purfiiits  of  Men^  excepting  Four^ 
were  hilt  Bawhles  ;  \.  e.  old  Wood  to  Burny 
old  Wine  to  Drink^  old  Books  to  Read^  and 
old  Friends  to  Converfe  with. 

To  part  with  a  tried  Friend  without 
great  Provocation,  is  imrear3nable  Levdty. 
It  looks  as  if  a  Man's  Spirits  were  turned 
Eager,  and  his  good  Humour  worn  out. 
Such  Inconftancy  of  Temper,  feems  to  be 
governed  by  Caprice,  and  Curiofity  ;  and 
to  turn  more  upon  Intereft  than  Affedion. 
An  ambiguous  Expreffion,  a  little  Chagrin, 
or  a  fiart  of  Pailion,  is  by  no  means  enough 
to  take  leave  upon.  The  beft  People  can- 
not be  always  Even,  Awake,  and  Enter- 
taining, No  perfon  performs  at  this  rate 
of  Exadnefs,  and  therefore  fhould  not  re- 
quire it.  The"  Accidents  of  Life,  the  In- 
difpofitions  of  Health,  the  hnperfefiions  of 
Reafori,  ought  to  be  allowed  for.  A  Para- 
difijcal  Temper  is  not  to  be  expecled  from 
fojldihivian  Mortals,     The  bare  Inequality 


Of  FRIEND  SHIP.       69 

of  the  Seafonsy  is  enough  to  give  one  the 
Spleen.  And  therefore  your  IJlanclers  ought 
to  bear  with  their  Friends,  more  than  thofe 
that  live  upon  the  Continent.  A  Man  that 
would  make  the  Befl  on't,  mult  live  under 
the  j€jiiator  :  And  in  that  fteady  Climate^ 
he  may  pofiibly  find  People  always  in  the 
Humour.  To  be  ferious  :  Nothing  but 
pinin  Malevolence  can  juflify  Difunion. 
Malevolence  ftiewn  either  in  a  (ingle  Out- 
rage  unretraded,  or  in  habitual  Ill-nature. 
Such  Behaviour,  1  confefs,  is  a  notorious 
Breach  of  Articles  ;  it  llrikes  at  the  Funda- 
mentals, and  makes  a  Correfpondence  im- 

When  the  Engagement  proves  thus  un- 
lucky, the  way  is  to  draw  off  by  Degrees, 
and  not  to  come  to  an  open  Rupture.  Let 
the  Acquaintance  be  Decently  buried  ;  and 
the  I  lame  rather  Ge?  out.^  than  bQ  Smother  J, 
For  as  Cato  w^ell  obferves,  though  in  the 
Phrafe  of  a  Taylor,  Friendfljtp  ought  not 
to  be  Unrip  d^  but  Unftitch\L 

O  f 


O  F 


Popularity,  is  a  courting  the  Favour  of 
t:ie  People  by  undue  Pracflices,  or  for 
unwarrantable  Ends.  By  tho  Peopky  Imean 
rhofe  who  are  under  the  Government  of 
taKe  Reafoning,  or  vitious  Inclinations,  let 
their  Condition  be  what  it  will.  The  Po- 
pular Man's  Defigns  are  Power,  Wealth, 
Reputation,  or  all  togetherr.  He  that  is 
confcious  how^  much  his  Vanity  exceeds  his 
Force,  and  that  his  Merit  will  never  carry 
up  to  his  Ambition  ;  if  he  gets  but  a  fa- 
vourable Juncture,  and  a  rifing  Ground,  to 
Work  he  goes.  He  pretends  a  great  Con- 
cern for  his  Country,  and  a  more  than  or- 
dinary Infight  into  Matters.  Now  fuch 
ProfeiTions  as  thefe,  when  they  are  fet  off 
with  fomewhat  of  Gravity  and  Figure,  ef^ 
pecially  when  they  are  recommended  by  a 
Treaty  are  very  proper  to  difpofe  an  Audi- 
ence to  hear  Reafon.  So  that  now  he  ven- 
tures to  acquaint  them  with  the  Secret  of 
thriv  Privileges.  That  the  People  are  the 
O  iginal  of  Power  :  That  Government  is 
always  convey 'd  with  an  Implication  of 


71     0/P  OP  IILARITY. 

Truft,  and  Reftrvation  :  That  Governours 
are  only  the  Executors  and  Admin iflrators 
of  the  Peoples  VF/ll :  That  in  firid:  Reafon- 
ing,  'tis  a  nobler  Prerogative  to  give  a 
Crown  than  to  wear  it :  That  the  Pomp  of 
Princes  is  nothing  but  the  Livery  of  the 
SubjeCis  Bounty  ;  and  that  the  greatnefs  of 
the  Wages^  ought  not  to  exempt  them  from 
the  Condition  of  a  Servant,  This,  with  a 
little  Flourifli  abcut  Mifcarriages  and  Arbi- 
trary  Defigns,  is  (Irangely  Taking.  He 
that  has  fuch  a  burning  Zeal,  and  Iprings 
fuch  mighty  Di(coveries,  muft  needs  be  an 
admirable  Patriot.  What  can  a  civil  Peo^ 
pie  do  left  than  refign  themlelves  up  to  his 
Condud;  and  preient  him  with  their  Un- 
derftandings  ? 

To  come  from  the  State  to  the  Church  ; 
He  that  would  be  an  Agreeable  Ecclefia- 
ftick,  muft  furvey  the  Pofture  of  Things  : 
examine  the  Ballance  of  Interejl ;  and  be 
well  read  in  the  Inclinations  and  Averfions 
of  the  Generality  :  And  then  his  Bufmefs 
will  be  to  follow  the  Loudeft  Cry,  and 
m.akc  his  Tack  with  the  Wind.  Let  him 
never  pretend  to  Cure  an  Epidemical  Di- 
llemper,  nor  fall  out  with  a  Falliionable 
Vice,  nor  queftion  the  Infallible  Judgment 
of  the  Multitude.  Let  him  rather  down 
with  a  Sinking  Fadion,  charge  a  StragUng 
Party,  and  hang  upon  a  broken  Rear.     Let 


0/  P  O  P  U  L  A  R  I  T  Y.     7^y 

him  Declaim  againft  a  Solitary  Errour,  and 
Batter  a  Publick  Averfion ,  and  Prefs  the 
People  upon  thofe  Extremes,  to  which  of 
themfelves  they  are  too  inclinable.  And 
when  Fears  and  Jealoufies  become  clamo- 
rous, when  Difcontents  run  high,  and  All 
grows  Mutinous  and  Mad;  then  efpecial 
Care  mud  be  taken  not  to  dilate  upon  the 
Authority  of  Princes,  or  the  Duties  of  O- 
bedience.  Thefe  are  dangerous  Points,  and 
have  ruined  many  a  good  Man,  and  are 
only  to  be  handled  when  there  is  leaft  Oc- 
cafion.  There  are  other  nice ,  though  in- 
ferlour Cafes,  in  which  a  Man  mudguard, 
if  he  intends  to  keep  fair  with  the  World, 
and  turn  the  Penny.  For  the  purpofe:  If 
he  is  in  the  City,  he  muft  avoid  haranguing 
againfl:  Circumvention  in  Commerce,  and 
unreafbnable  impofing  upon  the  Ignorance 
or  NecefTity  of  the  Buyer.  If  you  meddle 
with  Diana  of  the  Ephefians^  you  muft  ex- 
ped:  to  loft  Demetriius  Friend  (hip.  The 
Dues  will  come  in  but  heavily  at  this  Rate: 
But  to  be  fiire  all  the  Voluntary  Oblations 
in  Prefents  and  RefpeB^  are  abfolutcly  loft. 
We  are  a  Trading  People,  (fay  fome  of  us) 
and  muft  have  no  interfering  between  Bufi- 
neis,  and  Religion.  If  the  Pulpits  and  the 
Exchange  will  not  Agree,  wc  muft  live,  and 
there  is  an  End  cn'u. 


74     0/   POPULARITY. 

To  proceed  :  If  his  Cure  lyes  among  the 
Lawyers.  Let  there  nothing  be  faid  againil: 
Entangling  Property,  Spinning  outoiCau- 
feSj  ^qwt^lmg  oi  Clients  ^  and  making  tlje 
Laws  a  greater  Grievance  than  thofe  who 
break  them.  No  Rhetorick  mull  be  (pent 
againil  Defending  a  known  Injuflice^again^  1: 
Crofs-biting  a  C^ountry  Evidence  ,  and 
frighting  him  out  of  Trurb,  and  his  Sen. 
ks,  'Tis  granted,  that  Touching  fome- 
times  upon  thefe  Heads^  is  the  only  way  to 
improve  the  Audience  :  Such  Plain  dealing 
would  either  Recover ,  or  Difarm  them  : 
Pvcform  the  Men,  or  Expofe  the  Pradice. 
But  then  you'll  fay,  this  Method  goes  too 
much  to  the  Quick.  This  Divinity  may 
bring  the  Benchers  upon  the  Vreacker^  and 
make  him  fall  under  Cenfure  and  Difcoun- 
tenance.  Now  a  perfon  of  Difcretion  will 
take  care  not  to  Embarras  his  Life,  nor  ex- 
pofe himfelf  to  Calumny,  nor  let  his  Con- 
fcience  grow  too  flrong  for  his  Intereft,  up- 
on any  account. 

To  fpeak  generally  :  A  Popular  Man 
always  fwims  down  the  Stream  :  He  never 
erodes  upon  a  prevaiHng  Miflake,  nor  Op- 
poics  any  Mifchief  that  has  Numbers,  and 
Preicription  on  its  fide.  His  Point  is  to 
ileal  upon  the  Blind  fide,  and  apply  to  the 
AlTedions :  To  flatter  the  Vanity ,  and 
play  upon  the  Wcaknels  oi  thofe  in  Pov/- 


0/  POPULARITY.     75 

er,  or  Intercft  ,*  and  to  make  his  Foitune  out 
of  the  Folly  of  his  Neighbours. 

Not  that  'tis  a  Comaiendation  to  be  of  a 
Morofe  and  Cynical  Behaviour,*  to  run 
counter  to  the  Innocent  Humours  and  Cu- 
ftoms  of  Mankind,  to  be  Coarfc  or  Unfeafb- 
nab'e  in  Admonition  ,•  or  to  avoid  the  good 
Opinion  of  People,  by  Ruflick  Incompli- 
ance, by  Pcevilhnefs  or  Singularity.  But 
then  neither  ought  a  Man  to  Pleafe  another 
to  his  Prejudice,  to  fortify  him  in  an  Er- 
rour  by  an  Over-olScioufhefs,  and  to  Carefs 
him  out  of  his  Safety  and  Difcretioo. 

And  after  all,  the  Succefs  is  no  fuch  migh- 
ty Matter.  If  one  confiders,  he'll  find  as 
little  Credit  as  Confcience  in  the  Purchafe. 

For  what  (brt  of  Reputation  muft  that  be 
which  is  gained  by  Methods  of  Infamy  ?  to 
debauch  Mens  Underftandings  in  order  to 
procure  their  Good  Word,  is  a  mofl  aami- 
rable  Tedimony  of  our  Worth  !  A  Blind 
Man  muft  needs  be  a  fit  Judge  of  Proporti- 
ons  and  Colour.  Thefe  Patents  oi Honour^ 
which  are  granted  thus  by  Surprize^  are  al- 
ways recalled  when  the  Party  is  better  Ad- 
vifed.  The  Efteem  gained  this  way,  like  a 
Love- Potion,  works  more  by  the  Strength 
of  Charm,  than  Nature;  and  if  ever  the 
Perfon  recovers,  tke  Hatred  will  be  much 
greater  than  the  Afleition. 

F  2  Tiie 

76     0/  P  O  P  U  L  A  R  I  T  Y- 

The  Truth  is,  if  there  w  as  no  Foul  Play 
ufed,  or  the  Artifice  undifcovered  ,  there 
would  not  be  much  to  brag  of.  For  an  Uni- 
verfal  Applaufe,  is  feldom  little  lefs  than 
two  Thirds  of  a  Scandal.  A  Man  may  al- 
mod  fwear  he  is  in  the  Wrongs  when  he  is 
generally  Cryed  up.  Either  Incapacity 
or  Prejudice,  Negligence  or  Impofture,  dif- 
orders  the  Judgment  of  the  Multitude. 
Their  Underftandings  are  often  too  Weak, 
or  their  Paflions  too  Strong  to  Diftinguifli 
Truth,  or  pronounce  upon  the  Right  of  the 
Ca(e.  it  a  Great  Man  happens  to  make  a 
falfeStep,  and  ftrikes  out  into  a  Sudden  Ir- 
regularity ,  he  needs  not  queftion  the  Re- 
fpedl  of  a  Retinue  ;  How  is  an  Exploit  of 
this  Nature  celebrated  by  the  Crowd,  and 
(liouted  home  with  the  Pomp  of  a  Roman 
Triumph  ?  In  fine :  To  endeavour  not  to 
Fleafe,  is  Ill-nature  ;  altogether  to  Ncgled: 
it,  Folly  ;  and  to  Over-ftrain  for  it,  Vani- 
ty and  Defign. 



I  N    A 



Hylarchm  and  Lucretianm. 

Hyl.  T  Have  often  thought  what  it  is  to 
^  Think ;  and  the  more  I  prefs  the 
Enquiry,  the  farther  I  am  from  Satisfadti- 
on.  The  Operations  of  the  fl'luirl  are  (b 
peculiar,  fo  foreign  to  all  the  other  Ap^ 
pearances  of  Nature ,  that  'tis  hard  to  aC- 
ilgn  them  a  proper  Original.  Without 
Tlj'mking  ,  we  can  have  no  ijen(e  of  Being  ; 
and  with  it ,  we  are  we  cannot  tell  what. 
So  that  the  fame  Faculty  Teems  to  make 
us  acquainted  v;ith ,  and  Strangers  to  our 

Lttc.  I  am  furpriz'd  to  find  you  entang* 

led  in  fo  {lender  a  Difficulty.     Thinking 

F  3  every 

78         A  THOUGHT, 

every  Body  knows  is  the  work  of  the 
Brain:  That  is  the  Forge  in  ^^nv^ch  all  the 
Speculations  of  the  Underftanrling  ,  and 
the  Appetite^  of  the  WiJl^  are  hamincr'd 


Hy)L  I  confcfs  Pofilbihtics  go  a  great 
way.  But  in  my  Opinion  ,  the  Brain  has 
a  very  unpromihng  Afpe^l:  for  fuch  a  Bu- 
{xn^'is.  It  looks  like  an  odd  fort  of  Bog  for 
Fancy  to  paddie  in.  When  I  can  fee  pco- 
p!c  tread  Sen^e  out  of  Mud, as  they  do  Eels, 
then  I  may  be  inclined  to  believe  xkiZXBratns 
and  Reasoning  are  of  Kin  ;  in  the  mean  time 
I  defire  lo  be  cxcufcd. 

hue.  I'm  forry  your  Conceptions  arc  fo 
Unphilofbphical.  You  fcem  to  forget  that 
the  Brain  has  a  great  many  {^Tiall  Fibres^  or 
Strings  in  its  Texture;  which  according  to 
the  ditFercnt  Strokes  they  receive  from  the 
Animal  Spirits^  awaken  a  correfpondent 
Idea,  and  give  us  thofe  Notices  of  Things 
which  we  call   thoughts. 

HyL  A  little  clearer,  if  you  pleafe. 

Lt^:c,  You  mufl  know  then  ,  that  the 
Nerves,  which  have  their  Origin  in  the 
Brain^  are  branched  into  a  great  many  fine 
Subdivif.ons  ,  and  fpread  upon  all  the  Sur- 
face of  the  Body.  Thefe  are  the  Chanels 
in  w  hich  the  xAnimal  Spirits  move :  So  that 
as  foon  as  any  foreign  Objcd;  preflcs 
ppon  the  Senfe  ;  thofe  Spirits  w^hich  arc 


^THOUGHT.         y^ 

ported  upon  the  Out-guards,  immediatciy 
take  the  A!arm,and  (cower  off  to  the  Brah^ 
which  is  the  Head-Qjarters,  or  Office  of  lu 
telligerxe^  and  there  they  make  their  Report 
of  svhat  has  happened. 

Hyl.  I  fuppofc  they  return  loaden  like 
Bees,  and  disburthen  thcmfelves  in  theC^^^ 
much  after  the  fame  manner? 

Luc.  I  have  told  you  the  Information  is 
convey 'd  by  ftriking  upon  the  Fhres^  and 
giving  them  a  particular  Bent ;  which  im- 
prints the  Charader  of  the  Objedl  upon  the 

Flyl  I  (]]ould  almofi  as  (bon  imagine, 
tliat  the  ftriking  A  Viol  with  a  Bow,  ihould 
entertain  the  Inftrument  with  its  own  Mu. 
Tick.  But  as  I  remember,  feme  fay  the 
Spirits  Tilt  lb  violently,  that  they  make 
Holes  where  they  ftrike;  which  are  no 
fooner  open,  but  the  iJeas  run  into  them 
as  fall  as  may  be.  And  after  they  have  lain 
there  a  little  while,  grow  as  drowfy  as 
Dormice,  unlefsthey  are  roufed  by  a  ntw 
Summons.  By  the  way,  What  are  Animal 
Spirits  ?  mcthmks  they  perform  firange 

Lhc.  They  are  a  kind  of  little  Pellets, 
wrought  of  the  finer  parts  of  the  Blood. 

HjL  Then  I  perceive  they  are  Bodies  all 
this  while. 

F  4  Luc. 

8o        A  THOUGHT. 

L«c.  Yes,  But  admirably  furnifh'd  for  Di- 
Ipatch  and  Intelligence. 

HjL  Let  thenn  be   as  Sleek,  and  well 
Timbered,  as  thofe  Atoms  Epicurus  made 
his  Soul  of;  yet  I'm  afraid  they  are  not  al- 
together qualify 'd  for  that  Office  you  have 
put  them  in.     For  (uppofmg  a  Bird  fits  be- 
fore me ;  thefe  Mercurys  immediately  run 
up  to  the  Center  of  Senfatzon^  to  give  an 
Account  of  what  is  arrived.  Now  in  doing 
this,  either  every  fingle  Animal  Spirit  muft 
convey    a  whole    Reprefentation ,     which 
would  multiply  the  Objed,  if  not  overload 
the  Carrier  ,•  or  elfe  they  muft  divide  the 
Image  amongft  them,  and  fo  lug  off  every 
one  his  (hare.     This  I  confefs  is  the  more 
equal  way  :  But  then  when  they  have  ta- 
ken the  Objed:  ro  pieces,  how  they  will  fet 
it  together  again,  is  hard  to  imagine.     For 
they  cannot  ilrike  all  upon  one  F-*oint  ,•  and 
if  they  could,  they  would  jumble  the  Pro- 
portions, and  run  the  Objed;  all  on  heaps ; 
w^here  the  later  Imptellion  would  go  near 
to  deface  the  former.     But  if  they  impinge 
upon  different  Parts,  and  make  every  Part 
fcnfible  with  the  Stroke;  'Tis  true  then 
they  hive   it   among  them  ,    but  which 
way  the  Whole  iliould   emerge ,     is  ftill 
incomprehenfible.     For  fuppole  the  Image 
was  painted  in   Order,  without  any  Dii- 
locacion :,   vacant  Intervals  ,    or  Interlop- 

^THOUGHT.  8i 

ing ;  yet  the  parts  of  the  Filres  being  di- 
ftind,  and  impregnated  by  diftind:  Spirits, 
they  can  account  no  farther  than  their  (hare 
of  Motion  reaches :  And  therefore  how  they 
(hould  club  their  particularlnformaticns  in- 
to a  common  Idea,   is  inconceivable.     For 
inftance  :  If  a  Cake  is  broken  among  twen- 
ty People,  though   there  may  be  nothing 
loft  in  the  Divifion,  yet  'twilf  be  next   to 
impofTible  for  each  Perfon,  from  the  view 
of  a  fingle  fragment,  to  underftand   what 
Relation  either  in  Site,  or  Magnitude    his 
proportion  bears  to  the  whole.     Befides,  if 
any  of  the  returning  Spirits  fliculd  happen 
to  fall  foul  upon  others  which  are  outward 
Bound:,  (  which  is  not  unlikely  :  )    Thefe 
Counter-motions  would  over-fet  them,  or 
occafion  a  latter  Arrival;    either  of  which 
Accidents  would  maim  the   Image,    and 
make  it  imperfed. 

Thefe  Rubs  you  fee  will  lie  in  the  way 
of  Senfation  :  But  then  in  the  Bufmefs  of 
Imagination^  the  difficulty  is  ftill  greater. 
For  here  are  no  external  imprefiions  to  be- 
gin the  Motion.  'Tis  true,  outward  Ob- 
jeds  will  make  us  perceive  them,  whether 
we  will  or  no.  But  the  Exercifes  of  Ima- 
gination are  oftentimes  purely  voluntary. 
When  the  Paflions  are  not  violent,  we  may 
check  or  quicken,  change  or  extinguifn  the 
Operation  as  we  pleafe.  Now  I  would  glad- 

8z         J     THOUGHT. 

ly  know  the  rnain  Spring  of  the  Motion. 
What  Power  it  is  which  opens  the  Scene, 
and  gives  direction  to  the  whole  Mariage- 
ment ;  which  chalks  out  the  CoDrfe  ot  the 
Spirits^  and  Hmits  their  Conruniffiori,  both 
as  to  Time,  and  other  Circumftances  of 
A(9:ion  ? 

Luc,  I  perceive  you  imagine  a  Mecha- 
nlcal  Solution  impoffible.  But  if  you  ex- 
amined the  exquiilte  nnenefs  of  th©  Ani- 
mal Spirits,  and  the  exa6t  proportion  be- 
tween them  and  the  Fihres^  to  give  and 
receive  Impreflions,  I  believe  you  would 
alter  your  Opinion ;  Efoecially  conHdering 
this  Hypothefis  is  fiipported  by  matter  of 

I-IyL  We'll  examine  your  matter  of  FaH 
afterwards.  At  prefent  let  mc  tell  you, 
fincc  both  the  FiheSy  and  Spirits  j  are  Ma- 
terial; I  think  it  impoffibie  for  them  to 
produce  Edcds^  fo  much  above  the  Vigour 
of  the  Caufe.  You  may  as  well  exped:  that 
two  Bowls  fliould  grow  fcnffble  by  Ruling; 
Asthat  the  Rencounter  of  any  5^^/(?5,(liould 
awaken  'era  into  Perception  and  Reajoning. 
The  whole  Force  of  Mechanifm^  confifts  in 
Matter  and  MotioyK  Matter  is  nothing  but 
ExtenfiGH^  that  is,  Length,  Breadth,  and 
Dcprh.  And  Motion  implies  no  more  than 
a  change  of  Situation  in  the  Parts  of  Mat^ 
ter.    Now  thefc  two  Ingredients,  though 


A   THOUGHT.  8; 

never  fb  well  mix'd,  will  not  rife  into  the 
Cotnpofition  of  a  Spirit.  Thoughts^  and 
Dimenfions^  are  the  moft  incompatible-,  iin- 
refcmbiing  things  in  Nature.  To  make  the 
firfl:  out  ot  the  latter,  is  a  harder  Mctamor- 
phofis  than  any  is  in  Ovid.  Who  ever  heard 
of  an  Ounce  of  Pain,  an  Inch  of  Deiirc, 
or  an  Ell  of  Contemplation. 

Luc.  I  fuppofe  you  fancy  if  Matter  and 
Motion  can  make  a  Thought  \  a  Thought  may 
make  Mafter  and  Motion. 

Hyl.  Why  not?  what  fliould  hinder  diis 
Mercury  from  being  fix'd  after  Subiimation, 
and  thrown  back  into  its  former  (late  ?  But 
as  this  won't  qo^  To  neither  will  the  other. 
Take  a  Body  and  run  it  through  a!l  Shapes 
and  Changes;  force  it  into  al!  Climates, 
and  bandy  it  through  t\\^  Univcrft  ;  yet 
like  feme  young  Travellers,  'twill  come 
home  as  dull,  and  unthinking  as  it  went 
out.  For  all  this  Buftle  amounts  to  no 
more  than  making  the  Parts  and  Motion 
greater,  or  lefTer  than  they  were  before  ,• 
and  giving  them  a  new  Neighbourhood. 

Luc,  I  iliOuld  have  fancy 'd  that  wlicn 
the  Parts  were  broken  fine,  and  curiouily 
filed,  a  brisk  touch  of  Mo:ion  would  liavc 
quickned  them  into  Thinking. 

Hyl.  Motion  makes  them  Think  I  you  mny 
as  well  expecfc  Difcourfe  from  a  Tcmp-ii, 
cr  ConHagrtion,     And  as  for  the  finencrb' 


84  ^THOUGHT. 

of  Parts,  if  that  fignifies  any  thing,  a  Mite 
would  have  more  Senfe  than  a  Man.  And 
to  carry  on  the  Improvement ;  One  would 
think  we  might  beat  Spice  till  it  felt  the 
Pejlle  ;  and  with  a  good  Flint  and  Steel > 
ftrike  Confcioiifnefs  into  a  Tinder-box. 

Luc.  What  makes  you  Co  pofitive  againfl 
theScnfibility  of  Matter  ? 

Hjl.  Becaufe  'tis  nothing  but  Extenjion 
varioufly  figured. 

Luc.  Do  you  know  all  the  Affeclions  of 
Bodies?  if  not,  why  do  you  confine  their 

Hyl.^  If  you  aj,k  me  whether  I  know  all 
the  Effeds  which  may  refult  from  all  the 
pofsible  Combinations  of  Matter  and  Moti- 
on :  I  anfAver,  No  ,•  neither  is  it  neceffary. 
But  this  I  know,  That  all  your  Tranfm.u- 
tntions  can  never  hunt  a  Body  out  of  Exten- 
[ton.  You  iray  divide,  or  confolidate  ;  al- 
ter the  Superficies,  the  Bulk,  or  Place; 
quicken  the  Motion, or  interrupt  the  Quiet ; 
but  aiter  all  'will  have  Longitude,Latitude, 
and  Profundity,  in  fpite  of  Fate.  The 
Confequence  is,  That  all  the  Revolutions 
in  Nature  can  give  it  nothing  more  than 
different  degrees  of  theft  Dimenfions. 
And  w^hat  affinity  has  Thinking  with  fuch 
Attributes  as  thele  ?  No  more  than  there  is 
btween  a  Syllogifm  and  a  Tanlwand,  In 
a  word:  If  Thinking  is   eflential  to  Mat^ 


^THOUGHT.         85 

ter^  then  all  Matter  muft  Think -,  and  if  fo. 
Stocks  and  Stones  will  come  in  for  their 
fhare  of  Privilege.  But  if  all  Matter  does 
not  Think^  none  can  ;  for  the  EfTence  of 
all  Matter  is  the  fame. 

Luc,  Does  it  imply  a  Contradidion  for 
Matter  to  Think  ? 

Hyl.  Truly,  in  my  Opinion,  as  much  as 
for  a  Man  to  be  a  Horfe. 

Luc.  Why  io  ?  Does  Thinking  extinguifli 
Est  en f\  on  ? 

Hyl.  It  extinguiiljes  the  Idea  if  you  will; 
and  that  is  (uiEcient  Proof  it  does  not  be- 
long to  the  Thing. 

Luc.  Becaule  Extenfion  and  Cogitation  arc 
unallied  in  their  idea's,  and  this  latter  is  not 
implied  in  the  Notion  oi  Matter^  you  con- 
clude this  Faculty  does  not  belong  to  it. 

Hyl.  Yes ;  and  with  good  Reafon.  For 
how  can  the  Diftindion  of  Subftances  be 
known,  but  by  the  different  Properties  and 
Operations  which  proceed  from  them.  ;and 
which  way  can  thefe  be  difccvered,  but  by 
the  diftind:  Notions  and  Senrimoiitswe 
have  of  them  > 

Luc,  Are  you  fure  your  Idea  of  Matter 
is  compleat? 

Hyl.  That  the  full  Notion  of  Corporeiiy 
is  compri2:'d  within  the  three  Dimenftons^  is 
as  clear  as  that  two  and  two  makes  four. 
To  thefe  VinKnfwns  add  what  Dofe  of  Mo- 

86         ^THOUGHT. 

tion  you  pleafc,  and  then  you  have  railed 
the  whole  Pojfe  of  Mechaaifm.  And  when 
you  have  Diiciplined  it  in  all  Podures.  and 
Figures,  'twill  be  Matter  and  Motion  (till. 
For  you  may  better  fuppofc,  That  a  Moufe 
may  produce  an  Elephant,  than  that  Mat* 
ter  and  Motion  Ihould  propagate  out  of  their 
own  Species.  Now  theie  two  Principles 
fall  valHy  ihort  of  the  Notion  of  Coyifciouf- 
jiefs  ;  and  are  no  ir.ore  like  Perception^  than 
Colours  refemble  Sound. 

Luc.  You  take  the  Differences  of  Idea's 
for  dcmondrations  ot  diftinction  in  things ; 
will  that  hold: 

HyL  Yes,  or  clfe  we  have  nothing  to 
truft  to.  !f  clear  and  diuinct  Perception^  is 
not  the  inlallible  Mark  of  Truth,  'tis  impof- 
fible  to  know  any  thing.  For  ail  Reafoning 
is  at  lait  refolved  into  Self  evident  Princi- 
ples :  Now  tliefe  Magifterial  Propofitions 
don't  Difpute  for  Belief,  but  demand  it  .- 
They  flaih  Convidion  fo  Powerfully  that 
there  is  no  refifling  them,  unlefs  you  will 
luppofe  our  Faculties  are  laKe  :  And  then 
it  will  beMadnefs  to  argue  about  any  thing. 
To  return  ;  Don't  you  think  the  Whole  is 
greater  than  any  Part  of  it  ? 

Luc,  I  allow  it  an  indifputable  Axiom ; 
what  follows? 


^THOUGHT.         87 

HyL  Why  as  plain  and  as  primary  a 
Truth  as  it  appears,  'tis  but  a  CoDfcqucnce 
oi'w'hat  I  mentioned  before. 

Luc  What,  that  a  Diftindion  of  Idea's 
'/jirrsa  Diilindlion  in  Things. 

H-l  Yes,  Fordo  but  attend,  and  you'll 

■:  the   reafon  why  you  pronounce 

iV^joh  bigger  than  a  ?art  is  becaufe  the 

'  »  t?ikes  up  a  greater  room  in  the  Notion, 

•nd  includes  a  more  corriprchenuve  Reality^ 

dian  the  latter. 

Luc,  It  leems  then  the  Fundions  of  Life 
and  Reafomng^  procev^d  from  an  mmaterial 
Siibuance  ;  and  that  the  Body  and  Spirit^ 
are  perfeitly  diftindt. 

Hyl  Nothing  more  certain  :  And  if  a 
Spine  has  no  Extenjion^  it  can  have  no 
p^.ris ;  from  hence  it  becomes  indivifible, 
and  thence  immortal. 

Luc,  \  ovvn  ihefe  Confequences  are  very* 
clear  :  but  ihen  they  are  embarrafled  with 
foine  appendent  Difficulties  which  (hock  a 
Man's  IJnderftanding. 

Hyl.  Look  you  !  we  mud  not  let  goma- 
nifefl:  Truth.s,  becaufe  we  cannot  anlwer  all 
Queftiens  about  them.  Objedlions  arc  no 
good  Evidence  againlt  pofitive  Proofs. This 
K:rupulous  way  would  make  us  deny  our 
Senfes  :  For  there  is  fcarcely  any  thing  we 
meet  with,  but  puts  our  Reafon  to  a  ftand, 

88  ^THOUGHT. 

in  fome  Circumftance  or  other  :  But  pray- 
where  does  the  Pinch  lie  ? 

Luc.  Why,  by  this  Scheme  all  Commu- 
nication between  Sou!  and  Body  is  cut  off; 
and  yet  nothing  is  more  certain  than  that 
Thofe  two  maintain  a  large  Correfpon- 
dence.  You  (ee  we  move  our  Limbs  at  our 
Pleafure,  and  receive  various  Impreilions 
according  to  the  objeds  of  Senfe,  and  the 
Habits  ot  Conflitution.  But  how  the  Soul 
can  move  the  Body,  or  be  affeded  by  it, 
without  Extenfion,  is  part  my  comprehen- 
fion.  For  all  Motion  is  perform'd  by  Refi- 
nance, and  Refiftance  fuppofes  Conta(Si:> 
Contad  requires  a  Superficies,  and  this 
implies  Extenfion  ;  fo  that  where  Extenfi- 
on is  abfent,  the  other  Requifites  muft  fail 
of  Courfe  :  At  this  rate,  a  Soul  may  as  foon 
puQi  dow^n  a  Church-Steeple,  as  ilir  a  fin- 
g!e  Atom. 

HyL  I  confefs  I  can't  tell  you  how  this 
Affair  is  managed.  'Tis  pofiible  the  Soul 
does  not  move  the  Body  at  all. 

Luc.  How  then  comes  it  to  pafs  that  Mo- 
tion is  (b  perpetually  conftquent  to  our 
Will  ?  For  the  Purpofe :  When  I  have  a 
Mind  to  walk,  the  Mufcles  are  immediately 
put  into  a  Pofture  of  Travelling,  and 
do  their  Office  at  the  leaft  Notice  imasina- 


A    THOUGHT.       89 

Hyl.  I  believe  this  myfterious  Corre- 
fpondence  depends  on  the  Laws  of  the 
Union  ;  which  by  Sovereign  Appoiritment 
are  order'd  to  confift  in  a  certain  Recipro- 
cation of  Thoughts  and  Motions^  and  fo  vice 

Luc.  You  mean,  when  I  would  move 
iny  Finger,  God  direds  the  Organ  for  fuch 
a  Performance  :  And  on  the  other  hand, 
gives  me  Ideas  fuitable  to  the  Prefence  of 
fenfible  Objects,  and  to  the  State  of  the 

Hyl.  Right. 

Luc.  But  why  do  you  make  u(e  of  this 
Suppofition  ?  Do  you  believe  the  Power  of 
Exciting  Motion  exceeds  the  Force  of  the 
Soul  ? 

Hyl.  'Tis  not  improbable  it  may.  For  if 
this  Privilege  lay  within  our  reach j  one 
would  imagine  we  (hould  know  fbmething 
more  oF  the  Manner  of  ufing  it.  But  1 
don't  pretend  to  determine  any  Thing. 

Luc.  You  don't  think  it  impofliible  for  a 
Spirit  to  move  Matter  ? 

Hyl.  By  no  means :  If  it  were,  there 
would  be  no  fuch  Thing  as  Motion.  For 
Extenfion  implies  no  Nccelfity  of  being  Mo- 
ved :  It  fuppofes  no  more  than  a  bare  Ca- 
pacity for  juch  an  Event.  Now  that  Power 
which  brings  this  Podibility  into  Ad,  muft 
be   fbmcthmg  diflind:  from  Matter.     Be- 

G  fides : 

90        A    THOUGHT. 

fides  :  The  Regiilurity  of  Motion,  vifible  in 
the  great  Variety  and  Curiofity  of  Bodies, 
and  the  conflant  and  even  Revolutions  of 
fome  of  them,  is  a  Demonftration  that  the 
whole  Mafs  of  Matter  is  under  tl.  '  -  -^ct 
of  a  mighty  Intelligence, 
■-  Luc,  ByyourReafoning,  I  conceive  ^ci 
telieve  that  the  Power  of  Motion^  is  tixhrt 
an  incommunicable  Perfection  of  theSu-^ 
preme5f/;?g,  or  elfe  a  fort  of  Prerogative 
Royal,  which  he  is  pleafed  to  keep  m  his 
Hands,  that  we  may  be  the  more  fenfible 
of  our  dependance. 

Hyh  I  think  that  Opinion  not  improba- 
ble. You  know  the  Apoftle  telJs  us,  That  in 
Hir/i  ive  Live^  Move^  and  have  our  Being  • 
Which  Words  'tis  likely  will  bear  a  more 
Literal  Senfe  than  is  ufuaily  imagined. 

Luc,  May  befo.  But  to  return  ,•  IfMat^ 
ter  be  fo  uncapable  of  Thinkings  as  (eems  to 
have  been  proved;  How  comes  it  about 
that  the  Operations  of  .Sf^^y^j  and  Reafon^  va- 
ry fo  much  according  to  the  Difpofition  of 
the  Organs  ^  For  if  the  Mufick  does  not  de- 
pend on  the  Inftrument,  what's  matter  whe- 
ther 'tis  in  Tune,  or  not  ?  Nov/  you  know 
any  ccnffiderable  Degrees  of  Sicknefi,  or 
Age,  fiat  the  Senfes,  extinguilh  the  memo- 
r}^  and  weaken  the  Underltanding:  So  that 
the  Vigour  oi  the  Mind  feems  almofl  fti- 
fied  under  thele  Corporeal  Oppreflions. 

A    THOUGHT.       pi 

HyL  I  grant  tlie  Powers  of  Senfation^xQ 
concra6led  or  enlarged,  made  keen  or  lan- 
guid, according  to  the  Temper  of  the  Body. 
But  'tis  likely  thefe  Circumllances  are  no 
more  than  occafional  Caufes  of  this  Variety, 
My  Meaning  is,  That  there  is  no  natural 
Connexion  between  Thought  and  Matter 
and  Motion :  Or  that  the  Soul  and  Body 
do  not  d6l  by  dired:  Force  upon  each 
other.  Tis  true^  Senfattons  and  PallionSj 
feem  to  depend  upon  a  particular  Set  of 
Motions :  And  the  Body  ,  on  the  other 
hand,  feems  to  fall  into  different  Poflures 
by  the  Orders  of  the  Mind  ,•  yet  thefe  ef- 
fedts  may  not  refult  from  any  mutual  Agen- 
cy, but  meerly  from  the  Will  of  a  third 
Power.  That  this  fuppofition  is  poffible, 
needs  no  proof :  That  'tis  matter  of  Fadt, 
feems  likely  ;  becaufe  the  two  Parties 
are  fo  efientially  foreign  and  diflimilar, 
that  they  feem  uncapable  of  entertain- 
ing any  Commerce  by  virtue  of  their  own 

Lf4c,  If  the  Operations  of  Life  have  no 
immediate  dependance  on  the  Quality  of 
the  Organ  ;  why  are  our  Senfes  worn  up 
with  Age,  and  decay  with  the  vifible  Parts 
ot  the  Body  ? 

Hyl,  When  the  common  Period  of  the 
Union  is  aknoft  expired,  'tis  likely  Provi- 
dence gives  us  notice  of  It  by  fuch  icnfible 
G  X  De- 

91         A  THOUGHT. 

Declenfions,  that  we  may  difengage  frcm 
the  World  by  Degrees,  and  prepare  the  bet- 
ter for  fo  great  an  Alteration. 

Luc.  Why  does  Pain  t oil ow  from  Ob- 
(Irudions,  Oiiiocation,  Difcontlnuity,  (^r. 
and  Pleafure  from  thofe  Actions  which  fup- 
port  the  Frame  ? 

HyL  To  encourage  us  to  keep  the  Body 
in  repair,  and  to  prevent  Diflblution. 

Luc,  Your  an{\vering  in  the  Final  C^uth^ 
makes  me  believe  you  are  at  a  Lofs  for  the 

HyL  As  to  that,  Tis  probable  the  Di. 
vine  Oeconomy  has  fetled  fuch  an  inter- 
changeable Train  of  thoughts^  and  Motions^ 
between  Soul  and  Body  ;  that  as  (con  as  the 
Gccafional  Hints  fpring  out,  the  other  will 
as  conftantly  follow^  as  if  they  were  pro- 
duced by  the  moft  immediate  Caufality. 
Forlnftance:  If  I  cut  my  Finger,  I /hall  as 
certainly  feel  Pain,  as  if  my  S©ul  was  co- 
extended  with  the  Limb,  and  had  a  Piece 
of  it  fawn  through.  So  when  I  am  difpo^ 
fed  to  Strike,  the  Adion  w  ill  be  performed 
with  the  fame  Force  and  Regularity,  as  if 
it  was  conduced,  and  puihed  on  by  the 
Will^  in  the  molt  corporeal  Manner. 

I  mention  this    both  to  illuftrate  the 
Point,  and  to  (liew  that  w^e  ought  to  guard 
upon  bath  Parrs  of  our  Compofition  :  That 
there  may   be  nothing  done  which  is  un- 

A    THOUGHT.  95 

becoming,  or  diftgrces  with  the  Intend- 
ments of  Providence. 

Luc,  If  the  Soul  and  Body  have  no  in- 
trinfick  or  eflential  Aptnefs  to  take  or  re- 
ceive ImprefTions  from  each  other;  why 
is  the  Struflure  of  the  later  {o  curioufly 
Framed  ?  Why  is  there  fJjch  variety  of 
Parts,  and  fuch  admirable  Proportion  ;  By 
your  Scheme  the  Soul  might  have  t'.e  fame 
compafs  of  Seyitiment  and  Tcrcepiion^  and 
do  every  jot  as  vvelJ,  if  it  were  united  to  a 

HyL  So  it  might,  though  it  had  never 
an  Atom  belong  to  it.  However  your  Q^jc* 
flion  about  the  Curiofity  of  tlie  Body,  may 
be  anfwer'd  by  faying,  'That  'tis  probably 
fo  framed  to  flicw  the  VVifdom  and  Power 
of  the  Architect,  and  to  heighten  the  Beau- 
ty and  Dignity  of  the  Creature. 

Luc,  Do  you  fay  the  Soul  may  be  as  hap- 
py without  a  Body,  as  with  it  ? 

HyL  I  fay  'tis  podible  to  be  fo.  Though 
God  may  order  it  ocherwife,ifhe  picafes;  as 
in  EfTed:  he  has  done  with  refpedt  to  ?he 
Refurredion.  But  let  this  lad  Difpute  lie 
undecided.  And  belore  1  take  my  leave,  I 
can't  but  obferve  to  you,  that  there  are  a 
great  many  (Irange  Appearances  in  Thoughts^ 
Methinks,  if  it  might  Le,  I  would  gladly 
underftand  the  Formation  of  a  Soul,  run  it 
up  to  its  Purjflum  Saliens^  and  fee  it  beat 

G  3  ilic 

94        ^THOUGHT 

the  firft  confcious  Pulfe.  Thefe  Thoughts 
whence  do  they  arile?  What  Stuff' are  they 
made  of?  And  what  Vigour  is  it  that  gives 
them  fuch  an  Inflantaneous  Produdion? 
They  are  conceived  in  full  Maturity,  and 
itep  into  Perfection  at  firft.  They  fcorn  the 
GxziCizn?}ViSO\  Bodies,  and  the  heavy  SucceC 
ilons  of  Motion.  They  gain  the  Race  at  a 
Start,  out-fifetch  the  Speed  of  Gunpowder, 
and  Diftance  Llglu  and  Lightning. 

Luc,  It  th:y  come  up  in  that  Perfedion, 
why  are  feme  Thoii^Hs  Taid  to  be  unfiniftied., 
and  to  require  the  working  off  with  Labour 
and  Time  > 

Hyl  I  grant  you  Frojeds,  Harangues, 
and  Chains  of  Reafbning,  are  not  fo  quickly 
Wrought  up.  They  include  Multitude, 
and  Order,  and  Choice  5  and  therefore 
muil:  have  fome  Lejfure  for  Ranging  and 
Invention.  But  as  to  fingle  Idt^s^  Inccn* 
nexions,  and  flight  Touches^  my  Obfer- 
vaticn  holds  good.  For  pray  what  time 
does  it  take  to  raifethe  Notion  of  a  Moun- 
tain ?  Or  to  Think  from  England  to  J^pan  ? 
A  Man  may  kt  both  the  Poles  together  in 
his  Head,  without  trouble  j  and  Clutch 
the  whole  Glohe  at  cne  Intelledual  Grafp,  if 
he  pleafes.  To  go  on :  Methinks  the  Con- 
veyance and  Diipofition  of  Things  in  the 
Mind,  is  very  extraordinary.  What  Fa- 
culty is  it  which  takes  the  Model  of  the 


^THOUGHT.        95 

largefl  Objeds,  and  draws  the  Pidure  in 
Little?  That  reconciles  all  difagreeingQua^ 
lities,  and  lodges  Sympathy  and  Antipathy, 
Fire  and  Water,  together  without  diftur- 
bance  ?  That  contrads  the  Intervals  of 
Space^  unites  the  Diftances  of  Time,  and 
draws  Pafi^  Prefent^  and  Future^  into  a  fingle 
View  ?  How  comes  it  to  pafs  that  fuch  an 
infinite  Number  of  Things  are  placed  with 
fuch  Order  and  Diftindion  in  the  Memory  ^ 
notwithdanding  the  Tumults  and  ContU' 
fions,  Marches,  and  Counter-marches,  of 
the  Animal  Spirits  ?  What  room  is  there 
for  fuch  variety  of  Chara^ers^  and  length 
of  Records^  What  is  the  reafon  feme  re- 
markable Pafiages  will  remain  freili  and  en- 
tire for  Sixty  Years  together,-  when  all  the 
Furniture  of  the  Plead  has  been  often  re- 
newed in  that  Period  ? 

Luc,  I  confefs  I  can't  explain  the  Hoiv  to 
you,  unleG  the  impregnated /^/^rd'^,  or  Spi- 
rits^ at  their  going  oft,  depollt  their  Charge 
wdth  thofe  that  remain. 

HyL  They  are  very  jufl:  if  they  do  (b  : 
But  1  am  afraid  this  handing  of  Notions  from 
one  Piece  of  Brain  to  another,  is  fcrnevvhat 
unintelligible,  in  fiiort,  if  you  rePiedt  up- 
on the  Liberty  of  Thought^  the  Extent,  the 
Abftrad:ions,  and  all  the  singularities  of 
its  Operations ;  you'll  be  obliged  r-;  affiga 
it  a  nobler  Original  than  Matter  and  Motion. 
G  4  Liic, 

^6        ^THOUGHT. 

Luc.  I  am  fatisficd  with  what  you  fay  ; 
and  upon  a  through  View ,  I  find  the 
Syftem  of  a  Mechanical  SquI^  wretchedly 

Hyl  All  the  Branches  of  Scepticifm  are 
fo.  If  the  Succefs  of  our  Hohhifts  were  no 
better  than  their  Reafbning,  they  would 
have  few  Difciples.  But  fome  People  are 
willing  to  be  impofed  upon.  For  loofe 
Pradlices  muft  have  fupporting  Principles^ 
otherwifc  there  will  be  no  Quiet. 


O  F 


O  F     T  H  E 


O  F 


THE  Diverfions  of  Reading,  though 
they  are  not  always  of  the  ftrong* 
eft  Kind,  yet  they  generdly  Leave  a  better 
Effedl  than  the  groflerSatisfadions  oiSenfe  : 
For  if  they  are  well  chofen,   they  neither 
dull  the  Appetite,  nor  drain  the  Capacity. 
On  the  contrary,  they  refreih  the  IncUnati- 
ons,  and  ftrengthcn  the  Power^  and  improve 
under  Experiment :  And  which  is  beft  of 
all,  they  Entertain  nnd  Perled"  at  the  fame 
time,-  and  convey  Wifdom  and  Knowledge 
through  Pleafure.    By  Reading  a  Man  does 
as  it  were  Antedate  his  Lite,  and  makes 
bimfelf  contemporary  with  the  Ages  pau. 
And  this  way  of  running  up  beyond  one:^ 
Nativity,  is  much  better  than  Plato  s  Pre- 
exifience  ;  becaufe  here  a  Man  knov/s  fbrne- 
thing  of  the  State^  and  is  the  wifcr  lor  it ; 
which  he  is  not  in  the  other. 


p  8     Of  the  Entertainment  of  Books. 

In  converfing  with  Books  we  may  chufe 
our  Company,  and  difengage  without  Ce- 
remony or  Exception.  Here  we  are  free 
from  the  Formalities  of  Cuftom,  and  Re- 
fpe(SI: :  We  need  not  undergo  the  Penance  of 
a  dull  Story,  from  a  Fop  of  Figure ;  but 
may  fliake  off  the  Haughty,  the  Imperti- 
nent, and  the  Vain,  at  Pleafure.  Befides, 
Authors,  like  Women,  commonly  Dreft 
when  they  make  a  ViHt.  Refped:  to  them- 
{elves  makes  them  poliili  their  Thoughts, 
and  exert  the  Force  of  their  Underftanding 
more  than  they  would,  or  can  do,  in  ordi- 
nary Converfation  :  So  that  the  Reader  has 
as  it  vverr-  the  Spirit  and  Ejfence  in  a  narrow 
Compafi  ,*  which  was  drawn  off  from  a 
much  larger  Proportion  of  Time,  Labour, 
and  Expence.  Like  an  Heir,  he  is  born 
rather  than  made  Rich;  and  comes  into  a 
Stock  o'iSei?fe^  with  little  or  no  trouble  of 
his  own.  Tistrue,  a  Fortune  in  Know- 
ledg  which  DefcenJs  in  this  manner,  as  well 
as  an  inherited  £y?^/^,is  too  often  negledled, 
and  iquindered  awny  ;  becaufe  we  do  not 
confider  the  Difiiculty  in  Raifingit. 

Books  are  -a  Guide  in  Youth,  and  an  En- 
tertainment for  Age.  They  fupport  us  un- 
der Solitude,  and  keep  us  irom  being  a 
Burthen  to  our  (elves.  They  help  us  to 
forget  the  Croffnefs  of  Men  and  Things  ; 
coaipofe  our  Cares,  and  our  Paflicns,*  and 


of  the  Entertainment  0/ Books.  99 

lay  our  Difappointments  afleep.  When  w^ 
are  weary  of  the  Livings  we  may  repair 
to  the  Deady  who  have  nothing  of  Peevi/li- 
nefs,  Pride,  or  Defign,  in  their  Conver- 
{ation*     However, 

To  be  conftantly  in  the  Wheel  has  neither 
Pleafure  nor  Improvement  in  it.  A  Man 
may  as  well  exped:  to  grow  ftronger  by  al> 
ways  Eatings  as  wifer  by  always  Reading, 
Too  much  over-charges  Nature,  and  turns 
more  into  Difeafe  than  Nourillirr.ent.  'Tis 
Thought  and  Digeftion  which  makes  Books 
ferviceable,  and  gives  Health  and  Vigour 
to  the  Mind.  Neither  ought  v;e  to  be  too 
Implicit  OY^^i\gmr)gto  Authorities^  but  to 
examine  before  we  Affent^  and  preferve  our 
Reafon  in  its  juit  Liberties.  To  walk  al- 
ways upon  Crutches^  is  the  way  to  lofe  the 
Ufe  of  our  Limbs.  Such  an  abfolute  Sub- 
milTion  keeps  us  in  a  perpetual  Minority^ 
breaks  the  Spirits  of  the  Underftanding, 
and  lays  us  open  to  Impofture. 

But  Books  well  managed  afford  DiredJi- 
on  and  Difcovery.  They  itrengthen  the  0/-- 
gayt^  and  enlarge  the  Profped*,  and  give  a 
more  univerfal  Infight  into  Things,  than 
can  be  learned  from  unlettererl OHtxvT^'aou. 
He  who  depends  only  upon  ills  own  Expe- 
rience, has  but  a  few  'vlateriais  to  wcrk  -jp- 
pn.  He  is  confined  to  narrow  Limits  both 
of  Place,  and  Time  :  And  is  not  fie  to  draw 

a  large 

loo  of  the  Entertainment  of  Books. 

a  large  Models  and  to  pronounce  upon  Bu- 
fineft  which  is  complicated  and  unufual. 
There  feems  to  be  much  the  fame  difference 
between  a  Man  of  meer  Fra^kCj  and  ano- 
ther of  Learning,  as  there  is  between  an 
Empirick  and  a  Phyfician.     The  firft  may 
have  a  good  Receipt,  or  two  ,•  and  if  Dif- 
eafes  and  Patients  were  very  (tarce,  and  all 
ahke,  he  might  do  tolerably  well.     But  if 
you  enquire  concerning  the  Qaufes  of  Di- 
ftempers,  the  Conft'ttution  of  human  Bodies, 
the  Danger  of  Symptoms^  and  the  Methods 
oiCure^  upon  which  the  Succefs  of  Medi^ 
cine  depends,  he  knows  little  of  the  Matter. 
Oa  the  other  fide :  To  take  Meafures  whol- 
ly  from  Books^  without  looking  into  Men 
and  Bufinefs,  is  like  Travelling  in  a  Map^ 
where  though  Countries  and  Cities  are  well 
enough  diftinguiflied,  yet  Vilbges  and  pri- 
vate Seats  are  either  Over-looked,  or  too 
generally   Marked  for  a   Stranger  to  find. 
And  therefore  he  that  w^ould  be  a  Majler^ 
muft  Draw  by  the  Life,  as  well  as  Copy 
from  Originals,  and  joyn  Theory  and  Ex- 
perience together. 

O  F 


O  F 


Confidence  as  'tis  oppofed  to  Modefly, 
and  diftinguilhed  from  decent  Aflu- 
rance,  proceeds  from  Self-opinion  ,•  occafi- 
oned  by  Ignorance  or  Flattery.  When  a 
Man  over-rates  himfelf  by  his  own  Folly, 
or  the  Knavery  of  others,  he  is  prefently 
for  falling  to  work  with  his  Privileges  ;  and 
takes  care  upon  all  OccdHons  to  do  juftice 
to  his  Merit,  This  Extravagance  makes 
him  over-forward  in  Bufinefs,  afTuming  in 
Converfation,  fuddain  and  peremptory  in 
his  Anfwers,  and  afraid  of  nothing  Co  much 
as  to  feem  within  the  Podibility  of  a  Mi- 
ftake.  'Tis  true,  it  fometimes  happens  that 
People  who  have  the  Wit  to  know  they 
arc  good  for  little,  fet  up  notwithftanding 
for  Men  of  Sufficiency.  They  areior  try- 
ing if  they  can  ferve  a  Turn  upon  the  Weak- 
nefs  of  the  Company.  But  this  Trick  feldcm 
fucceeds  long  together :  For  if  a  Man  wants 
a  good  Opinion  of  himfelf,  and  is  notfinctre 
in  his  Vanity,  he  will  be  apt  to  want  Spi- 
rits, and  Prefence  of  Mind,  to  do  his  Bufi- 

nefs  : 

io>    Of   CONFIDENCE. 

nefs :  A  Diffidence  of  himfelf  will  make  the 
Paint  fali  off,  Tink  his  Figure,  and  betray 
his    Meannefs,-  efpecially  when  he  meets 
with  thoft  who  are  his  Superiours  in  Quali- 
ty, or  Senfc.    A  Man  muft  firft  put  a  Cheat 
upon  hiffifejf,  before  he  can  expect:  to  do  any 
Good  with  other  People :  For  he  that  is  not 
conceited  in  hisConlcience,  is  never  hkely 
to  make  a  Coxcomb  worth  a  Groat.     But 
w^hen  the  Mind  h  throughly  tindured,  the 
Face  will  hold  the  fame  Colour;  and  the 
Man  w^ill  be  Proof  againil  all  Oppoutions of 
Senfe  and  Difficulty  :  t^or  as  Malhranch  ob- 
ferves,  Peoples  Opinions  of  themftlves,  are 
commonly  legible  in  their  Countenances. 
Thus  a  kind   Imagination,   makes  a  bold 
Man  have  Vigour  and  Enterprize  in  his  Air 
and  Motion*     It  ftamps  Value  and  Signifi- 
cancy  upon  his  Face,  and  tells  the  People 
he  is  to  go  for  fo  much  ;  who  oftentimes 
being  deceived  by  the  wafh^  never  examin 
the  Metal,  but  take  him-  upon  Content.  Not 
that  Men  are  bound  to  look  as  Sheepiihly  as 
they  can,  for  fear  of  an  Imputation  :  For 
ibmetimes  a  Confcioufnefs  of  Worth  ,•    a 
Noblenefi  and  Elevation  of  Mind,  together 
withFinenefsof  Conftitution,  gives  Luftre 
and  Dignity  to  the  Afped:,'  and  makes  the 
Soul,  as  it  were,  fliine  through  the  Body^ 
But  to  return  :  A  Man  of  Confidence  prct 
feth  forward  upon  every  Appearance  of 


0/  CONFID  ENCE.     103 

Advantage  ;  and  thinks  nothing  above  his 
Management,  or  his  Merit.  Heisnoteafily 
difcouragedby  the  grcitne(s  of  an  Attempt, 
by  th"-  Q^jfJiiy  oi  Rivils,  or  the  Frequency 
Oi  Miic^rriage-.  He  is  ready  to  rally  after 
'  v"te;:t  -  ^f«d  grows  more  rrorblefcme  up- 
Thus  where  his  Force  is  too 
:ie  prevpiis  by  dint  of  Impudence  : 
.  :^  ..Yople  are  (lormed  out  of  their  Rea- 
fon  and  f  nciinations  ,•  plagued  into  a  Com- 
hance;  and  forced  to  yield  in  their  own 
Dc^tence.  Theft  Men  of  Forehead,  are 
magnificent  in  their  Promifts,  and  infalli- 
ble in  their  Prefcriptions.  They  love  to 
enfure  a  Caufe,  and  feldom  talk  under  Cer- 
tainty and  Demonftration.  This  Talent 
makes  them  often  fiicceed  againft  modeft 
Men  of  much  greater  Sufficiency,  where 
the  Competition  is  governed  by  a  popular 
Choice.  For  though  there  is  Reafon  in  ma- 
ny Cafts  to  decide  Controverfies  by  the 
Vote  ;  yet  'tis  no  lefs  true,  on  the  other 
hand,  that  the  Majority  of  Mankind  is  fel- 
dom the  Wifeft.  The  Multitude  are  more 
fmitten  with  Appearances,  than  Things, 
The  Noife,  and  Glitter,  and  Parade  of  a 
Pretender,  calls  up  their  Attention  ;  and 
flailies  upon  their  Weaknefs,  at  an  irre. 
fiftable  Rate.  It  furprizes  their  Imagina- 
tion, and  fubdues  their  Judgment :  So  that 
a  bold  Undertaker  gains  mightily  upon  the 


104   Of  CONFIDENCE. 

People,  efpecially  at  his  firft  Setting  out. 
Nay,  wife  Men  are  fometimes  over-born, 
or  impofed  on  this  way,  when  they  are 
taken  at  a  Difadvantage.  Indeed  this 
raculty  is  of  great  Ufe  to  play  a  Prize 
with  ,  or  carry  on  an  Impofture  ;  and 
therefore  your  Quacks  ,  Figure- (lingers, 
iPetty-foggers  ,  and  Republican  Plotters, 
cannot  well  live  without  it.  It  enables  a 
Man  to  Flourilh  ,  Rail  ,  and  Romance, 
to  Admiration.  It  makes  Impertinencies 
ftine,  Impoffibilities  feem  credible,  and 
turns  Rats-bane  into  Elixir  Viae,  And 
when  Matters  are  brought  to  a  Pinch, 
and  the  Crowd  drawn  out,  in  Expedla- 
tion  of  fomething  extraordinary;  then  if 
the  Mountain  will  not  come  to  Mahumety 
he  will  for  once  condefcend  to  go  to  the 
Mountain.  And  thus  by  entertaining  the 
Company  with  a  Jell ;  the  Prophet's  difen- 
gaged,  and  the  Miracle  adjourned  to  a 
more  convenient  Seafon.  However,  theft 
Sparks  meet  with  their  Mortifications :  For 
when  they  happen  to  fall  among  People  of 
judgment,  they  are  looked  through  imme* 
diately  ;  and  then  the  Difcovery  fpreads 
apnce:  For  Confidence  is  apt  to  expofe  it 
ft  U ;  o  over-grafp  Bufinefs ;  to  talk  without 
thinking;  and  to  fail  in  the  Decencies  of 
Con^'eriacion.  Now  when  a  bold  Man  is 
out  of  Countenance  ,    he  makes  a  very 


0/ CONFIDENCE.    105 

wooden  Figure  on't.  He  has  no  Hand  at 
Blufhing  for  want  of  Pradtice  :  And  Aiis 
Modefty  with  (b  ill  a  Grace;  that  he  is 
more  ridiculous  in  the  Habit  of  Virtue, 
than  in  that  of  Vice.  To  go  on  witli  him 
a  little  farther  :  One  of  this  Charadter,  is 
like  an  Out-landi(h  Show;  mofl:  admired 
atfirfl:  Sight.  He  has  Glofs,  but  without 
either  Finenefs,  or  Subdance,  and  there- 
fore like  Cloath  ill  made,  he  looks  better 
in  the  Shop,  than  he  wears  in  the  Suit.  In 
a  word,  He  is  the  Jeft  of  wife  Men,  and 
the  Idol  of  Fools :  And  commonly  his  Pa^ 
tent  runs  for  his  Life-time. 

H  OF 

I  07 

E    n'V    Y. 

ENv^y  is  a  D'j [plea fare  for  fome  fuppofed 
Advantage  in  another.  The  Objed:  of . 
this  PaiTion  is  fbmcthing  Defirable.  And^ 
though  Excellency,  preciicly  confidercd, 
cannot  occafion  Diflike,'  yet  ExccHency 
mifplaccd  may.  The  Envious  bchcvis  him- 
felf  Eclipfcd  by  the  Lnflre  of  his  Neiglibour. 
That  which  is  good  in  its  felf,  becomes  an 
Evil  to  him  ;  \\\\\q\\  makes  him  wifli  it  ei- 
ther Removed,  or  Extinguiflied.  The 
Difcovery  of  the  Rife  and  Unreafonablenefs  ' 
of  Envy,  and  the  way  to  prevent  being  ei- 
ther Adive  in  it,  or  Paffive  under  it,  will 
comprehend  the  Argument.  To  begin  with 
thefirft.  Envy  lies  madly  between  Beings 
equal  in  Nature,  though  unequal  in  Cir- 
cumilances,  We  don't  envy  Brutes^  though 
they  exceed  us  in  many  Refpeds  not  in- 
confiderable.  No  body  is  angry  witli  a 
Bird  becaufe  flie  can  Fly,  We  arc  not  of- 
fended with  the  Strength  of  an  Elephant^  or 
the  Speed  of  a  Horfe  ;  or  v/ith  a  Dog,  for 
having  a  better  Noje  than  his  Madcr  :  Thcfe 
PTC  all  foreign  Commodities,  t!iey  arc  not 
looked  on  as  the  Growth  of  cur  Soil  ; 
H  %  which 

io8  0/  E  N  V  Y. 

which  makes  them  neither  Expeded,  nor 
Defired.  Befides,  we  excel  chefe  Creatures 
in  other  Qualities  more  valuable  :  So  that 
upon  the  whole  Comparifon,  we  remain 
their  Superiours  ;  which  is  fufficient  to  lay 
our  Envy  afleep.  On  the  other  hand,  Men 
are  nor  iubjed  to  repine  at  the  higher  Con- 
dition of  an  AfKiel :  They  know  there  is  a 
♦comparative  Difadvantage  in  their  firfl 
Compofition;  The  Model  of  Humanity  was 
Drawn  lefs.  Our  Capacities,  iftheyvv^ere 
all  fiird,  are  not  large  enough  to  hold  fo 
much  Happinefs.  To  this  I  may  add,  That 
the  Angelick  Grandeur  is  (eldo.m  feen.  By 
being  thus  concealed,  it  does  not  awaken 
our  Poverty,  nor  mortify  our  Littlenefs  fa 
much,  :is  if  it  was  always  difplay'd  before 
us.  And  lailly,  our  Hopes  of  rifmg  to  this 
Height  hereafter,  makes  us  bear  our  prefent 
Inferiority  well  enough. 

But  where  theEirentiai  Properties  are  alike, 
Pretenfions  are  apt  to  Mount,  unlefs  fea- 
fonably  check'd.  ''  I  ^m  (  crys  the  En- 
'*  vious  )  of  the  fame  Nature  with  the  Refl, 
*•  and  vvhy  then  fnould  fuch  a  Man  Top  me  ? 
^'  Where  there  is  an  Equality  of  Kind,  there 
■'  fliould  be  no  Diftindion  of  Privilege.  I 
**  ^ra  as  near  of  Kin  to  God  Ahnight}'  as  the 
''  Befi  ;  and  he  is  certainly  the  NobleftAn- 
"  ceftor.  1  am  caft  in  the  fame  Mouldy  made 
^'  up  of  the  fame  Matter ,    and   ftamp'd 

^'  With 

0/ENVY.  109 

*'  with  the  fame  Imprefion ;  and  why  fliculd 
"  I  not  pafs  equally  in  general  Efteem  ?  In 
"taking  Gold  and  Silver,  'tis  not  enquired 
*'  what  Mines  they  came  from,  nor  how 
"long  they  have  been  dig'd  ;  if  they  anfwer 
"the  Qualities  of  the  Metal,  that's  enough, 
"  Why  then  fliould  one  piece  of  human  Na- 
''  ture  be  thought  fo  much  worfe  than  ano- 
^'  ther  ;  unce  it  keeps  within  the  Species^ 
^'  and  fliines  true  upon  the  Touch-ftone? 

In  anfwer  to  this  Expoftulation  i  I  ftiall 
only  fay,  That  though  the  Metal  is  the 
fame,  yet  the  Figure ,  the  Quantity,  and 
the  Finenefs ,  is  often  different  ,  which 
makes  a  Difference  in  the  Value.  To  pro^ 

Thofe  anciently  poffefs'd  of  Honour,  are 
apt  to  envy  others  newly  raifed  :  The  rea^ 
fon  is,This  later  Promotion  takes  away  the 
former  Difference  between  the  Perfons.The 
Singularity  of  a  Man's  Greatnefs  is  in  fome 
rneafure  deflroy'd.  He  has  fewer  to  look 
down  upon  than  he  had  before  :  He  has 
loft  an  Inferior  ,•  which,  without  being  w^ell 
confidcred,  will  make  him  uneafie,  like  a 
Prince  who  has  part  of  his  Dominions  won 
from  him.  But  this  Pradice  how  common 
foever  is  unreafbnable,  where  the  later  Rife 
is  creditable.  For  all  Qiiality  that  is  good 
for  any  thing,  is  originally  founded  upon 
M^rit,  Now  when  a  Man  purchafes  Ho- 
H  3  nour 

no  0/  E  N  V  Y. 

nour  at  as  great  an  Expence  of  Deferving  as 
my  lelf;  why  ihould  not  his  Title  be  as 
good  ?  And  if  Co  ,  why  Ihould  I  grudge 
him  the  PoiTeilion  ?  To  value  iVorth  in  my 
felf,  or  n-yFamily,  and  over-look  it  in  ano- 
ther, is  plain  Partiahty  ,•  and  Partiality  is 
always  Injullice. 

When  Two  fiart  into  the  World  toge* 
ther,  he  that  is  thrown  behind,  unlefshis 
Mind  proves  generous,  will  be  difpleafed 
with  the  other :  For  the  Succefs  of  the  Firfl, 
feems  to  prefs  upon  the  Reputation  of  the 
later.  For  what  will  the  World  fay ;  Why 
could  not  he  hold  up  ?  What  made  him 
come  on  Co  heavily,  bur  that  he  wanted  ei- 
ther Management  or  Metal  ?  With  Submifl 
(ion,  this  Inference  is  not  good,  andtliere- 
fcre  one  rp.oiM  not  grow  Peevidi  about  it, 
Succefs  does  not  always  attend  Dclert. 
Sornerimes  Favour,  and  Opportunity,  and 
Fortun6,  run  mofton  one  (ide.  Sometimes 
aMan  cracks  h's  Confcience  as  a  Florfe  does 
his  W/rjdj  by  ftraining  up  the  Flill. 

But  it  the  Advantage  was  fairly  gained, 
^ris  unbecoming  to  complain.  If  my  Friend 
charges  in  the  Pod  of  Honour,  while  J  am  m  my  Tent,  'tis  great  Injuftice  to 
euvy  him  the  Rev./ard  ol  his  Bravery.  In  all 
likelihood  1  brought  all  my  Limbs  out  of 
thei)cv/,which 'tis  probable  he  has  not  done 
^Sth^Breach.  And  if  he  haS;  hlsMeru  ihould 

0/^  E  N  V  Y.  1  M 

not  be  lefTen'd  by  his  Good  Fortune.  He 
that  hazards  his  Life  upon  an  honourable 
Score^deferves  the  fame  Regard  as  if  he  had 
loft  it. 

Envy  among  Perfbns  of  the  fame  Trade^ 
is  comm.on.  The  Competition  of  Interelt 
occafions  this  Malevolence.  They  Glean 
up  Cuftom  from  their  Neighbours  ,*  and  fo 
what  one  gets,  the  other  lofes. 

But  why  lliould  I  grudge  a  Man  the  com- 
mon Advantage  ofhis  Employment  >  Why 
ihould  I  defire  more  than  my  fliare  of  Bufi- 
nefs,  and  be  forry  to  fee  another  thrive  by 
hisinduftry  ?  Here  can  be  nothing  but  Co- 
vetoufnefsat  the  bottom,  and  that  is  never 
to  be  fatisfied.  However,  it  mufi:  be  grant- 
ed that  all  Concurrences  of  this  Nature^ 
whether  for  Mony,  Favour,  or  Power,  are 
in  danger  of  being  difpleafed  with  a  fortu- 
nate Rival.  The  Pinch  lies  here  ;  The 
Matter  in  competition  is  often  Indivifiblce 
An  O^ce,  or  a  Mtftrefs^  can't  be  Apportioned 
oul  like  a  Cotmnon^znd  fliared  among  diftind: 
Proprietors.  The  Caft  is  like  a  Lot- 
tery with  one  Prize,  afingle  Ticket  is  only 
enrich'd,  and  the  reft  are  all  Blanks.  So 
that  they'll  tell  you,  'tis  not  lb  much  111 
Nature  as  Ditappointment,  which  Sowres 
the  Humour.  Where  the  Objects  of  De- 
fire are  more  Communicative,  there  is  no' 
Exceptions  taken.  People  don't  hke  a 
H  4  Prof. 

1 1  z  0/  E  N  V  Y. 

Profped:  theworfe,  becaufe  others  have  the 
Pleafure  of  it.  They  <ire  ftldom  difturb'd, 
becaufe  their  Neighbours  Iiear  the  fame 
Mufick ,  or  fmell  the  fame  Perfumes  with 
them(e!ves  :  For  here  is  enough  for  them 
ail.  The  Satisfadhon  is  fo  noble,  that  it 
fpreads  without  LefTening  ,-  'tis  not  the 
thinner  for  being  Beaten :  But  if  there  was 
any  interfering,  if  the  Se^ifes  fnould  engrofs 
or  balk  one  another,  as  in  the  Cafe  ol  Eat- 
ing and  Drinking,  you  would  quickly  fee 
the  Tables  turn'd.  If  a  fine  Objed  fliould 
tarnifh  by  having  a  great  many  fee  it,*  or 
the  Mufick  fliould  run  moftly  into  oncMan's 
Ears,  thefe  Satisfa6lions  would  be  made  In- 
clofure  as  well  as  the  reft.     Farther, 

Thofe  Advantages,  which  'tis  no  Difcre- 
dit  to  want,  are  not  ufually  envied  in  ano- 
ther. For  Inftance  :  He  that  does  not  pre- 
tend to  Painting ,  is  not  Touched  at  the 
Commendation  of  a  Matter  in  that  ProfeflTi- 
on.  A  Woman  does  not  envy  a  Man  for 
fighting  Courage,-  nor  a  Man  a  Woman 
for  her  Beauty.  An  Old  Man  is  not  uneafy 
at  theftrength  and  Adivity  of  thofe  who 
are  younger  ,•  neither  does  Youth  envy  the 
Knowledge  and  Experience  of  Age.  In  thefe 
Cafes,  Reputation  is  unconcerned,  and  the 
Efteem  of  the  Perfon  is  not  funk  by  being 
unfur.iifh'd  :  For  either  the  Advanti^ge  is 
foreign  to  the  Condition  of  Life,  or  Sex? 


0/ENVY.  ii; 

either  we  have  been  pofTefled  already,  or 
have  time  enough  to  gain  it  afterwards. 
The  Ablurdity  of  this  Paflion  has  partly 
been  difcover  d  already,  and  may  be  farther 

Envy  is  an  ill-natiir'd  Vice  ;  'tis  made 
up  of  Meannefs  and  Malice,  It  wifhes  the 
Force  ofGoodneft  reftrain'd,  and  the  Mea- 
sure of  Happinefs  abated.  It  laments  over 
Profperity,  and  fickens  at  the  Sight  of 
Health.  Had  Envy  the  governing  of  the 
Creation ,  we  fliould  have  a  fad  World 
on't.  How  would  it  infed  the  Air,  and 
darken  the  Sun  ;  make  the  Seas  unnaviga- 
ble,  and  bind  the  Fruits  of  the  Earth?  How 
would  the  Face  of  Nature  be  over-caft? 
How  foon  would  Peace  be  banilh'd,  and 
Pleafure  languifli  and  expire  ?  We  ihould 
ieeConfufon  without  Settlement,  Madneft 
without  Intervals,  and  Poyfon  without  An- 
tidote. Difcord,  and  Difappointment,  and 
Defpair,  would  then  be  the  only  Bleflings 
and  Entertainments  of  Life.  Could  the  En- 
vious prevail,  all  noble  Undertakings  would 
be  crufli'd  ,  and  Invention  nip"d  in  the 
Bud.  Nothing  extraordinary  in  Induftry, 
Senfe ,  or  Bravery ,  would  be  endured. 
Whatever  was  Shining  would  foon  be 
Gclipfed.  Beauty  would  be  deform'd,  and 
Courage  turn'd  into  Cowardize.  To  ex- 
cel  cither  in  Art  or  Nature  would  be  a 


114  ^f/^^^^^^ 

Crime  :  And  none  could  be  Safe,  but  the 
111,  and  the  Ufelefs. 

Emulation  is  a  handfom  Paflion,  'tis  en- 
terprizing,  but  juft  withal  .*  It  keeps  a  [viaa 
within  the  Terms  of  Honour,  and  makes 
the  Contefl:  for  Glory  fair  and  generous, 
tierc  is  nothing  Malevolent  and  Infidious  : 
The  Advantage  is  gained  by  Improvement, 
not  by  Injury.  The  Man  drives  to  excel, 
but  then  'tis  by  raifing  himftlf,  not  by  de- 
prefiing  another.  But  Envy  ofcenrimes 
wants  Spirit,  as  well  as  good-nature :  Like 
a  cold  Poylbn,  it  benumbs  and  ftupifies. 
And  thus  as  it  were  confcious  of  its  own 
Impotence,  it  folds  its  Arms  in  Defpair, 
and  fits  Curfing  in  a  Corner.  When  Envy 
conquers,  'tis  commonly  in  the  Dark  ;  by 
Treachery  and  Undermining,  by  Calumny 
and  Detradion.  The  Envious  are  always 
ungraceful  ,•  they  hate  a  noble  Temper, 
though  fliewn  upon  themfelves.  U  you 
oblige  them,  'tis  at  your  peril :  They'll  fly 
in  the  Face  of  a  good  Turn,  and  Out-rage 
where  they  ought  to  Reward.  Has  not  many 
a  brave  Man  been  ruined,  by  being  over- 
chirged  with  Merit  ?  What  baniih'd  Themis 
flocks^  and  fent  Belifarius  a  begging,  but 
doing  too  much  for  their  Country  t  The 
com.ort  is.  Envy  is  no  lefs  fooliih  than  de- 
teitable ;  'tis  a  Vice  vvliich  they  fay  keeps  no 
Holy-days,  but  is  always  in  the  Wheels  and 


(9/    E  N  V  Y.  115 

working  upon  its  own  Difquiet.     Envy^ 
llridly  confidcrecl,  is  a  mark  of  inferiori- 
ty. It  fuppofes  fome  Excellency  in  another 
which  is    wanting   in  it  felf.     This   is  a 
cruel  Mortification  ;    For  the  Envious  are 
generally  Proud.    'Tis  a  ftrong  dcfire  to  be 
Ahove^    which  makes  People  uneafic  Be- 
neath. Now  to  fee  a  hated  Perfon  Superior, 
and  to  lie  under  the  anguilh  ot  Difadvan- 
tage,  is  far  enough  from  Diverfion.     Envy 
is  of  all  others  the  moft  ungratifying  and 
difconlblate  Paflion.     There  is  Power  for 
Ambition,  and  Pleafure  for  Luxury,  and 
Pelf  even  for  Covetoufnefs;  But  Envy  can 
give  nothing  but  Vexation.  'Tis  made  up  of 
Impotence  and  Malice  ;    and  whe^-e   thefe 
two  Qjialities  are  well  compounded,  there 
needs  no  other  Ingredients  of  Mifery.  Envy 
how  carefully  does  it  lock?   How  meagf;r 
and  ill-complexioned  ?  It  preys  upon  it  (elf, 
and  exhaufls  the  Spirits  ;     Tis  a  Difeafe  in 
its  Conftitution,    and  every  Pulfe  is  a  Pain. 
Eafe  muftbe  impradicable  to  the  Envious  ; 
I'hey  lie  under  a  double  Misfortune  ,•  Com- 
mon Calamities,and  Common  Blefiings,  fall 
heavily  upon  them  ;    Their  Nature  gives 
them  a  (hare  in  the  one,  and  rheir  Ill-nature 
in  the  other.     And  he  that  has  his  own 
Troubles,  and  the  Happinefs  of  his  Neigh- 
bours, to  dilturb   him,  is   likely  to  have 
work  enough.     Envy  looks  ill  render  every 


1x6  0/  E  N  V  Y. 

ACped-,  For  if  a  Man  be  Good,  he  oucrht 
to  be  Loved  ;  if  Bad,  to  be  Pitied.  To  En^ 
vy  a  Superior,  makes  the  odds  more  Part- 
ing, and  the  diftance  more  fenfible.  To 
Envy  an  Inferiour,  is  to  lote  the  higher 
Ground,  and  to  (et  him  upon  a  Level.  To 
grudge  any  Man  an  Advantage  in  Perfon 
or  Fortune,  is  to  cenfure  the  Liberalities 
of  Providence,  and  be  angry  atthcGood- 
nefs  of  God. 

And  fince  Envy  is  lb  Odious,  and  every 
way  Unlucky,  and  does  fo  much  Mifchief 
to  it  felf  and  others,  it  may  not  be  impro- 
per to  offer  fomething  more  particular  to 
prevent  it. 

Fird  then  let  us  confider.  That  Provi- 
dence has  given  the  leaft  of  us  more  than 
we  can  pretend  to.  If  we  could  make  out  ^ 
Title  to  more  Privilege,  to  Complain,\vere 
not  Unreafonable.'  But  I  fuppofe  no  one  is 
fo  hardy  as  to  (ay,  God  is  in  his  Debt  ^ 
that  he  owed  him  a  Nobler  Being,  or  a 
Better  Subfiftence.  For  Exiftence  niiift  be 
antecedent  to  Merit.  That  which  was  not^ 
could  not  oblige;  and  Nothing  can  claim 
Nothing.  Youll  fay  fuch  a  one  is  much 
better  furnilh'd  than  my  felf.  Befides,  I 
want  feveral  Conveniences  which  I  could 
mention;  and  if  I  muft  not  have  them, 
I  wi  n  they  had  not  come  in  my  way.  Look 
you !  Are  we  to  cry^  like  i}l-m,anaged  Chil- 

of  ENVY.  117 

dren,  for  every  thing  before  us  ?  If  I  give 
a  Beggar  Six-pence,  has  he  reafon  to  grum- 
ble becaufe  he  has  feen  a  Shilhng,  or  knows 
how  to  fpend  a  Crown?  Let  him  give  me 
leave  to  be  Mafter  or  my  Charity,  and  do 
what  I  pleafe  with  my  ow  n.  If  bare  Knoiv- 
ledge  would  give  Poffejfion^  and  our  Senfes 
could  Challenge  all  they  lay  hold  of;  there 
would  be  a  ftrange  World  quickly  :  But 
thefe  are  wild  and  impracticable  Suppofi- 
tions ;  There  is  neither  Juitice,  nor  Con- 
venience, nor  polTibility,  in  fuch  an  Expe- 
ctation. Let  us  remember  we  are  wtll  dealt 
with  ,•  and  then  we  iliall  not  be  troubled  to 
fee  another  in  a  better  Condition.  To 
confider  we  have  more  than  we  dcferve, 
will  help  our  Reafon  to  filence  our  Mur- 
muring, and  make  us  afiiamed  to  Repine. 
Juft  Thoughts,  and  modeft  expedations, 
are  eafily  f  atisfied.  If  we  don't  over-rate  our 
pretentions,  all  will  be  well.  Humility  di(l 
arms  Envy  and  (Inkes  it  dead. 

Secondly,  We  fhould  endeavour  to  im- 
prove our  refpedlive  Abilities.  Men  natu- 
rally defire  to  Hand  lair  in  the  Opinion  of 
others:  And  to  havefomewhat  of  Valueto 
fupport  them  in  their  own  thoughts. 
When  they  are  the  word  of  their  way, and 
fix'd  in  the  Fag-end  of  Bufmefs,  they  aie 
apt  to  look  not  kindly  upon  thofe  v\  ho  go 
before  them.    He  that  can  be  reconciled  iq 

1 1 8  0/  E  N  V  Y. 

the  Charader  of  an  infignificant  Perfon, 
has  a  mean  Soul.  To  be  eafie,  a  Man  (hould 
examine  his  Genius,  and  exert  his  Spirits, 
and  try  to  make  the  mod  of  himfelf.  Tis 
true,  every  one  cannot  expe(9:todi{lingui{]i 
himfelf  in  the  higeft  Ports ^  To  Command 
an  Army,  cr  Ride  Admiral  in  a  Fleet,  or  be 
at  the  Head  of  Juftke^  or  Religion  :  (  Nei- 
ther is  it  material  to  the  Point.  3  Notwith- 
flanding  there  are  few  but  may  fliine  in 
their  own  Orb,  and  be  remarkable  in  their 
Station  ;  fbfar  atleaft,  as  to  guard  off  Con-- 
tempt,  and  fecure  a  moderate  Repute  .-  And 
thofe  that  are  eafie  at  home,  will  not  be 
envious  abroad.  Thofe  that  are  good  for 
fomerhing  themfelves,  will  be  contented 
that  others  iliould  be  (b  too.  All  things 
confidered,  they  have  their  rtiare  of  Re- 
gard, and  let  who  will  take  the  refl, 

Thirdiy,  The  proportioning  Reward  to 
Merit,  (which  will  be  done  hereafter}  is  a 
fufficient  expectation  to  remove  Envy. 
The  perfvvafion  offuch  a  Regulation  of  Ho- 
nour, is  certainly  the  mofi-  ioiid  Principle 
for  this  purpofe  imaginable.  For  this  way 
all  the  feeming  Partialities  of  Birth  and  For- 
tune are  let  afide.  And  to  fpeak  familiar- 
ly, every  one  has  a  fair  Turn  to  be  as  great 
as  he  pleafes.  Here  all  people  are  upon 
equal  terms  of  advantage:  The  Temple 
cf  Honour  (lands  open  to  all  comers;  and 


of  ENVY.  tip 

the  Peafant  has  an  opportunity  of  being  as 
great  as  a  Prince.  Thus  Station  and  Hap- 
pinefs  lies  in  every  ones  power  :  The  Ma- 
nagement of  the  PF/// determines  the  Pre- 
cedency. Allener  fliare  of  prefent  Advan- 
tage, will  do  no  prejudice,  to  future  pre- 
tenfions.  For  Men  will  not  be  valued  by  the 
fize  of  their  Underftandings^  but  their  Ho- 
nefty.  Not  confider'd  by  the  Height  of 
their  Character,  but  for  the  Decency  of 
Perforation,  When  the  Scene  of  "Life  is 
(hut  up,  the  Slave  will  be  above  his  Ma- 
tter, if  he  has  adled  better.  Thus  Nature 
and  Condition,  are  once  more  brought  to  a 
Ballance  ;  and  as  all  Men  were  equal  at 
firil,  Co  they  may  be  at  lail;  if  they  take 
Care.  This  Ccnfideration  digs  up  Envy 
by  the  Roots;  becaufe  no  Man  can  be  Icfs 
than  another,  without  his  own  Fault.  The 

To  prevent  being  Envied5(^for  that  fliould 
be  thought  on  too,  }  in  a  Privilege,  is  to 
iliew  it  not  undeferved.  That  'tis  either 
tranfmitted  from  worthy  Anceilors,  or  ac- 
quired by  Qualities  extraordinary^  He  that 
rifes  above  a  common  Periormance,  and 
goes  far  in  an  honourable  Danger,  may  be 
thought  to  Earn  theDiftindtion  of  his  Ch:^ 
cumflances.  In  fuch  Cafes,  People  are  more 
inclined  to  commend  the  Merit,  than  re- 
pine at  the  Succefs  :   Eipecialiy  if  the  Ad  ^ 


120  Of   ENVY, 

vantage  be  civilly  managed.  Conceit,  and 
Arrogance,  and  Oftentation  fpoils  all.  Pride 
and  ill  nature  will  be  hated  in  fpight  of 
all  the  Worth  in  the  World.  But  he  that 
is  obliging  in  his  Exaltation,  and  makes  a 
modeft  ufe  of  his  Superiority,  may  fit  fe- 
cure,  and  have  the  Odds  of  good  Wilhes 
on  his  fide. 

O  F 


OF     THE 


THE  Countenance  feems  defigned 
not  only  for  Ornament,  but  Infor- 
mation. The  PafTions  there  difplayed 
make  way  for  Commerce  and  Communica- 
tion ,•  and  help  to  let  one  Man  into  the 
Sentiments  and  Affedions  of  another.  ^Tis 
true,  the  Soul  is  not  altogether  diifcovefedo 
li  tht  Thoughts  lay  open  to  Obfervatiorij 
there  wouhi  great  Inconveniences  follou'. 
Many  godd  Defigns  would  be  defeated : 
Many  improper  Averfions  and  Defires 
would  appear  :  The  Bufmcfs  of  Life  would 
be  difturbed,  and  Converfation  made  b,U 
rilofl  impracticable,  in  fuch  Cafes,  People 
would  chufe  to  converfe  in  the  Dark,  rather 
than  trull:  themfelvcs  with  the  Sight  of  e^ch 
orhef.  However,  though  the  Soul  c^ri't 
be  all  forced  into  the  Face,  yet  there  is  rtd 
fmall  part  6f  it  to  be  fcen  there  ;  efpeci^l- 
iy  when  it  comes  ot  its  own  accord.  Hefe 
the  different  Apprehcnfions  of  the  Mind 
difcover  themielves.  I  grant,  they  are  not 
always  fully  diftinguifhcd  in  their  Catifes^ 
^nd  their  Kind.     But   though  they     ate 

I  not 

Ill        of  the  h  SPEC  J. 

not  drawn  at  Length,  you  have  fomething 

of  the  Colour,  and  Proportion.    Here  Joy 

and  Grief,  Refoluiion  and  Fear,  Modelly 

0nd  Conceit,  Inclination-,  Indili^rency  and 

Difeuft,'are  Jhade  legib^le.     WChaf ader 

i  is  jSireil,  anAclVri\^rked.nn  Chll'drdn,  ^nd 

thofewho  are  unpradifcd  in  the  Uttle  Hy- 

;  pocrifies  of  Converfaticn.     For'  when  Na- 

-  ture  haslearnt  to  put  onArt,andDifgui(e,the 

;, Forehead    is  not  eafily  read.      Now   'tis 

,  very  Curprizing  to  (ce  tlielmage  of  theMind 

:  ftamp'd  upon  theAfpedl :  To  (ee  the  Cheeks 

take  the  Dye  of  the  Pailions  thus  naturally, 

.and  appear  in  all   the  Colours  and  Ccm- 

plexions  of  Thought.     Why  is  this  Variety 

,  of  Changes  confined  to  a  fmgle  Place?  What 

is  the  Reafon  a  Man's  Arm  wont  fmile  and 

frown,  and  do  all  the  Intelleduai  Poflures 

;  pf  the  ^Countenance  ^  The  Arm  feems  to 

have  a.finerSkin  than  the  Face-.'Tis  lefsex- 

;  pofed  to  the  VVeather;  the  Veins  are  larger, 

and  more  vifibie,and  the  Pulfe  beats  flrong- 

er.  In  fliort,   If  Matter  and  ^/(?//^«  would 

do  the  Bufinefs,  the  Arm,  excepting   the 

Eye,  feems  to  have  the  Advantage,  and 

might  pui:  in  for  the  Index  and  Interpreter 

of  the  Mind.     And  yet  we  fee  'tis  flrangely 

uniform  and  unafieded  upon  every  Acci- 

:  dent  and  turn  of  Thought;  and  nothing 

but  a  Blow,  or  a.Pinch  can  make  it  change 

Colour.     But  the  Face  being  defign'd  to  be 

of  the  ASPECT.        125 

uncloathed  ,  and  in  view,  God  has  there 
fixed  the  Seat  and  Vifibihty  of  the  Paffions ; 
for  the  better  diredion  ofConverfation.The 
fuddain  Alteration  of  the  Countenance,  is 
very  remarkable.  A  forcible  Objed:  will 
rub  out  the  frefiieft  Colours  at  a  flroke,  and 
paint  others  of  a  quite  different  Appear- 
ance. A  Vigorous  Thought,  or  a  Surprize 
of  good  Fortune,  difpels  the  Gloom,  and 
brightens  the  Air,  immediately.  To  me- 
tamorphofe  the  Blood  and  Spirits  thus  ex~ 
tempore^  is  not  a  little  (Irange.  It  argues 
an  amazing  Finenefs  and  Curiofity  in  the 
Parts ;  that  the  lead  Touch  of  the  Imagina- 
tion can  alter  them  into  almofl;  what  Ap- 
pearances it  pieafes.  The  flrength  of  the 
Reprefentaticn ,  is  another  Circumftance 
worth  confidering.  The  Inu^ard  Motions 
and  Temper,  are  (bmetimes  drawn  with 
wonderful  Life.  The  Advantages  of  Youth 
and  Complexion,  the  particular  Force  of 
the  Mind  and  Occafion,  anfwer  to  the  Fine- 
nefs of  theCo!ours,and  the  Skill  of  theP^/»- 
ter.  When  all  thefe  Caufes  meet,  the  Paf- 
fions  are  marked  with  extraordinary  Clear- 
nefs,  and  Strength.  What  can  be  more  fig- 
nificant  than  the  fuddain  Flufhing  and  Con- 
fufion  of  a  Bluflj,  than  the  Sparklings  of 
Rage,  and  the  Lightning  of  a  Smile  ?  The 
Soul  is  as  it  were  vifible  upon  thefe  Occa- 
fions  J  the  Paifions  Ebb  and  Flow  in  the 
I  2,  Cheeks  ; 

224      Of  the  ASPECT. 

Checks;  and  are  much  better  dillinguini'd 
in  their  ProgreG,  than  the  Change  of  the 
Air  in  a  Weather -glafs.  Some  People  have 
an  Ajr  of  Dignity  and  Grratneis,  and  an 
unufual  Vigour,  in  rheir  Afped.  Othtrs 
hive  a  S'vveetnefs  and  good  Humour  prin- 
ted upon  them,  v\hich  is  very  engaging:  A 
Face  well  furniOi'd  out  by  Nature,  and  a 
little  difciplined,  has  a  great  deal  of  Rheto- 
rick  in  it.  A  Graceful  Prefence  befpeaks 
Acceptance,  gives  a  Force  to  Language, 
and  helps  to  Convince  byZot'^,ar:dPoilure. 
But  this  Talent  mud  be  fparingly  ufed,  for 
fear  of  falling  into  Affedbtion  ;  than  which 
nothing  is  more  nauftous.  Of  all  the  Ap^ 
pearances^  methinksa  Smile  is  the  moft  ex- 
traordinary.  It  phys  with  a  furprizing  A- 
greeablenefs  in  the  Eye;  breaks  out  with 
the  brighteft  DidinCtion,  and  fits  like  a 
Glory  u^on  the  (Countenance.  What  Sun  is 
there  within  us  that  flioots  his  Rays  with 
To  fuddain  a  Vigour  ?  To  fee  the  vSoul  fiafli 
in  the  Face  at  this  rate,  one  would  think 
might  convert  an  Atheift.  By  the  way,we 
may  obfervc  that  Smiles  are  much  more 
becoming  than  Frowns  :  This  Teems  a  natu- 
ral Encouragement  to  good  Humour  :  As 
much  as  to  lay.  If  People  have  a  Mind  to  be 
Handfome,  they  mufl:  not  be  Peeviih.  and 

An  o- 

of  the  A  SVV.CT.       125 

AnotherThing  remarkable,  is  the  Obfequi- 
oufners  of  the  Afped.  It  goes  as  true  to 
the  Mind,  when  \vc  pleafe,  :is  the  Dial  to 
the  Sun.  The  Orders  are  publilli'd  as  foon 
as  given.  'lis  but  throwing  the  Will  into 
the  Face,  and  the  Inward  Dirediion  appears 
immediately.  'Tis  true,  a  Man  cannot 
command  the  Handing  Features  and  Com- 
plexion ;  but  tlie  Divcrfitics  of  PafTion  are 
under  Difpofal.  The  Image  of  Pleafure  is 
never  feen,  when  Anger  was  intended.  No, 
The  Sentiments  arc  painted  exadlly,  and 
drawn  by  the  Life  within. 

And  fmce  tis  m  our  Power  not  to  give  a 
wrong  Sign,  we  lliould  not  pervert  the  In- 
tendments of  Providence.  To  \v;ifh  over  a 
coarfe  or  infignificant  Meaning,  is  to  coun- 
terfeit Natures  Coin.  We  ought  to  be  juft 
in  our  Looks^  as  well  as  in  our  Anions  ,•  for 
the  Mind  may  be  declared  one  way  no  lels 
than  the  other.A  Man  might  as  good  break 
his  PFW»  as  his  FacCj  efpecially  upon  fome 
critical  Occallons.  It  may  fo  happen  that 
w^e  can  con verfe  no  other  way,  lor  want  of 
an  Interpreter.  But  though  I  cannct  tel! 
what  a  Man  lays,  if  he  will  be  fincere,  I 
may  eafily  kno^v  what  he  looks.  The 
Meaning  of  Sounds  are  uncertain,  and  tyej 
to  particular  Times  and  Places  :  But  the 
Language  of  the  Fi:ice  is  fixt ,  and  univer- 
fal.  Its  Confcnts  and  Refufals,  are  cverv 
I  3  v\  here 

ii6     Of  the  Aspect. 

where  alike.  A  Smile  has  the  fame  Form 
and  Senfe  in  Chtna^  as  with  us.  If  Looks 
were  as  arbitrary  as  Words,  Converfation 
would  be  more  in  the  Dark  ;  And  a  Tra- 
veller  would  be  obhgcd  to  learn  the  Coun- 
tenances, as  well  as  theXongues  of  Foreign 

And  as  the  Language  of  the  Face  is  uni- 
verfal,  fo  'tis  very  comprehenfive.  No  La- 
conifm  can  reach  it.  'Tis  the  Short  hand  of 
the  Mind,  and  crowds  a  great  deal  in  a  lit- 
tle room.  A  Man  may  look  a  Sentence,  as 
foon  as  fpeak  a  Word.  The  Strokes  are  fmall, 
but  fb  Maflerly  drawn,  that  you  may  eafi- 
ly  colledl  the  Image  and  Proportions  of 
what  they  refemble. 

Whether  Honefly  and  Dillionefly  are 
difcernable  in  the  Face,  is  a  Queftion  which 
admits  of  Difpute.  King  Charles  the  Se- 
cond  thought  he  could  depend  upon  thcfe 
Obfervations.  But  with  Submidion,  I  be- 
beve  an  Inftance  might  be  given  in  which 
his  Rules  of  Phyfiognomy  failed.  'Tis  true, 
theTemper  and  [nward  Difpofition  is  fome- 
timcs  vifible  in  the  Countenance.  Thus 
Salufl  tells  us,  Cataline  had  Rage  and  Defi- 
ance in  his  Looks,  even  after  he  was  dead. 
Hou  ever,  here  the  Imprefiion  was  partly 
defign'd,  and  voluntary :  He  had  a  Mind, 
no  queftion,  to  appear  as  fierce  and  formi- 
dable as  he  could  :  But  in  Infincerity  the 


Of  the  ASPECT.        1 17 

Cafe  is  othervvife,*  for  no  Man  is  willing  to 
be  known  for  a  Knave.  Whether  Men,  as 
they  fay  of  Plants^  have  Signatures  to  dif- 
cover  their  Natures  by,  is  hard  to  deter- 
mine. Some  People  i'ancy  an  Honed  Man 
looks  plain,  and  open,  and  all  of  a  Piece  : 
And  therefore  when  they  f^'ca  fliy  and  com- 
pounded Air, a  remote  and  abfcondingkind 
of  Countenance,  they  conclude  it  Cains 
Mark.  This,  in  their  Opinion,  is  either 
a  Caution  given  us  by  Providence,  or  the 
natural  Efled  of  a  crafty  and  fufpiclous 
Mind.  A  Knave,  fay  they,  is  apprchenfive 
of  being  difcovered  ,•  and  this  habitual  Con- 
cern puts  an  Odnefs  into  his  Looks.  But 

Alter  all,  no  Man's  Face  is  Actionable. 
Thefe  Singularities  are  interpretable,  from 
more  innocent  Caufcs.    And  therefore  tho' 
there  may  be  ground  for  Caution,  there  is 
none  lor  Ccnfure. 




THE  trouble  of  Defpair  akvays  rifes 
in  proportion  to  the  Evil  that  is 
feared.  By  confequencc,  the  greateft  Ago- 
nies of  Expectation,  are  thofe  which  relate 
to  another  World.  But  I  fliall  leave  tills 
Confideration  to  the  Pulpits^  and  proceed 
upon  a  lower  Objed.  Now  Defpair,  as 
it  refpeds  the  Bufinefs  and  Events  of  Life^ 
is  an  uneafy  and  impolitick  Paffion  :  It  An- 
tedates a  Misfortune,  and  Torments  a  Man 
before  his  time.  It  fpreads  a  Gioomincfs 
upon  the  Soul,  and  makes  her  live  in  a 
Dungeon  beyond  the  Notion  of  Pre- ex- 
ifience.  It  preys  upon  the  Fitals,  likeF/c- 
metheitss  Fultur ;  and  eats  out  the  Heart  of 
all  other  Satisfad:ions.  It  cramps  the  Povi , 
ers  of  Nature,  and  cuts  the  Sineus  oi  En. 
tcrprize,  and  gives  Being  to  many  crofs  Ac- 
cidents, which  otherwife  would  never 
happen.  To  believe  a  Bufinefs  impofiible, 
is  the  way  to  make  it  fo.  How  many  fea- 
fible  Projeds  have  mifcarried  by  Dcfpcn- 
dency,  and  been  flrangled  in  the  Birth,  by 
a  cowardly  Imagination  ?  If  Things  will 

i^o     A^alnft  DESPAIR. 

not  do  of  themfel  ves,  they  may  let  it  alone  : 
frr  he  that  Dcfpairs  is  refolved  not  to  help 
them  :  For  who  would  work  upon  an  Im- 
pofiibihty  ?  Such  an  Expedation,  crys  one, 
will  never  come  to  pafs  :  Therefore  ril| 
e'en  give  it  up,  and  go  and  fret  my  feif. 
How  do  you  know  tliat  ?  Can  you  fee  to 
the  utmoft  limits  of  Nature?  And  zr^  you 
acquainted  with  all  the  Powers  m  B^ing  ?  Is 
it  an  eafy  Matter  to  pronounce  upon  all  the. 
Alterations  of  Time,  and  Accident  >  And 
to  foretel  how  (Irangely  the  Ballance  of 
Force  and  Inclination  may  be  turned  >  Pray 
let  us  fee  w^hcther  'twill  or  no^  before  v^^ 
grow  too  pofitive^and  give  Sentence  againft 
our  Intered.  A  very  pretty  Device  you  11 
fay  !  For  at  this  rare,  a  Man  mull:  never  De- 
fnair  while  he  lives !  And  pray  where  is  the 
Harm  on'r,  if  it  fhould  befb?  Is  FJtipair  fa 
entertaining  a  Companion  ?  Are  the  Plea- 
fures  of  it  fo  inviting,  and  rapturous  ?  Is  a 
Man  bound  to  look  out  Iharp  to  plague  liim-. 
Mh  And  to  take  care  that  he  flips  no  Op- 
portunity of  being  unhappy?  As  long  as 
there  is  Life^  there  is  Hope  :  Andiffo,  *tis 
Prudence  not  to  defert  it.  Hope  is  a  vigo- 
rous Principle;  'Tis  furniflicd  with  Light 
snd  Heit,  to  Advifc  and  Execute :  It  lets 
the  Head  and  the  Heart  on  vyork,  and  ani- 
mates a  Man  to  do  his  utmoft.  And  thus 
by  perpetual  Piifliing,  and  AlTurance,  it  puts 


Jgamfi  DESPAIR.       151 

a  difficulty  out  of  Countenance,  and  makes 
a  (eeming  ImpolTibility  give  way.     At  the 
worft,  li   the  Succefs  happens  to  fail,  'tis 
clear  Gains,  as  long  as  it  lafts.     It  keeps 
the  Mind  eafy,  and  expecting,-  and  fences 
off  Anxiety  and  Spleen,     'Tis  fometimes  fo 
Sprightly  and  Rewarding  a  Qjiality,  that 
the  Plcaiure  of  ExpecSation  exceeds  that  of 
Fruition.     Tt  refines  upon  the  Richnefs  of 
Nature,  and  Paints  beyond  the  L/fe  :  And 
when  the  Reality  is  thus  out-fnincd  by  the 
Imagination,  Succefs  is  a  kind  of  Difap- 
pointment  ;  and  to  Hope,  is  Letter  than  to 
Have.  Befides,  Hope  has  a  creditable  Com- 
plexion :  It  throws  a  generous  Contempt 
upon  ill  Ufage,  and  looks  like  a  handfom 
Defiance  of  a  Misfortune:   As  vvho  fliould 
fay,  You  are  fomewhat  troublefome  now, 
but  I  (liali  conquer  you  afterwards.     And 
thus  a  Man  makes  an  honourable  ExitM  he 
does  nothing  farther.     His  Heart  Beats  a- 
gainft  the  Enemy  when  he  is  juft  Expirmg, 
and  Difcharges  the  lad  Fulfe  in  the  Face  of 

But  Defpair  makes  a  defpicable  Figure, 
^nd  defcends  from  a  mean  Original.  'Tis 
the  Off-fpring  of  Fear,  of  Lazincft,  and  Im- 
patience. It  argues  a  defedi  of  Spirits,  and 
Reiblution  ;and  oftentimes  of  Honefiy  too. 
After  all,  the  Exercife  of  this  Paiuon  is  fo 
troublefome,  that  methinks  nothing   but 


1 3  2     Jgamji  DESPAIR, 

Dint  of  Evidence,and  Demonftration,(hould 
force  it  upon  us.     I  would  not  defpair  un- 
lefs  I  knew  the  irrevocable  Decree  was  part  : 
Unlefs    I  faw  my  Misfortune  Recorded  in 
the  [^odioiFate^  and  Signed  and  Sealed  by 
Neceffity,     Indeed  where  the  Ad  is  unman- 
ly, or   the   Expedation  immoral,  or  con- 
tradiftious  to  the  Attributes  of  God  ;  we 
ought  to  drop  our  Hopes,   or  ratlier  never 
entertain  them.  And  therefore  I  would  nei- 
ther  Hope  to  play  the  Fool,  or  the  Knave, 
or  be  Immoral.     But  when  the  Objed:  is 
(lefenfible  and  fair,  I  would  not  quit  my 
Hold,  cis  long  as  it  was  within  the  Reach  of 
Omnipotence.     What  then,  muftweHope 
v»i:hour  Mcnns  ?   Yes;   why  not  ?  When 
we  cannot  work  them  out  cf  our  own  In- 
tluftry.  Pray  w^hat  Means  was  thereto  make 
the  World  with  ?    There  was  neither  Tim- 
ber nor  Tools  to  raifc  the  Building,  and  yet 
you  Tee  what  a  noble  Pile  it  is.  Why  fhould 
we  fuppofe  a  Miracle  fo  flrange  a  Thing, 
fince   Nature  her  felf  was  produced  this 
way  ?  H:-  that  made  Secotul  Caufes^  can  as 
eafily  w^^rk  without,  as  with  them. 

. .^Quicquid  Dii   voluere  peranum  efi. 

To  Will,  and  to  Do,  is  the  fame  Thing  with 
nn  Almighty  Power  If  we  could  Cure  a 
Fever  witii  a  Wifli,  DccreeupaHoufe,  and 
make  what  we  would,  confequtnt  upon  In- 
chnadon  :  In  fuch  a  Cafe,  we  need  not  tyc 


J^ainJ}  DESPAIR.        I 

our  (elves  to  Application, and  Materials.  The 
bare  Fiat  of  our  Will  would  give  Birth  to 
the  Idea  ;  And  make  it  ilarc  out  into  Exift- 
ence  without  any  more  ado. 

To  ufe  the  Minillrations  of  I'ubordinate 
Caufes,  looks  like  a  Going  about  :  For 
where  there  is  Matter  and  Motion^  there 
mull,  in  humane  Apprehenfion,  be  Succef- 
fion  of  Parts,  and  Rellftance,  and  Time,  for 
the  Performance.  The  Powers  of  Nature 
(eem  too  Heavy,  to  keep  Pace  with  Thought^ 
and  to  drive  out  an  InPiantaneous  Produ- 
dion  :  So  that  one  would  almoll  imagine, 
the  Ading  by  immediate  Omnipotence, 
was  the  moft  difcncumbcT'd,  as  well  as  the 
mod  magnificent  Method.  But  is  it  not 
extravagant  to  expcd  a  Miracle  ?  Not  at  alh 
I  believe  we  are  afHfled  with  many  more 
Miracles  than  we  are  aware  of.  For  the 
purpofe  :  A  Man  in  a  Storm  prays  that  he 
may  efcape  being  Wrcckt.  I  dcfire  to 
know,  whether  he  thinks  it  pofiible  for 
him  to  be  the  better  for  his  Devotions?  If 
he  does  not,  he  is  an  impertinent  Arheifl; 
for  ufing  them :  If  he  does,  he  mufl  believe 
that  Providence  will  interpofe,  and  difarm 
Nature,  or  divert  her  Violence.  No-.v  to 
check  Second  Caufes  in  their  Career,  to 
change  their  Motion,  or  lay  them  Alleep 
before  ihey  are  Spent,  is  no  left  a  Miracle 
than  to  A6t  without  tliem. 

1^4     -^^^#  DESPAIR. 

Let  no  Man  therefore  difquiet  himfelf 
about  rhc  Future,  nor  quit  a  juft  Under- 
taking, out  of  Defpondency.  Honefl  People 
ought  to  be  Chearful,  if  it  was  only  for  the 
Credit  of  their  Virtue.  Let  us  not  grow 
MelanchoHck  upon  a  fuperficial  View  of 
Things ;  for  that  is  as  far  as  we  can  difcover. 
'Tis  a  much  better  way  to  do  our  own 
Parts  carefully,  and  reft  the  tvent  with 
God  Almighty. 



O  F 



T>emeas  and  Mitias.    Thought  I  fliould  have  Dined  with 
j^   you  to  Day,-  what  made  you  fail 
your  ufual  Eating-houfe  ? 

Mit,  I  ask  your  Excufe.  I  have  been 
at  a  Mifer's  Feaft :  I  went  thither  to  enter- 
tain my  Curiofity  rather  than  my  Palat  ; 
for  you  know  that  is  a  Sight  which  is  not 
every  day  to  be  met  with  ? 

Dem.  And  was  it  as  great  as  the  Proverb 
makes  it  ? 

Ma,  Every  jot.  I  have  not  hadmySen- 
fes  To  ragaled  this  long  time  :  'Twas  fo  in- 
viting, that  I'm  afraid  the  Founder  has  ta- 
ken a  Surfeit. 

Dem,  You  mean  of  the  Expence.  Fear 
it  not,  he  will  have  a  Le/it  after  his  Carni' 
val :  that  will  cure  him. 



Mit.  This  Fit  of  Feajting  comes  upon 
him  once  a  Year.  If  you  did  not  know  him, 
you'd  think  it  was  an  Ague;  he  looks  fo 
defparately  Pale,  and  Thin/or  a  great  while 
alter.  And  now,  as  you  fay,  he  will  go 
iilto  a  Courft  of  Abftinence,  but  I  wifh  we 
could  prevent  the  return  of  the  Diilcmper  i 
for  in  my  Opmion,  he  is  well  neither  Full, 
nor  Fading.  In  fliort,  The  Difeafe  lies  in 
his  Mind,  and  hovv^  to  reach  it  with  a 
Recipe^  I  can't  tell  i  for  Covetdufncfs  is 
generally  incurable. 

Dcm,  1  own  'tis  difficultly  removed,  and 
increditable  into  the  bargain  ?  and  there- 
fore I  hope  you  will  not  report  it  upon  any 
perfon,  unlefs  the  Symptoms  are  very  ciear^ 
and  undifputed.  Give  me  Leave  to  tell  you, 
there  are  often  great  Miftakes  in  thisMatter. 
Some  think  to  (creen  their  own  Profufenefs 
from  Ceniure,  by  reproaching  the  Fruga- 
lity of  their  Neighbours  :  And  others  pro- 
nounce railily  out  of  Ignorance.  With  their 
good  Favour,  wife  Men  will  look  beyond 
their  Nofe ,  and  take  care  of  the  main 
Chance,  and  provide  for  Accidents  and 
Age.  They  know  that  Poverty  isunfafiiion- 
able,  and  Dependance  uneaiy  ,•  and  that  a 
generous  Mind  cannot  live  upon  Curtejy^ 
with  any  great  Relilh.  Befides  fome  People 
do  not  decline  Expence  out  of  Parfimony, 
L^t  because  they  do  not  care  for  the  Trouble 



of  a  Figure.  They  do  not  care  to  be  crow- 
ded witli  Vifitors,  to  have  their  Table  pe- 
ftered  with  FHes  and  Flatterers,  and  to  be 
always  yoked  in  Ceremony.  They  don't 
believe  anyMafter  the  more  confiderable  by 
keeping  a  great  many  Idle  People  about 
him ;  or  that  any  true  Greatnefs  can  be 
made  out  of  that  which  is  Little.  And  be- 
caufc  a  Man  is  willing  to  have  hisHoufeand 
hisHead  cool,  and  to  keep  hisTime  and  his 
Liberty  to  himfelf  muft  he  be  called  Cove- 
tous upon  this  Account  ? 

Mit,  I  have  no  Intention  to  condemn  a 
juft  Value  for  Money.  And  if  any  Man  has 
more  Senfe  and  Sobriety  than  his  Neigh- 
bours, I  think  it  great  Injufticeto  burlefque 
his  Prudence,  or  reprefcnt  him  in  any  Cha- 
rader  of  Difadvantage :  But  then  I  muft 
fay,  That  fbme  People  have  the  Misfortune 
to  fall  into  the  Extremes,and  that  CovetouC 
nefs  does  not  lie  only  in  Satyr,  and  Specu- 

Dem,  I  perceive  you  have  a  mind  to  fay 
fomething  upon  this  Argument :  With  the 
Precautions  above-mentioned,  lajn  willing 
to  hear  you :  Take  your  Method,  and  draw 
out  into  what  Length  you  plealc  ;  you  will 
have  no  Interruption,  for  at  prefent  I  am 
not  in  the  difputing  Humour. 

Mit.  To  begin  then.     There  is  no  need 

of  giving  a  clofe  Definition  of  this  Vice ; 

K  'twill 

1 3  8  0/  C  O  V  E  T  O  11  S  N  E  S  S, 

'twill  be  (bfficientiy  difcovered  in  the  De- 
fcription.  Covetoiifnefs  has  a  relation  to 
Wealth,  or  Fortune.  Whether  aMan  has 
no  more  than  a  jull  Value  for  this  Advan- 
tage, is  {een  in  his  Getting,  Keeping,  and 
Uhng  it.  A  lliortSurvey  of  the  Mifmanag- 
ment  in  thefe  three  Particulars,  will  take  in 
the  Compafsof  the  Cafe. 

But  left  you  may  think  this  Method 
fbmewhat  too  loofc,  f  fhall  come  a  little 
nearer  in  a  Word  or  two ;  and  affirm, That 
he  is  Covetous  who  balks  any  part  of  his 
Duty,  for  fear  ije  Ihould  grow  the  Poorer,- 
and  chufes  rather  to  fave  his  Money  than 
his  Confcience.  He  that  denies  himfelf  the 
Conveniences  of  Life,  without  either  Ne- 
celiity  or  Religion.  He  that  is  anxious  in 
Riches.  He  that  fets  his  Intereft  above  his 
Honour ;  and  values  inilgnificant  Gains, 
which  hold  no  Proportion  with  his  For- 

As  for  the  Getting  Parr,  a  covetousMan 
never  troubles  himfelf  with  the  Niceties  of 
Morality.  His  Bufinefs  is  to  fecure  theEnd, 
not  to  diftinguifli  upon  the  Means.  Let  the 
Projed:  be  but  Rich  and  Pradicable,  and  he 
enquires  no  farther.  Honour  and  Confci^ 
ence  are  fine  ThingS:,  but  they  feldom  fill 
the  Pocket.  When  They  will  Purchafe  any 
Thing,  a  good  Manager  can  counterfeit 
them ;  but  to  be  tyed  down  to  a  Set  of  No- 

(^/COVETOllSNESS.  139 

lions,  is  the  way  to  be  a  Beggar.  He  that 
refolvcs  to  Thrive^won't  be  difcouraged  by 
a  few  hard  Names.  His  Induflry  is  nottd 
be  check'd  by  Fancies,  and  common  Mi_ 
Hake.  He  will  fcarcely  believe  himfelf, 
when  it  makes  againft  him.  Inward  %* 
ludlance,  pafTes  for  Spleen,  and  Vapours ; 
Shame,  for  an  infirm  Vanity  that  hangs  too 
ftrvilely  upon  foreign  Opinion  ,•  Generofi- 
ty,  is  nothing  but  a  ceremonious  Prodiga- 
lity ;  and  Pity,  a  foolifliTeodernefs.  Theft 
Maxims  remove  the  Difficulties  of  Bufmeft, 
and  open  the  way  for  Expedition  and  Sue- 

Reafon  and  Religion  'tis  likely  will  inter-, 
poft  fbmetimes,  but  the  covetous  Man  goes 
on  for  all  that.  And  though  he  can't  com- 
mand his  Principles,  he  isMafter  of  hisFr^- 
^ke.  Sometimes  a  Man  gets  only  to  fpend^ 
In  that  Cafe,  Covetoufhefs  is  but  a  minifte- 
rial  Vice ;  and  ferves  under  Luxury,  or 
Ambition.  But  here  I  (hall  confider  it  as 
having  the  Afcendanr.  Now  to  recount  the 
Diforders  of  Life,  the  Knavery,  and  little 
Practices  that  flow  in  upon  us  from  this 
Spring,were  alnioil  infinite.  Whence  comes 
all  Circumvention  in  Commerce,  adultera- 
ting of  Wares  ,  vouching  and  varnifhing 
againft  all  good  Faith,  and  Honefty  >  'Tis 
Covetoufnefs  that  Brews  andDaflies  ;  give^ 
you  falfe  Lighrs,  and  falfe  Language;  and 
K  ^  ihewS 


Ihews  many  other  Dexterities  to  get  your 
Money.  Now  what  can  be  Meaner,  than 
to  make  Over-reaching  a  pare  ofa  Proielli' 
on  ?  And  to  impofe  upon  the  I  gnorance,  or 
Neceflityof  a  Neighbour;  Let  an  Appren- 
tice be  bound  to  a  Mifer,  and  he  might  as 
good  be  Becalmed,  or  Befieged  ;  for  he  is 
lure  to  be  put  to  Jhort  Allowance.  Ono,  would 
think  Hunger  was  put  into  his  Indentures, 
he  is  fo  conftantly  held  to  it.  HisMafter  will 
not  let  him  grow  to  his  Joynts,  nor  Set  up^ 
with  all  the  Flefli  and  Bones  which  Nature 
defign'd  him;  but  is  refolved  to  put  part  of 
his  Limbs  in  his  Pocket.  What  is  the  reafbn 
of  racking  of  Tenants ,  and  rigorous  Sei- 
zures, that  the  Rich  opprefs  the  Poor,  and 
the  Poor  fteal  from  the  Rich,  but  becaufe 
they  are  not  contented  with  their  own  ? 

Whence  come  Soldiers  of  Fortune  ^  and 
LaVi^yers  of  Fortune  ?  Men  that  will  fight 
and  be  fee*d  of  any  fide,  and  fometimes  of 
Both  ?  What  makes  the  Courtier  fupplant 
his  Friend,  and  betray  his  Matter,  and  fell 
his  Country  ?  Why,  'tis  oftentimes  nothing 
but  the  Love  of  Money,  which  makes  the 
Court,  and  the  Camp,  and  the  ^^r,  thus 
Mean,  and  Mercenary.  How  many  Trufis 
are  abufed.  Wills  forged,  Orphans  and  Wi- 
dows robb'd,  and  ruin'd  upon  this  Score  ? 
Where  Avarice  rules  and  rages,  there  is 
nothing  of  Humanity  remaining.Hence  it  is 



that  thofe  who  recover  from  the  Plague  die 
fbmetimes  of  the  Nurfe ;  that  the  Ship- 
wreckt  are  difpatched  on  Shore,  that  they 
may  not  claim  their  Goods ;  that  Travel- 
lers are  murther'd  in  theHouies  of  Protefti- 
on  and  Entertainment.  Things  Co  bloody 
and  barbarous,  that  the  Guilty  are  fome- 
tinies,  as  itweredifcovered  byMiracle,pro* 
fecuted  by  Apparitions,  and  purfued  hyHue 
and  Crks  from  the  other  world. 

To  leave  thefe  Extremities  of  VVicked- 
nefs,  and  proceed  to  Inftances  of  a  lower 
Nature.  What  can  be  more  ridiculoudy 
Little,  than  to  fee  People  of  Figure,  and 
Fortune,  weigh  an  Interefl:  to  the  utmofl: 
Grain  ?  Haggle  away  Time  and  Credit  about 
Trifles,  and  part  with  a  Friend  to  keep  a 
Shilling  ? 

'Tis  not  Unentertainingto  fee  Men  how 
they  can  make  their  State  truckle  to  their 
Parfimony.  How  they  will  draw  in  their 
Figure  upon  the  Road,  fink  their  Titles  to 
fave  their  Purfe,  and  degrade  themfelves  to 
lie  cheap  at  an  Inn.  Covetoufnefs  is  a  mofl 
moft  obliging  Leveller  ,•  it  mingles  the 
Great  and  Small  with  wonderfuICondefcen- 
tion;  and  makes  L--ds,  and  Valets^  Com- 
pany for  one  another.  But  theft  are  but 
petty  Indecencies.  Covetoufnefs  willfmk 
much  lower,  if  there  be  but  any  Oar  at  the 
Bottom:  It  will  fbllicit  in  the  meanell  Of- 
K  3  fice, 


fice,  and  fubmit  to  any  Infamous  Difguife^ 
Itturns Lions  into  Tack-calls,-  engages  Ho- 
nour in  the  mod  fcandalous  Intrigues,  and 
makes  it  under  pull  to  Cheats  and  Sharp- 

And  as  the  Drudgery  of  this  Vice  is 
mean,  fo  'tis  conftant  too.  It  keeps  a  Man 
always  in  the  Wheel,  and  makes  him  a  Slave 
for  his  Life  time.  His  Head  or  his  Hands 
are  perpetually  employed:  When  one 
Projed  is  finilh'd,  his  Inclinations  roll  to 
another  ,*  (o  that  his  Reft  is  only  variety  of 
Labour.  This  Evil  Spirit,  throws  him  iftta 
the  Fire,  and  into  the  Water  ;  into  all  forts 
of  Hazards,  ana  Hardlhips  :  And  when  he 
has  reached  the  Tombs,  htfits  Naked,  and 
out  oi  his  Right  Mind.  Neither  the  Decays 
of  Age,  nor  the  Approach  of  Death,  can 
bring  him  to  his  Senfes,  nor  fhew  him  the 
Extravagance  of  his  Pailion  ;  on  the  con- 
trary,  his  Folly  commonly  encreafes  with 
his  Years.  VVo]ves,and  other  Beads  of  prey, 
v.- hen  they  have  once  fpedxan  give  over  and 
be  quiet  till  the  return  of  Appetite:  But  Co- 
vetoufnefs  never  lies  down  ;  but  is  ever 
Flungry,  and  Hunting.  'Tis  perpetually 
harrailing  others,  or  it  felf, without  Rcfpit, 
or  IntermifiiOn.  The  Mifer  enlarges  his 
Dejires  as  Hell ;  he  is  a  Gulph  without  a 
Portoni;  all  the  Succeft  in  the  World  will 
never  fill  him.  Sometimes  the  Eagernefs  of 



his  Appetite  makes  him  fnap  at  a  Shadow, 
and  drop  the  Sulftance.  Thus  Crajfus  loft 
himfelf,  his  Equipage,  and  his  Army,  by 
over-ftraining  for  ihtParthian  Gold.  Thus 
the  Marefchal  Balagny^as  outcd  of  th?  So- 
vcraignty  of  Camhray  ,  I  y  the  Covetouf- 
nefs  of  his  Lady ,  who  fold  the  Spaniards 
the  Stores  which  fiiould  have  maintained 
the  Garifoft,  And  thus  the  Bait  of  a  cheap 
i3argain,  or  a  large  Interefl:,  often  helps  a 
Man  to  flolenGoods,and  crackt  Titles.  And 
if  he  has  better  Luck  than  he  deferves,  the 
poiiibility  of  a  Mifcarriage  keeps  liim  unea- 
iy\  The  Mifer  is  feldom  witliout  Pain  : 
The  Shortnefs  of  Human  Forefight^and  the 
Uncertainty  of  Accidents,  and  tiie  Knavery 
of  Men, haunt  his  Imagination  with  all  the 
Poilibilities  of  danger.  He  ftarts  at  every 
new  Appearance ,  and  is  aUays  waking 
and  folicitous  forfearof  a  Surprize.  Like  a 
Night  Centinel,  the  lead  Noife  alarms  him, 
and  makes  himapprehenfive  of  the  Enemy. 
And  let  a  Man'sFright  be  never  fovifionary 
in  the  Caufe,  the  Trouble  will  be  real  in 
the  EiTed:.  But  fometimcs  the  Anxiety  docs 
not  lie  altogether  in  a  Romance,  but  comes 
out  of  Life  and  Bufinefs.  And  then  you  m\y 
befure  his  Fears  will  encrcafc  with  hisDan- 
ger.  The  Lofs  of  a  Battle,  or  the  Revolu- 
tion of  a  Kingdom,  don't  alledl:  him  half  i^o 
much,  as  the  News  of  a  GoldfoithV,  or 
K  4  ^0- 

144Q/COVETO  U  S  N  E  S  S. 

Money  Scriveners  going  afide.  Here,  the' 
the  Misfortune  is  remote,  he  is  n-ot  inftnfi- 
ble.  Indeed  'tis  the  only  Sympathy  he 
feems  capable  of.  But  then  the  Agonies  he 
lies  under,  when  he  comes  to  be  Touched 
in  his  own  Cafe  !  When  a  Bond  or  a  Mort- 
gage fails,  there  is  nothing  can  (upport  his 
Spirits,  or  keep  him  within  theCompafs  of 
Decency.  How  pafllonately  does  he  lament 
over  the  Parchment. Carcafs^  when  the  Soul 
of  the  Security  is  departed  >  His  Humour 
and  his  Face  is  put  into  Mourning,  and  fo 
would  the  reft  of  his  Perfon,  were  it  not  for 
the  Charge.  However,  a  covetous  Man  is 
not  eafily  baffled  :  He  has  a  great  many 
Tools  to  w^ork  with.  If  Deceit  makes  for 
his  Purpofe,  he  will  ufe  it  to  the  beft  of  his 
Skill,  if  Cruelty  will  fave  a  Penny  he  will 
not  ftick  to  flay  a  poor  Debtor  for  the  Price 
of  his  Skin.  No  Turn  either  in  State  or 
Religion  can  hurt  him  :  He  receives  any 
Impreffion ,  and  runs  into  any  Mould  the 
Times  will  cafthim.  He  is  a  Chriftian  at 
Rorne^  a  Heathen  at  Japan^  and  a  Turk  at 
Conjlantinople.  What  you  will  Without^  and 
nothing  Within,  'Tis  a  Jeft  in  a  Mifer  to 
pretend  to  be  honeft.  To  relblve  againft 
Poverry,  is  in  effed  to  forfwear  Jufticeand 
Truth.  The  Knavery  of  fuch  People,  is 
as  indifputable  as  an  Axiom  ;  and  ought  to 
be  fuppofed  as  a  Tojlulatum   in  Bufinefs, 



They  are  falfe  by  neceffity  of  Principle,  and 
want  nothing  but  an  Occafion  to  (hew  it. 
Confcience  and  Covetoufnefs  are  never  to 
be  reconciled  :  Like  Fire  and  Water,  they 
always  deftroy  each  other,  according  to 
the  Predominancy  of  the  Element. 

Now  one  would  think  he  that  takes  fiich 
Pains  for  a  Fortune,  and  purchafes  fb  dear, 
(hould  know  how  to  ufe  it.     One  would 
think  the  covetous  Man  had  refined  upon 
the  Satisfa6lions  of  Life  ;    and  difcovered 
fome  unheard  of  Myfteries  of  Epicurifm, 
One  would    imagine  his  Appetites  were 
more  keen  and  lading  ;  his  Capacities  en- 
larged ;  and  that  he  could  pleafe  himfclf  fa- 
fter,  and  farther  than  his  Neighbours,  For 
why  (hould  we  put  our  felves  to  an  uncom- 
mon Trouble,  for  a  common  Advantage  ? 
But  how  can  this  be  ?  How  can  Anxiety 
and  Eafe  (land  together  ?  Strong  Pleafures 
and  fhrong  Fears  are  incompatible.     A  con- 
ftant  dread   of  Death,  makes  Life  infipid. 
And  he  that  is  always  afraid  of  Loftfig,  has 
little  Leifure  to  enjoy.     Befides,  a  continu- 
al Load  of  Cares  depreiTes  the  Vigour  of  the 
Mind,  and  dulls  the  Inclination,  and  clouds 
the  Chearfulnefs  of  the  Spirits  :  Like  a  La- 
bourer worked  down,  he  is  too  much  tired 
for  Entertainment. 

But  alas  !   were  he  never  fo  much  di(-. 
pos'd;  he  has  not  the  Courage  to  recreate 



his  Senfes,  and  reward  his  Induftry.     No. 
He  has  more  refped  for  his  Wealth,  than 
to  take  thofe  Freedoms.  He  falutes  it  at  an 
humble  Diftance,  and  dares  not  be  too  fa- 
mihar  with  an  Objed  of  VVoriliip.  His  Gold 
might  as  good  have  ftay'd  at  Peru,  as  come 
into  his  Cuflody ;  for  he  gains  nothing  by 
Portedicn,  excepting  the  Trouble  of  look- 
ing after  it.     'Tis  true,  he  can  command 
the  Sight  on't  this  way  ;  but  if  feeing  an 
Eflate  would  make  one  Rich,  there's  kw 
but  the  Blind  would  be  Poor.     He  calls  it 
his  own  too  ;   but  with  great  hiipropriety 
of  Language.    My  own  >   What  is  my  own  ? 
Why 'tisfomethingthat  leat,  or  drink,   or 
put  on.  Something  which  makes  my  Body, 
or  my  Mind,  the  better.     Something  with 
which  1  ferve  my  Friend,  or  my  Country, 
or  relieve  tbe  Poor.  Property  without  Ap> 
plication  to  advantage,  is  meer  Cant,  and 
Notion.  The  beft  Metals  will  rufl:,   by  lying 
under  Ground ;  and  loie  their  Colour,  unlefs 
hrightned  by  U{e.     But  where  Covetouf- 
nefs  governs,  the  Appetite  is  tyed  up,  and 
Nature  is  put  under  Penance.     Like  a  Ma- 
lefador,  a  Man  has  juft  enough  to  keep  him 
alive  in  Pain  ;  enough  to  Suffer  with,  but 
not  to  Pleafe.  The  Covetous  guards  againft 
himrelf,as  well  as  againft  Thieves  :  He  loves 
to  itep  ihort  of  NecelTity,  and  hates  Conve- 
nience no  lefs  than  ^  wife  Man  dpes  pxcefs. 



And  he  that  dares  not  Enjoy,  wants  that 
which  he  has,  as  well  as  that  which  he  has 
not.  The  cncreafe  of  his  Fortune,  is  but  an 
addition  to  his  Trouble.  The  more  he  has, 
the  more  he  has  to  take  Care  for  ,•  and  an 
Aft  is  as  much  enriched  by  his  Burden,  as 
fuch  a  one  is  by  his  Eftate.  He  may,  like  a 
Sumpter^  carry  Things  of  Value  ;  but  he  ne- 
ver Wears  them.  He  is  only  tired,  and  gal- 
led, with  his  Furniture.  Nothing  is  more 
uneafy  when  'tis  on,nor  looks  more  wretch- 
edly when  'tis  off.  If  a  Man  lays  his  Meat 
upon  his  Shoulder  inftead  of  putting  it  in  his 
Stomach,  the  Quantity  may  load  him  if  he 
will,  but  never  nourilh.  And  as  'tis  eafier, 
it  would  be  more  reputable  for  the  Mifer  to 
be  poor.  The  Pretence  of  NecefTity  might 
cover  a  narrow  Soul.  A  Coward  will  pais, 
when  there  is  little  trial  for  Courage.  Wealth 
does  but  ferve  to  expofe  Covetoufncfs,  and 
make  it  more  ridiculous.  For  what  can  be 
a  more  wretched  Sight,  than  to  fee  a  Man 
mortify  without  Religion  ?  to  fabmit  to  fuch 
voluntary  Hardfliips  to  no  purpofe,  and  lofe 
thePrefenr,  without  providing  for  the  Fu- 
ture. But  thus  Covetoufnefs  revenges  the 
Quarrels  of  others  upon  it  felf,  and  makes  a 
fort  of  Reprizals  at  Home.  The  truth  is, 
if  the  Covetous  did  not  make  their  Neigh- 
bours fbme  amends,  by  ufing  themfeives 
thus  ill,  thev  were  fcarcelv  to  be  endured. 



But  they  are  generally  fair  enough  to  give 
Satisfadion  this  way.  This  Difeafe  fomc- 
times  rifes  up  ahnofl  to  Lunacy  and  Diftra- 
(ftion  ?  Sometimes  it  over-cafts  them  with 
Gloom  and  Melancholy;  and  fbmetimes 
breaks  out  in  the  Clamours  of  Defpair  and 
Impatience.  They  are  tortured  with  ra- 
ging Fears  of  Want  ,•  and  the  greateft  Abun- 
dance is  not  able  to  keep  them  in  tolerable 
Humour.  To  eat,  or  wear  any  Thing,  till 
'tis  paft  the  Beft,  is  Luxury  and  Profuienefs. 
They  muft  have  their  Meat  tainted,  and 
their  Bread  mouldy,  and  their  Cloaths  moth 
eaten,  before  they  dare  venture  on  them. 
It  would  be  great  Charity  to  take  them  out 
of  their  own  unmerciful  Hands,  and  put 
them  under  Wardfhip.  But  'tis  likely  the 
Laws  leave  them  to  their  Liberty  for  a  Pu- 
nifliment.  For  as  this  Vice  ought  to  be  fe- 
verely  corrected,  fo  there  is  fcarce  any 
Difcipline  ftiarper  than  its  own.  And  if 
the  Rigour  fliould  abate  at  Home,  the  Cen- 
fures  of  the  Neighbourhood  would  help  to 
do  Juftice.  The  covetous  Man  is  Homo  iU 
laudatus^  A  Man  rhat  you  can  fay  no  Good 
of.  He  abufes  all  his  Advantages  either  of 
Perfon,  or  Fortune.  His  Inclinations  are 
ungenerous,  his  Underftrnding  cheats,  and 
his  Power  opprefTes  his  Neighbour.  He  is 
not  Big  enough  to  Love,  to  Pity,  or  Affift  ? 
Neither  Blood,  nor  Honour,   nor  Huma- 



nity,  can  take  any  hold,  where  Intereft 
comes  in  competition.  So  far  from  doing 
any  Good,  that  he  defires  none.  HisWiflies 
are  often  malevolent ;  iovBlaJiiHgand  MiL 
dew^  for  Rots  and  Murrain,  for  Storms  and 
Shipwrecks  ,•  that  he  may  put  offhis  Stock, 
and  his  Stores  the  better.  Upon  thefe  Ac- 
counts he  generally  receives  as  little  Kind- 
nefs  as  he  does,  and  finds  as  few  Friends  as 
he  deferves.  Every  one  think  themfelves 
auchoriied  to  execute  his  Credit,  to  palt  and 
lafli  him  ;  and  make  him  either  the  fubjecS 
of  their  Anger  or  their  Scorn. 

To  fum  up  the  Evidence.  A  covetous 
Man  loves  to  be  boaring  in  the  Earth,  like 
an  Infe^  ;  and  lives  always  in  a  creeping  and 
inglorious  Pofture.  His  Satisfadtions  are  as 
Mean  as  his  Figure.  He  has  not  the  Heart  to 
oblige  any  Body,  no  not  himfelf ;  and  there- 
fore is  both  hated  and  defpifed. 

Dem.  Enough  faid.  I  think  your  Cor- 
redion  is  neither  Exceflive,  norMifplaced. 
If  thoft  concerned  will  not  mend  their 
Manners,  they  may  e'en  take  it  for  their 

O  F 


O  F 


BY  Liberty,  I  mean  a  Latitude  of  Pra- 
d:ice  within  the  compafs  of  Law,  and 
Religion.  'Tis  a  {landing  clear  of  inferiour 
Dependances,  and  private  Jurifdittion,    He 
who  is  Mafter  of  his  Time,and  can  chufe  his 
Bufinefs  and  Divcrfions ;  He  who  can  avoid 
diftgreeable  Company,  and  be  alone  when 
his  Humour  or  Occafions  require  it  j  is  as  Free 
as  he  ought  to  wifli  himfeU'.  'Ti .  true,  as  the 
World  (lands,  general  Liberty  is  impradi- 
cable.  If  one  had  nothing  but  a  Soul  to  keep^ 
he  need  not  go  to  Service  to  maintain  it :  But 
a  Body  at  prefent  is  a  very  indigent  fort  of  a 
Thing  ;  it  can't  fubfift  upon  its  own  Growth, 
but  (lands  in  want  of  continual  Supplies  !T\\\s 
Circumftance  of  Eatings  and  DrinkitJg^  is  a 
cruel  Check  upon  many  a  Man's  Dignities ; 
and  makes  him  hold  his  Life  by  a  Servile  7V- 
nure.    However,  he  that  lies  under  this  In- 
cumbrance,  fhould  make  his  beft  on't,  and 
not  quarrel  with  the  Order  of  Providence. 
At  the  v^ox^yDeath  will  knock  off  his  Chain 
(hortly :  In  the  mean  time  his  Bufinefs  is  to 
play  with  it.    But  where  the  NecelTaries  of 
Lite  may  be  had  at  a  cheaper  Rate,  'tis  Fol- 

152       0/  LIBERTY, 

ly  to  purchafe  them  this  way.  He  that  will 
facrifice  his  Liberty  to  his  Palat,  and  con- 
vey over  his  Perfon  for  Superfluities,  is  a 
Slave  of  his  own  making,  and  deferves  to 
be  uftd  accordingly. 

Dependance  goes  fomewhat  againft  the 
Grain  of  a  generous  Mind ;  and  'tis  no 
wonder  it  Ihould  be  fo,  confidering  the  un- 
reafonable  Advantage  which  is  often  taken 
of  the  Inequality  of  Fortune.  The  Pride  of 
Superiours,  and  the  wanton  Exercifes  of 
Power,  make  Servitude  much  more  trou- 
blefome  than  Nature  intended.  Some  Peo- 
ple think  the  Life  of  Authority  confifts  in 
Noift  and  Imperioufiieft,  in  Menacing  and 
Executions,  To  let  their  Servants  live  ea- 
fy,  is  in  fbme  meafure  to  make  them  their 
Equals  :  Therefore  they  love  to  be  always 
brandifhing  their  Advantage,  to  part  with 
nothing  without  a  Stroke  of  Difcipline  ; 
and  to  qualify  their  Favours  with  Penance, 
and  Mortification.  But  the  being  enfran- 
chiftd  from  Arbitrarinefs  and  ill  Humour, 
is  not  the  only  Convenience  of  Liberty. 
This  State  affords  great  Opportunities  for 
the  Improvement  of  Reafon.  It  gives  Lei- 
fure  for  Reading  and  Contemplation ,-  for 
an  Acquaintance  with  Men  and  Things ; 
and  for  looking  into  the  Hiftory  of  Time 
and  Nature.  He  that  has  the  Bufinefs 
of  Life    at  his  own  Difpofal ,    and  has 


0/L  IBERTY.         153 

no  Body  to  account  to  for  his  Minutes  but 
God  and  himfeU,  may  if  he  plcafes  be  hap- 
py without  Drudging  for  it.  He  nec^ds  not 
Flatter  the  Vain,  nor  beTired  u  ith  the  Im- 
pertinent, nor  (land  to  the  Curtefy  of  Kna- 
very and  Folly.  He  needs  not  Dance  after 
theCaprice  of  anHumourift,  nor  bear  a  pari 
in  theExtravagance  of  another.  He  is  under 
no  Anxieties  for  fear  of  diipleafing,  nor  lias 
any  difficulties  of  Temper  toftruggle  witbi 
His  Fate  does  not  hang  upon  any  Man's 
Face  :  A  Smile  will  not  transport  him,  hor 
a  Frown  ruin  him  :  For  his  Fortune  is  bet- 
ter fixed,  than  to  flote  upon  the  Pleafurd 
of  the  Nice  and  Changeable.  This  Inde- 
pendence givesEafinefs  to  theMind,and  Vi° 
gourforEnterprize,  andlmagination.  AMari 
has  nothing  to  ftrike  aOamp  upon  his  Geni« 
us,to  over-awe  hisThoughts,  and  checkthe 
Range  of  his  Fancy.  But  he  that  is  Embaf- 
raffed  in  hisLiberty,is  apt  to  be  unaffiir'did 
his  Adions;  palled  and  difpirited  in  his  Hu- 
mour and  Conceptions  1  fo  that  one  nlay 
almoft  read  his  Condition  in  his  Converlati- 
on.'Tis  true^a  peculiar  Greatneis  of  Nature^^ 
or  the  Expectations  of  Religion^,  may  relieve 
him  ,•  but  then  every  one  is  not  lurnifheci 
with  thefe  Advantages,  the  Reafon  why 
Tarmenio  could  not  rile  up  to  Alexander  i 
Height  of  Thinking,  wa .  poffibly  oecaufe 
he  was  under  his  Command,  Longhm  ob- 
L  krvesji 

154       Of  L  IBERTY. 

ferves,  that  there  were  no  confiderabie  0/-^.. 
tors  in  Greece^  after  their  Government  was 
altered  by  the  Macedonians  and  Romans,  Ac- 
cording  to  him,  their  Elocution  and  their 
Freedom  (eem'd  to  languifli  and  expire  to- 
gether. When  they  were  once  enflaved,  the 
Mufes  would  keep  them  Company  no  long- 
en  The  Vein  of  Rhetorick  was  feared  up, 
the  Force  of  Demojlhenes  fpent,  and  no  Suh^ 
lime  to  be  had  for  Love,  nor  Money. 

Now  though  Freedom  within  a  Rule  is 
very  defirable,-  yet  there  is  (carcely  any  one 
Thing  has  done  more  Mifchief  than  this 
W^(?r^mifunderflood.  Abfolute  Liberty  is  n. 
Jeft  ;  'tis  aVifionary  and  Romantick  Privi- 
lege,  and  utterly  inconfiftent  with  the  pre- 
fent  ftate  of  the  World.  The  generality  of 
Mankind  muft  have  more  Underftanding, 
and  moreHonefly  too,  than  they  are  likely 
to  have  as  long  as  they  live,  beiore  they 
are  fit  to  be  at  their  own  difpolal.  To  tell 
People  they  are  free,  is  the  Common  Ar- 
tifice of  the  Factious  and  Seditious.  Thefe 
State-Gypfies  pick  the  Pockets  of  the  Igno- 
rant with  this  fpecious  Cant^  and  with  in- 
forming them  what  mighty  Fortunes  they 
arc  all  born  to.  And  what  is  this  fine  Free- 
dom, niter  all,  that  thefe  Sparks  can  help 
them  to  ?  Why  they  are  free  to  be  out  of 
their  Wits,  and  to  be  undone,  if  they  take 
their  Advice;  To  lole  their  Confcience,their 


0/ LIBERTY.        ,55 

Credit  and  thcirMoney,and  to  be  ten  times 
more  prelVd  than  they  vvxre  before. 

There  is  fli!!  a  more  extravagant  Notion 
of  L,iberty  behind.  Some  People  arc  for 
Repealing  theLa?/s  of  Morality,  for  throw- 
ing open  the  Inclofiires  of  Religion,  and 
leav^ing  all  in  Common  to  Licentioufnefs 
and  Violence.  They  arc  for  making  their 
Inclinations  the  Rule,  and  their  Power  the 
Boundary  of  their  Anions.  They  hate  to 
let  any  Opportunity  flip,  or  any  Capacity 
lie  Idle  :  But  are  forgrafping  at  all  Poflibi- 
lities  of  Pleafurc,  and  Playing  their  Appe- 
rites  at  whatever  comes  in  their  way.  To 
tye  Men  up  from  Enjoyment ,  and  cramp 
them  with  Prohibitions,  isanEncroachment 
upon  the  Rights  of  Nature.  Thefe  unge- 
nerous Impofitions  are  it  feems  the  Dota- 
ges of  Age,  the  Refults  of  Spleen  and  Impo- 
tence ;  or  at  beft  the  Pretences  of  Defigninf; 
Power,  which  lays  an  Embargo  uponfbme 
Branches  of  Tracle^  to  engrofsthe  Advanta- 
gcs  to  it  felf.  I  wonder  v/hy  thefe  Men 
don  t  improve  their  Principle  farther.  Why 
they  don't  dance  upon  the  Battlements  of 
Houfes,  Vault  down  the  Alonument  ^  and 
jump  into  a  Furnace  for  Divcrfion.  To 
forbear  thefe  Things  are  great  Reftraints 
upon  the  Liberties  of  Motion  ,  and 
make  many  of  the  Faculties  of  Nature  ia- 
fipjmncant.  They  onpjit  10  ftep  in  to  the 
L  2.  Rcfcue 

^^6       0/LIBERTY. 

Refcue  of  Fevers  and  Phrenfy,  and  not  let 
their  Acquaintance  lie  under  fuch  an  igno* 
miniousConfinement,  efpecially  when  their 
Spirits  are  up,  and  they  are  fo  well  difpofed 
for  Satisfatftion.  Why  do  they  not  draw  up 
a  Remonftrance  againfl  Goals^  Pillories^  and 
Executions'^  What!  have  they  no  Senfe  of  the 
Grievances  of  their  Fellow  Suhje^s  ?    Can 
they  fee  their  own  generousPrinciple  fuffer^ 
their  very  Magna  Chart  a  violated  ,  and  do 
nothing  towards  a  Relief?  they  ask  your 
Pardon  ;  To  embark  in  fuch  Expeditions 
might  endanger  their  Intereft,  and  come 
home  to  them  at  laft.  And  to  fpeak  Truth, 
they  are  for  having  this  Arbitrary  Privilege 
in  no  Hands  but  their  own.  For  touch  them 
in  their  Honour  orProperty,  and  you'll  find 
them  (enfible  enough.     A  (mall  Injury  to 
themfelves  feem  intolerable,  and  fires  them 
with  aZealfor  Juftice  ai'd  Refiitution.  Then 
the  Laws  are  Defective,  and  give  too  little 
Damages  :  And  therefore  tho'  they  venture 
their  Necks  for  it,  they  mud  have  a  Supple- 
mental Satisfa^ion,     Their  own  Gafe,  one 
would  think  might  (hew  them  the  unreafo- 
nablenefs  of  their  Scheme  ;  And  that  a  Li- 
berty agamfl:  Virtue  and  Law,  is  only  a  Pri- 
vilege to  be  Unhappy ;  And  a  Licence  for  a 
Man  to  murther  himielf. 

O  F 


O   F 


I  N    A 



Thilehm    and   Eutropm. 

Phil.  ^  TOur  Servant,  ThisVifit  is  very 
Y  obliging.  If  fo  good  a  Friend 
"*"  as  you  are,  can  be  more  vvel- 
com  at  one  time  than  another,  you  are  fo 
now.  I  was  juft  going  to  fend  to  you,  to  Beg 
a  little  of  your  Converfation, 

Eutrop,  Sir  1  thank  you,  you  are  always 
contriving  to  give  your  Friends  a  Pleafure, 
one  way  or  other  :  But  mcthinks  you  (cem 
fomewhat  conccrn'd.  I  hope  no  Accident 
hrs  happened. 

P/;//.  Nothing  but  what  I'm  afraid  you'H 
(mile  at;  and  yet  it  fits  pretty  hard  upon 
my  Spirits. 

Euttop.  I'm  fbrry  for  that ;  praywhors 
jheaiatter?  L  5      *  Thll" 

158         of  OLD  AGE, 

Phil.  Then  without  any  farther  Pream- 
ble, I  muft  challenge  you  upon  your  lafl: 
Promife.  You  may  remember  we  were 
talking  about  O/i^l  Age^  and  the  Inconveni- 
ences attending  it.  This  iJpeculation  has 
hung  cruelly  in  my  Head  ever  fince  :  I 
think  my  Fancy  is  grown  quite  Grey  up- 

Etitrop,  If  that  be  your  Cafe,  'tis  fbme- 
what  unlucky ;  I  have  no  Receipt  againft 
that  Diftemper.  What  v/ould  you  be 
exempted  from  the  common  Fate  ,  and 
have  Nature  alter'd,  for  your  fingle  SatiC- 
fad:ion  ? 

Thil  With  all  my  Heart  ,  If  I  knew 
which  w  ay.  Not  but  that  I  could  wifli  the 
Advantage  was  Univerfal,  as  much  as  any 
Man.  To  be  plain  ,  I  don't  think  my 
felf  over-furnifliM,  and  (liould  Ix;  glad  to 
keep  up  my  Perfon  in  Repair  as  long  as  it 
lafts.  In  earnefl",  It  troubles  me  to  conn- 
der  the  greatcfl:  part  of  Life  is  no  better 
than  a  ilow  ConfumpLion  ;  That  we  muft 
iliortly  fink  inco  a  Itate  of  Weakncfs  and 
Infignificancy  ,  and  grow  unacceptable 
b.:>th  to  others,  and  our  lelves.  When  our 
Limbs  and  our  Memory ,  and  it  may  be 
Gur  Underflanding  too  will  fail  us  •  when 
nothing  hue  a  Fever  will  warm  our 
Blood  ,*  and  all  the  lively  Perceptions  are 
forced  out  of  Pain,     Wc  begin  Lif?  with 


0/  O  LD  AGE.         159 

a  flender  Stock,and  yet  it  improves  (Irange- 
ly.  I  wonder  when  we  are  well  furniflied 
we  can't  hold  it :  What !  Turn  Bankrupts 
when  we  have  more  Effeds  to  Trade  with, 
and  more  Skill  to  manage  ?  A  Flame  well 
kindled  and  fupplied,  will  burn  for  ever. 
When  a  Man  is  Rich,  a  little  Care  keeps 
him  Co.  But  Life,  like  an  ill  gotten  Eftatc, 
confumes  infenfibly  ,  in  delpight  of  all 
imaginable  Frugality.  Infancy  is  a  (late 
of  Hope;  and  has  the  Tendernefs  of  Pa- 
rents, or  the  Compaflion  of  Strangers,  to 
fupport  it.  Youth,  like  a  Bloffbme,  gives 
as  Beauty  in  hand,  and  Fruit  in  Profped*. 
But  Age  grows  worfe  and  worfe  upon  tlie 
Progrefs,  finks  deeper  in  Sorrow  and  Neg- 
led:,  and  has  no  Relief  to  exped:  but  the 

Eutrop.  I  think  you  are  too  Tragical  up' 
on  the  Occafion  ;  Health,  and  Vigor,  and 
Scn(e,  hold  out  fometimes  to  the  lengtii 
of  a  long  Journey.  Plato  enjoyed  them 
all  at  80.  And  fo,  if  you  11  take  his  Word 
for't,  did  Cato  Major  ;  and  reckons  you  up 
a  great  many  more.  TuUy  was  more  than 
60  when  he  v/rote  his  famous  Philippkks  : 
In  which  his  Rhetorick  is  not  only  more 
Corred,  but  more  moving  and  Tempcdu 
ous,  than  in  his  younger  Orations.  The 
Poetick  Fire,which  is  fboncft  cxtind,  fome- 
times rages  beyond  that  Period,  Of  this  i 
L  4  could 

i6o         O/'  OLD  AGE. 

cpuld  give  modern  Proof,  were  it  necefla- 
ry.  To  go  on  5  Old  Father  le  Moin  writes 
now  with  all  the  Force,  and  Spirit,  and 
Plea&ntnefs  of  3  5.  And  a  Gentleman  of  our 
own  Cpuntryjhas  the  (ameHappinefs.  Now 
thofe  that  canEntertain  others,  are  never  ill 
Entertain'd  themfelve^. 

Ph'tL  One  Swallow  makes  no  Summer., 
One  bad  need  have  a  Body  and  Soul  made 
onpurpofe,  to  do  thefe  things  you  talk  of. 
I  am  fure  it  is  otherwife  with  the  Generali- 
ty :  And  fince  Age  feems  a  Common  Pe- 
nance impofed  upon  Mankind^  I  could  aL 
moft  wifh  we  had  it  fooner;  and  that  the 
fweet  Morfel  of  Life  was  left  for  the 

Eutrop,  That  might  engage  your  Appe- 
tite too  much.  What !  you  would  be  ol4 
vyhen  you  are  young,  would  you  ? 

Th'iL  No  I  it  may  be  I  would  be  young 
after  I  am  old, 

Eutrop,  Not  in  this  World  if  you  pleafe  j 
all  old  People  have  had  their  Time,  they 
were  young  once,  let  that  fulfice. 

VhiL  Were  young  once  !  That  is  in  plain 
English  they  have  loft  theAdvantage;  2 
very  comfortable  Refledlion !  Were^  (erves 
only  to  trouble  what  we  Are.  Fuimus  may 
^lake  ^  good  Motte^  but  in  Life  it  is  ftark 


0/ OLD  AGE.         i6i 

Eurrop.  If  the  whole  Budnefs  was  as  bad 
as  you  reprefent  it,  there  is  no  help  lor't, 
therefore  weihould  be  contented. 

PbiL  Under  favour,  therefore  we /hould 
not  be  contented.  What !  is  Defpair  ari 
Argument  for  Satisfadion  ? 

Eutrop.  For  Patience  it  is,  when  we 
have  other  Confiderations  to  fupport  us. 
Befides,-  are  no  Favours  valuable  but  thofe 
which  laft  a  Man's  Life  time  ?  Dofs  no- 
thing lefs  than  an  Annuity  deferve  Thanks  > 
Certainly  we  ought  to  be  of  a  more  ac- 
knowledging Temper  than  this  comes  to  ; 
efpecially  where  we  have  nor' 'ng  of  Merit 
to  plead.  Upon  th :  whole,  1  conceive  the 
Confequence  may  be  wxuk'd  another  way 
to  better  Advantage. 
Fhil.  How  fo? 

Eurrop,  Wjiy,  fince  we  can  avoid  Old 
A^e  by  nothing  but  Death;  our  buf^nefs 
is'  to  make  it  as  eafy  as  may  be.  If  you 
ask  mq  which  way  ?  My  anfwer  is,  we 
muft  Guard  againft  thofe  ImperfecSions, 
to  which  Old  Age  is  mofi  liable.  By  Im- 
perfedtions,  I  mean,  Moral  ones  ^  for  the 
other  are  not  to  be  fenced  off.  In  the  fe- 
cond  place,  let  us  confider,  that  Age  is 
not  altogether  Burthen  and  Incumbrance. 
There  are  feveral  peculiar  Privileges  and 
Dignities  annexe  to  this  part  of  Liie.  A 
fiiort  Viev7  ol'  the  PuCafon  of  theie  Advau- 

i62        0/ OLD  AGE. 

tages,  will  help  to  relieve  us  under  the  De- 
cays of  the  Body. 

Ph'iL   I  am  glad  to  hear  it ;  pray  go  on 
with  your  Method. 

Eutrop.  To  begin  then  with  the  Imper^ 
fe[iions.  Not  that  they  are  as  unavoid- 
able as  Grey-Heirs  ;  or  to  be  charged  uoon 
Age  without  Exception.  My  meaning  on- 
ly is,  that  without  Care  People  are  more 
in  danger  of  them  when  they  are  old,  than 
at  any  other  time.  The  firft  I  (hall  men- 
tion, is  a  Forwardnefs  to  be  difpleafed  up- 
on little  occafions  ;  to  take  things  by  the 
wrong  Handle  ;  and  to  put  ftvere  Con- 
ftrudlions  upon  Words  and  Actions.  This 
unhappy  Temper  may  be  afiigned  tofeveral 

\fl.  Old  Perfons,  may  be  overTufpitious 
of  being  contemrVd.  Long  Experience 
has  taught  them  that  the  Wcrld  is  gene- 
rally unbenevolent  and  narrow  fpirited  - 
that  Self-Love,  and  Jll-Nature,  are  ex- 
treamly  common  ;  and  that  the  Pleafiires 
of  too  many  are  drawn  from  the  Misfor- 
tunes of  their  Neighbours.  Thefe  Remarks 
confirmed  by  repeated  Inftances,  make  no 
kind  Impreflion.  So  that  when  a  Man  is 
confcious  of  his  own  Decay,  when  he  grows 
icfs  a  iive  and  agreeable,  when  he  can  nei- 
ther Oblige,  nor  Puniih,  with  the  ufual 
Advantage  :  When  this  happens,   he  is  apt 


0/ OLD  AGE.         163 

to  fancy  younger  People  are  more  ready  to 
divert  themfelves  with  his  Declcnfion , 
than  to  pity  it.  This  Apprehenfion  makes 
him  interpret  with  Rigour,  conclude  him- 
felf  injur  d  upon  a  remote  Appearance, 
and  grow  dil'gufted  upon  every  Ambi 

Phil,  By  the  way,  is  Mankind  capable 
of  fuch  Barbarity  as  this  Jealoufy  fuppofcs  r 
Can  they  mifapply  their  Paffions  atfo  fcan- 
dalous  a  rate  ?  Can  they  inluk  an  un- 
avoidable Infirmity,  and  trample  upon  the 
Venerable  Ruins  of  Humane  Nature  .^  Thi:> 
Infolence  is  fooliih,  as  well  as  unnatural. 
He  that  acSs  in  this  manner,  docs  but  ex- 
pole  his  own  future  Condition,  and  laugh 
at  himfelf  before-hand. 

Eutrop,  You  fay  well.  But  very  ill 
Things  are  often  done.  And  thofe  who 
have  feen  moft  of  them,  are  mofl:  Appre- 
henfivc.  On  the  other  fide,  Thofe  wha 
are  lefs  acquainted  with  the  Vanity  and 
Vices  of  the  World,  and  have  witli 
fewer  Difappointments,  are  inchn'd  to  a 
kinder  Opinion. 

PhiL  A  very  charitable  Ignorance  \ 
However,  I  think  your  Remark  not  ill 
founded  ;  for  I  have  obferved  an  unufual 
Svv^eetnefs  of  Temper  in  Children.  Na- 
ture ufually  makes  a  very  obhging  Difco- 
very  of  her  fclf  in  them.     They   throw 


i64      0/OLD    AGE, 

themfelves  with  entire  Confidence  upon 
Converfation.  They  adl  without  Artifice 
or  Difguife ;  and  believe  others  as  kind 
and  undefigning  as  themfelves :  But  when 
they  once  underftand  what  a  fort  of 
World  they  are  come  into  .•  When  they 
find  that  Eafinefs  of  belief  betrays  them, 
and  that  they  are  lofers  by  the  opennefs  of 
their  Carriage  ,•  Then  they  begin  to  be  up- 
on their  Guard,  to  grow  cautious  and  re- 
fcrv'd,  and  to  (land  off  in  Jealoufy  and  Suf- 
pition.  Like  Birds  that  are  (hot  at,  Nature 
grows  wild  by  ill  Ufage;  and  neither 
Loves,  nor  Trufts,  Co  much  as  Before. 

Eutrop.  Mod  certainly,  unleft  Care  be 
taken.  For  this  Reafon,  if  a  Man  does 
not  ufe  to  refledi  upon  his  Temper ;  if  he 
does  not  (hake  off  his  Spleen,  and  checl^ 
his  Difguds;  ifhedocsnotftrivetofweeten 
his  Blood,  and  refrefli  his  Generofity,  his 
efteem  of  Mankind  will  abate  too  faft. 
This  Humour,  unlefs  prevented,  will  Aide 
into  Indifferency  and  Difinclination  ,•  and 
make  him  have  a  kindnefs  for  nothing  but 
himJelf.  And  becaufe  odd  Difcoveries^ 
Ruffles  and  Dlfcouragements,  encreafe  up- 
on him  in  his  Journey,  the  farther  he  tra- 
vels, t!ie  lefs  he  will  like  the  Company. 
And  fmce  the  World  has  loft  his  good  Opi- 
nion, a  fiender  Prefumption  will  be  apt 
to  awiiktn  his  Jealoufy,  fiiakehim  fufpedl 


Of  OLD  AG  E.       i6j 

hard  mcafure,  and  put  the  word  Interpre- 
tation upon  Things, 

Phil.  May  not  this  Forwardneft  to  be 
difobliged,  proceed  from  the  Infirmities  of 
Age  >  The  laft  part  of  Life  is  a  perpetual 
Indifpofition ;  you  are  feldom  free  from 
the  Pain  or  the  Weaknefs  of  a  Difeafc.  The 
Fever  of  the  Fit  may  fometimes  intermit,, 
but  then  your  beft  days  are  fliort  of 
Health.  Such  uneafy  DifcipHncis  apt  to 
make  the  Spirits  turn  eager.  When  a  Man 
is  loaden  a  Feather  is  felt,  and  the  lead  rub 
will  make  him  complain. 

Eutrop,  I  believe  the  difficulty  of  fome 
Humours  may  be  thus  accounted  for.  And 
where  this  Reafbn  fails,  I  think  I  could 
aflign  another. 

Fhil,   What  is  that? 

Eidtrop.  With  Submiflion  j  I'm  afraid 
old  Perlbns  may  fometimes  over-rate  their 
own  Sufficiency.  'Tis  true,  generally 
fpeaking.  Knowledge  is  the  Confequence 
of  Ttme^  and  MHltitude  of  Days  are  fitteft 
to  teach  Wifdom.  But  this  Rule,  likeo- 
thers,  has  its  Exception.  For  all  that^ 
People  are  apt  to  fancy  their  Underfland- 
ings  move  upon  an  Afcent,  and  that  they 
mufl  grow  Wifer  of  courfe,  as  they  grow 
Olden  Thus  they  often  take  their  Im- 
provement upon  Content^  without  exami- 
jning   how  they  came  by  it.    As  lii  the 

1(56       0/  OLD  AGE. 

meer  Motion  of  the  Sun,  or  the  running 
of  an  Hour-glafs,  would  do  the  Bufmefs. 
Now  a  Miftake  in  this  Cafe  makes  them 
impatient  of  Contradiction,  and  imagine 
themfelves  always  in  the  Right-  To  ar- 
gue the  Point,  and  debate  their  Opinions 
is  to  injure  them.  Younger  Men  ought 
to  believe  hard,  and  take  Authority  tor 
the  lafl  Proof. 

To  proceed.  Refting  too  much  upon 
the  Privilege  of  their  Years,  may  be  the 
occafion  of  a  fecond  Imperfection  ;  /.  e.  In- 
compliance with  the  innocent  Demands 
and  Satisfadions  of  thoi'e  who  are  Young- 
er. Their  Opinions  are  the  Standard  of 
Truth,  and  their  Defires  the  Meafure  of 

This  Partiality  of  Thought,  this  indul- 
ging their  own  Inclinations,  makes  them 
iirm  to  Prepofleffion ,  and  difficultly  re- 
moved from  thofe  Cuftoms  which  firft  en- 
gaged them.  The  bare  Nov^elty  of  a 
Thing  is  enough  to  call:  it:  They  con- 
demn the  prudent  Alterations  of  the  pre- 
fent  Age,  and  are  too  kind  to  the  Errors  of 
the  former. 

PhiL  Under  favour  ,  I  conceive  this 
Method  fcarcely  defenfible.  *Tis  true, 
they  are  old  when  they  maintain  theft 
Opinions ,  but  were  they  not  young 
when    they   took   them,    up  ?   And  why 


0/  O  L  D  A  G  E.         1 67 

fhould  they  prefer  the  Judgment  of  their 
own  Youth,  to  that  of  a  later  Generation? 
Is  it  tuch  an  advantage  to  (land  firft  upon 
the  Roll  of  Time  ?  Or  does  Senfe  and  Un- 
derftanding  wear  out  the  farther  a  Line  is 
continued  ?  That  a  fuccecding  Age  is  born 
with  the  fame  Capacit}'  with  the  former, 
that  it  may  ufe  the  (ame  Indurtry,  cannot 
be  deny'd  :  Why  then  (hould  we  be  barr'd 
the  Privilege  of  our  Fore  Fathers  ?  Why 
may  we  not  Pronounce  upon  the  Hate  of 
Truth ,  upon  the  Decency  of  Cuitom, 
and  the  Oeconomy  of  Life,  with  the  ufual 
Liberty  >  Is  Humane  Nature  improved  to 
the  utmofi:,  or  was  Infallibility  the  Gift 
of  thoie  bi  fore  uj  ?  if  not,  what  harm 
is  it  to  chufe  tor  our  felves  >  Why  fliould 
we  be  (ervilely  ty'd  to  their  Reafbn,  Vv'ho 
ufed  the  Freedom  of  '^heir  own  ?  Thofe 
who  come  laft,  feem  to  enter  w^ith  Ad- 
vantage. They  are  Born  to  the  Wealth 
of  Antiquity^  The  Materials  tor  Judging 
are  prepard,  and  the  Foundations  oi  Know- 
ledge are  laid  to  their  Hands  :  why  then 
may  they  not  be  allowed  to  enlarge  the 
Ts/lodel,  and  Beautiftethe  Strudhire  ?  They 
View  in  a  better  Light  than  their  Prede- 
ceflbrs,  and  have  more  leiltire  to  examine, 
to  poiifli  and  refine.  Behdes.  ii  the  Point 
was  tr)  ed  by  Antiquity,  Antiquity  would 
!ofe  It,     For  the  prefent  Age  is  really  the 


i68         0/OLD  AGE, 

Oldeft,  and  has  the  largeft  Experience  to 

Eutrop,  If  you  pleafe  I'll  go  on  to  a 
thh*d  Misfortune  incident  to  Old  Age,  and 
that  is  Coveloufnefs.  This,  Iconfefi,  looks 
like  fo  great  a  Paradox,  that  nothing  but 
matter  of  Fad  could  force  me  to  believe 
it,  I  have  lefs  Time  to  ftay  in  the  World., 
and  lefs  Capacity  to  enjoy  it ;  therefore  I 
muft  love  it  better  than  ever ;  What  fort 
of  Reafoning  is  this  ?  To  what  purpofe 
ihould  a  Man  grafp  fo  hard  when  he  can 
take  the  leaft  hold  ?  Why  fhould  he  make 
himfelf  uneafy  with  fo  ill  a  Grace  ?  Who 
could  imagine  that  Appetite  fliculd  thus 
exceed  Digt^ilion,  and  that  the  Age  of 
Wifdom  fiiould  make  fo  prepofterous  a 
Judgment  ?  If  there  were  any  juft  fears 
of  Poverty,  or  the  Provifion  was  mode- 
rate, 'twas  fomething.  Fore-fight  and  Fru- 
gality are  good  things.  But  alas!  Cove- 
toufnefs  in  old  People  is  often  unfurniilied 
With  thefe  Excufts. 

Phil.  Had  you  thought  fit,  I  could  have 
liked  a  Reafon  upon  the  Caufe^  as  well  as  a 
Declamation  upon  the  Ejfect, 

Eutrop,  To  (atisfieyou,  I'll  give  you  my 
Gonjeiture;  You  know  Age  is  not  vigo- 
rous enough  for  Bufinefs  and  Fatiguing, 
'Tis  no  Time  to  work  up  an  Eftate  in,  or 
10  repair  a  Miradventure.     A  ftrain  in  an 


0/  O  L  D  A  G  E;  i6^ 

old  Man's  Fortune  like  one  in  his  Limbs,; 
is  (eldom  out-grown.  And  where  Labour 
is  impradiicable  ,  and  Recovery  defpair- 
ed  of,  Parfimony  h^s  the  better  Colour. 
Old  Perfons  are  apt  to  dread  a  Misfortune 
more  than  others.  They  have  obferved 
how  Prodigality  is  puniftied,  and  Poverty* 
negled:ed  ;  Thefe  Inftances  hang  like  Exe- 
cutions before  them,  and  often  fright  theni 
into  the  other  Extream.  They  are  fenfible 
their  Strength  decays,  and  their  Infirmi- 
ties encreafe ;  and  therefore  conclude 
their  Supplies  (hould  Increafe  too:  They 
are  bell  acquainted  with  the  LTncert^inty 
bf  Things ,  and  the  Deceicfulneft  of 
Perfons.  They  know  People  won't  do 
their  Duty  out  of  meer  good  will  j  that 
Obfervance  muft  be  purchaicd,  ind  that 
nothing  Engages  like  Interefl:  and  Expe« 
dation.  Novt^  the  natural  DifEdence; 
and  the  Anxioufnefs  of  Age,  is  apt  to 
prefs  the  Reafons  of  Frugality  too  far;  to 
be  over  apprehenfive  of  an  Accident,  sfnd 
guard  with  too  much  Concern.  Their 
Blood  grows  cool  and  difpirited;  and  unlefs 
they  relieve  themfelves  by  generous  Thinks 
hg^  they'll  be  in;  danger  of  falling  into 
Exceffive  Cares,  Unneccffary  Provifions,^ 
and  little  Management.  I  haVe  now  kid 
the  hardefl  of  the  C^fe  before  yoiii 
Thefe  are  the  worll  Dileafe^  of  Age  ;  And 

170         0/  OLD  AGE. 

yet  not  fo  formidable  neither,  but  that  Pru- 
dence and  Precaution  may  prevent  them. 

Phil.  \  hopefo  too.  However  your  In- 
ference from  the  decay  of  Conftitution, 
does  not  pleaftmej  Becaufe,  I  doubt,  there 
is  fomething  more  in  it  than  what  you 

Eutrop,  Pray  what  do  you  mean  > 

ThiL  Why,  I'm  afraid  a  Man  may  Hve 
fo  long  till  he  wants  Spirits  to  maintain  his 
Reafon,  and  to  Face  an  honourable  Dan-* 
gen  Some  People  will  undertake  toBleeJ^ 
or  Faft  a  Man  into  Cowardice.  Now  if 
this  may  be  done  ,  the  Confequence  may 
be  untoward.  For  the  difadvantages  of 
Age  (eem  no  lefs  than  either  of  theft  Expe- 
riments. This  Thought  has  fometimes 
made  me  uneafy.  For  what  can  be  more 
wretched  than  to  ftirvive  the  beft  part  of 
our  Charader,  and  clofe  up  our  Lives  in 
Difgrace  > 

Eutrop,  A  Concern  fo  generous  as  yours 
needs  not  fear  the  Event.  Refolution 
lies  more  in  the  Head  than  in  the  Veins. 
A  Brave  Mind  is  always  impregnable. 
True  Courage  is  the  Refult  of  Reafon- 
ing.  A  jui1:  Senfe  of  Honour ,  and 
Infamy ,  of  Duty  and  Religion  will 
carry  us  farther  than  all  the  Force  of  Me- 
ehanifm.  The  Strength  of  the  Mufcles, 
snd  the  Ferment  of  the  Humour^,  are  no- 


of  O  LP  AGE.       171 

thing  to  it.  Innocence  of  Life,  and  Con- 
fcioufnefs  of  Worth,  and  great  Expcdati- 
ons,  will  do  the  Bufinefs  alone.  Tlicfe  In- 
gredients make  a  richer  Cordial  thanYouth 
can  prepare.  They  warm  the  Heart  at  80, 
and  feldom  fail  in  the  Operation.  Socra^ 
tes  was  advanced  to  the  Common  Period 
of  Life  at  his  Tryal.  But  the  Chilnefs  of 
his  Blood  did  not  make  him  fhrink  from 
his  Notions.  He  afted  up  to  the  height 
of  his  Philofbphy,  and  drank  o^h\s  Hem- 
lock without  the  lead  Concern.  Elea^ 
zer^  a  Jewifli  Scribe ,  was  an  older  Man 
than  he,  and  yet  behav'd  himfelf  with  ad- 
mirable Fortitude  under  Extremity  of  Tor- 
ture. QMaccaL^  St.  Ignatius  and  Poly  carp 
were  Martyrs  after  80,  and  as  fearlefs  as 
Lions,  In  Military  Men  Inflances  of  this 
kind  are  numerous  ;  tho'  I  don't  think  Cou- 
rage altogether  fo  well  try'd  in  a  Fields  as 
at  a  Stake. 

VhiL  The  Reafon  of  your  Opinion. 

Eutrop.  Becaufe  in  a  Battel,  the  Encou- 
raging Mufick,  the  Examples  of  Refoluti- 
on,  the  Univerfal  Tumult ,  will  fcarcely 
give  a  Man  leave  or  leifure  to  be  a  Cow- 
ard. Befides,  the  Hopes  of  Efcaping  are 
no  ordinary  Support.  Of  this  we  have 
a  famous  Inftance  in  Marefchal  Biron.  No 
Perfon  living  could  be  braver  in  the  Field 
than  He.  And  when  he  was  afterwards 
M  %  Try- 

^7^        Of  ODD  AGE. 

Tryed  tor  Treafcn  ,  his  Spirit  feem'd  ra- 
ther too  big  than  otherwife.  He  ufed  the 
King  roughly,  and  out- raged  his  Judg, 
es  ,  and  appeared  fortify 'd  at  a  won- 
derful rate.  But  when  Death  came  near 
him,  and  he  faw  the  Blow  was  not  to  be 
avoided,  he  funk  into  Abjedion  ;  and  dy- 
ed much  to  the  difadvantage  of  his  Cha- 

Now  as  to  outward  Appearance ,  the 
Cafe  of  Martyrdom  is  the  fame  with  that  of 
the  Duke  of  BironSj  and  oftentimes  much 
harder.  Here  is  the  certainty  of  Deaths 
the  Terrour  of  the  Execution,  and  the  Ig- 
nominy of  the  Punifliment.  And  befides 
all  this,  leifure  and  cool  Thoughts  to  con- 
template the  Melancholy  Scene.  In  ear- 
ned, thefeare  all  trying  Circumftanccs,  and 
make  the  dilparity  of  the  Proof  very  vifi^ 

Ph'tL  I  can^t  deny  what  you  fay.  But 
tho*  a  Soldier  can't  diftinguifli  himfelf  fo 
well  as  a  Martyr,  he  may  do  enough  to 
fliew  himfef  no  Coward.  If  you  pleafe,  let 
us  have  an  Inftance  or  two  from  the  Camp^ 
to  the  Point  in  hand. 

Eutrop.  That  you  may  a  Hundred,  were' 
it  neceflary.  I  ihall  mention  a  k\sf.  To 
come  to  our  ou  n  Times.  The  Bafha  of 
Buda^  when  it  waslaft  taken,  was  upwards- 
©f  -JO*     But  this  did  not  hinder  him  from 


0/  OLD  AGE.         17:5 

any  Military  Function  :  Like  j^tna^  he 
was  Snow  a  Top,  but  all  Fire  within. 
For  after  a  noble  Defence  he  dy'd  fighting 
upon  the  Breach.  The  late  Prince  of 
Conde^  the  Duke  of  Luxemlurgh^  and  Ma- 
refchal  Schombergh^  were  old  Generals. 
For  all  that,  upon  an  occafion,  they  would 
Charge  at  the  Head  of  the  Army  with 
all  the  Heat  and  Forwajdnefs  of  the 
youngefl:  Cavalier.  In  fliort ,  Courage 
is  at  no  time  irnpracfticable.  Providence 
has  dealt  more  liberally  with  Mankind, 
than  to  make  any  Adion  neeeflary,  which 
is  Meanp 

Fhil.  I  am  glad  to  hear  it ;  You  have 
reconciled  me  to  Age  much  better  than  I 
was  before.  To  deal  freely,  Cowardife 
makes  a  Man  fo  inf.gnificant,  and  betrays 
him  to  fuch  wretched  PracSices,  that  I 
dreaded  the  Thoughts  of  it.  If  you  plcafe 
now,  let's  go  on  to  the  Privileges  of  Ho- 
nour, and  examine  how  the  claim  is  made 

Eutrop,  That  Age  has  a  peculiar  Right 
to  Regard,  is  pcift  difpute  :  Nature  teach^ 
es  it.  Religion  enjoyns  it,  and  Cuftom  has 
made  it  good.  And  in  rpy  Opinion,  the 
Reafons  of  the  Privilege  are  very  farisfa- 
d:ory.    For 

lurj}.  Old  Age  is  mofl  remarkable  for 

Knowledge  and  Wifdcm.    Yvhcn  we  firft 

M  2  conie 

174        0/ OLD  AGE. 

come  into  the  Worlds  we  are  unimproved 
in  both  parts  of  our  Nature  :  Neither  our 
Limbs,  nor  Underftandings,  are  born  at 
their  full  Length,  but  grow  up  to  their  fla- 
ture  by  gradual  Advances. — — 

FhiL  So  much  the  better  :  For  if  we 
were  Infants  in  our  Bodies,  and  Men  in 
our  Souls,  at  the  fame  time,  we  fliould  not 
like  it.  The  Weaknefs,  the  Reftraints,  the 
Entertainment,  and  the  DifcipHne  of  the 
firft  Years,  would  relifh  but  indifferently  : 
A  Spirit  of  Jge  could  hardly  bear  fuch 
Ufage.  Methiriks  I  fliould  be  loath  to 
Tranfmigrate  into  a  Child  ,  or  lie  in  a 
Cradle,  with  thofe  few  Things  I  have  in 
my  Head. 

Eutrop.  You  are  fafe  enough.  But  to 
return  :  For  the  Reafons  above  mention- 
ed ?  Tbofe  who  have  had  the  longeft  time 
%o  furnifli  and  improve  in,  muft  be  the 
wifeft  people  :  I  mean,  generally  fpeaking^ 
where  Care  and  other  Advantages  are 
equal.  Men  of  Years  have  feen  greater 
variety  of  Events ;  have  more  Opportu- 
nities of  remarking  Humours  and  Interefls. 
Who  then  can  be  fo  proper  to  draw  the 
Model  of  Pradice  ,  and  flrike  out  the 
Lines  of  Bufinefs  and  Converfation  ?  The 
Hiilcry  c[  themfelves  is  not  unferviceable. 
The  Revolutions  at  Home  will  open  the 
3cene  in  a  great  meafure.     Thus  they  may 

0/OLD  AGE.         175 

trace  their  Adions  to  the  firft  Exercifes  of 
Reafbn.  This  will  (hew  them  the  Diflin- 
dions  of  Lite,  and  the  Complexion  of  eve- 
ry Period  ;  Now  Novelty  pleafes,  and  In- 
clinations vary  with  the  Progreft  of  Age. 
And  thus  with  fbme  regard  to  the  diver«^ 
fities  of  Circumftance  ,•  with  fome  Allow- 
ance for  Guftom  and  Government,  for 
Fortune  and  Education,  for  Sex  and  Tem- 
per ,•  they  may  give  probable  gueflcs  at  the 
Workings  of  Humane  Nature  :  They  may 
reach  the  Meaning,  and  interpret  the  Be- 
haviour ,  and  Calculate  the  Paffions  of 
thofe  they  converfe  with.  Thefe  Lights 
will  almoft  force  a  Profpe6t  into  the  Heart, 
and  bring  the  Thoughts  into  View.  This 
Advantage  is  of  great  Ufe,  It  helps  us  to 
Difcover,  and  to  Pleafe ;  It  direds  us  in 
our  Application  ,  and  often  prevents  us 
from  doing,  or  receiving  an  Injury.  Far- 
ther ,•  Old  Perfons  have  the  befi:  Opportu- 
nities for  reviewing  their  Opinions,  and 
bringing  their  Thoughts  to  a  fecond  Teft. 
For  trying  what  they  took  upon  Tru[l:,and 
corrediing  the  Errours  of  Education.  And 
thus  their  Judgment  becomes  more  exad  : 
They  may  know  more  Things,  and  know 
them  better,  and  more  ufefuUy  than  others. 
This  will  appear  farther  by  confiderlng 

AfeconJ  Advantage  of  OJd  Age  ;    and 

t|]at  is,    freedom    irom  violent  paiTions, 

M  4       ,  This 

\76        0/  OLD   AGE. 

This    Advantage    is  partly  the  effed:  of 
Ponvidion  and  Experience.      The  dangei: 
is  confider'd  better  ,    and  the  Indecency 
more  difcover'd  than  formerly.     The  Con- 
ftitution  likewift  contributes  its  Share.  The 
Current  of  the  Blood  moves  more  gently, 
and  the  Heat  of  the  Spirits  abate.     This 
Change  makes  the  Mind  more  abfolute,  and 
the  Counfils  cf  Reafon  better  regarded. 
TheObjedt  and  the  Faculty  are  eafier  parted. 
And  thus  the  excefles  of  Anger  and  Defire 
grow  lefs  intemperate.     Whereas  younger 
People,  as  they  are  apt  to  contrive  amiis, 
ib  they  often  fail  in  the  Execution.  Their, 
Profped  is  too  fliort  for  the  one,  and  their 
Paflions  too  ftrong  for  the  other.     Either 
they  are  impatient  to  wait,  or  purfue  too 
far,  or  divert  too  foon  :  And  thus  the  De- 
ftgn  often  mifcarries.     But  Age  views  the 
Undertaking  on  all  fides,  and  makes  fewer 
Omiflions   in   the  Scheme  o-  It  computes 
more  exadly  upon  Hopes  and  Fears,  and 
weighs  Difficulty  and  Succefs  with  better 
Judgment.     Now  Men  have  Temper  to 
ftay  for  the  Ripenefs  of  Things ;  they  don't- 
over^drive  their   Bufineft,   nor  fly  off  to 
unfeafonable    Pleafure.      They     can     at- 
tend with  Patience,  and  hold  on  withCon- 
ftancy.     In  fliort,    this    is    the   time  iii 
which     the    Mind     is    moft    Difcei-ning 
^nd  Difpaffionate  ,•     furnifhed    v^i^Ii    the" 

-^  ^  ^  -■'  tea 

0/OLD  AGE.         177 

beft  Materials   for  Wifdom,  and  heft  dif- 
pofcd  to  u(e  them.     For   thefe    Reafons 
Men  of  Years  have  generally  been  thought 
the  moft  proper  to  prefidc  in  Councils, 
and  to  have  the  Dirediion  of  Affairs.     Aru 
ftotle,  as  I  remember,  obferves,  that  odds 
in  Undcrflanding  (eems  to  give  a  natural 
Right  to  Command.     Corporal  Force  is  a 
Minifterial  Talent,  and  ought  to  be  under 
Government.     If    this   Privilege    needed 
Prefcription ;  we  have  all  the  Advantage 
of  Time  and  Place.     Age  has  fatt  at  the 
Helm  fo  long ,  that  the  Name  of  Office 
and   Authority  is  derived  from  thence  ; 
Wituefs   the  Jewijh  Elders^    the  Spartan 
Tep^(n<z  ^  the  Roman  Senate^  and  the.S'^x^?^ 
Aldermen,     ilot^  but  that  younger  People 
were  iometimes  joined  in  the  Commiffion. 
"Irhis  Favour  was  fometlmes  earlier  bellow- 
ed, either  as  a  Reward  to  extraordinary 
Merit,  or  indulged  to  Quality,  forDifcipline 
and  Improvement.     Matters  of  Moment 
a'pccially  fliould  be  managed  with  Conduct 
and  Temper  y   brought    under    the    beft 
Regulation;     and    put    into    the   wiftil: 
Hands.     'Tis  true,  Order  and  Right  muft 
not  be  diflurb'd,-  but  where  there  is  Liberty 
to  chnfe.  Age  has  the  clearefl:  Pretences, 
and  Hands  laired  for  the  Honour.     There 
is  a  great  Deference  due  to  the  Judgment 
pf  Yea^^  3     their    bare.  Affirmatioa    a^icl 
'^■-        '  '  An- 

1^8        Of  OLD  AGE. 

Authority  fliould  have  its  weight ;  efpeci-? 
ally  when  they  Pronounce  upon  their  own 
Experience  and  Employment.  Here  the  In- 
compliance of  our  Realbn  ought  to  befu- 
fpeded,  and  nothing  but  Evidence  ihould 
make  us  diflent. 

3<^/y.  Old  Perfons  deferve  a  more  than 
ordinary  Regard,  becaufe  their  Performan- 
ces are  fuppofed  to  have  been  more  than 
ordinary  :  When  nothing  to  the  contrary 
appears,  Juftice  as  well  as  Charity  will  re- 
port kindly ,  and  conclude  in  favour  of 
another.  In  fuch  Cafes  we  ihould  prefume 
People  have  underftood  their  Opportuni- 
ties, and  managed  their  Talent,  and  their 
Time  to  advantage.  Upon  this  equitable 
Suppofitioa'twill  follow,  That  thofewho 
have  lived  longed,  have  done  mod  Good. 
And  is  it  not  reafonable  that  Returns  and 
Benefits  lliould  keep  a  Proportion ;  and  that 
thofe  who  have  obliged  moft,  ihould  re^ 
ceive  the  faired  Acknowledgment?  Old 
Perfons  have  been  upon  Duty  a  great 
while,  and  ferved  the  Pnhlick  upon  many 
Occafions.  They  are  the  Veterans  of  the 
State ,  and  fliould  be  particularly  confi- 
der'd.  The  Reafbns  of  Order  and  Difci- 
pline,  and  Merit,  require  no  left.  And 
fince  Power  mud  be  kept  in  a  few  Hands : 
Since  Property  won't  reach  a  general  Didri- 
butian  ;  fmce  They  can  t  b:  all  gratified 


Of  OLD  AGE.         179 

with  O^ces  and  EJiates,  let  them  be  paid 
with  Honour. 

Methinks  their  very  Infirmities  look  not 
unhandfbmly.     They  carry  fomething  o£ 
Dignity  in  them,  when  well   underftood. 
They  are  not  to  be  wholly  attributed  to 
the  Force  of  Time  :  But  partly  to  their  ge- 
nerous Labours,  to  that  conftant  Fatigue 
of  Bufinefs,  to  that  Expence  of  Thought 
and  Spirit  ,    for  the  Publick  Advantage. 
Let   not  the  Alterations  in  their  Perfon 
be  meerly  thrown  upon  Age,  and  refblved 
into  Decay.     Let's  rather  confider  them  as 
honourable  Scars,  Marks  of  Hardfliip  and 
repeated  Adtion,  in  the  Service  of  their 
Country.     Under  this  Notion  they'll  (hine 
upon  the  Underftanding ,  and  move  more 
for  Refpedl    than    Pity.     I    might  now 
aflign  a  Reafon  of  a  Lower  kind  to  the 
fame  purpofe.     And  that  is,  meer  Decency 
and   Breeding,  and  good  Nature,  (hould 
make  us  refpedful  to  Age.     An  old  Man 
muft  fliortly  take  his  final  Leave,  and  Im- 
bark  for  a  Foreign  Countrey  ;  And  there- 
fore Ihould  be  treated  with  the  Ceremony 
of   a  Departing    Friend.     We   fiiould  do 
(bmething  to  fhew  that  we  are  loath  to 
lofe  him,  and  wifli  him  happy  in  his  Remo- 
val.    Befidcs,  fomething  of  Regard  is  due 
to  his  Condition  :  We  ihould  divert  the 
Senfe  of  his  Declcnfion,  fjpport  his  Spi- 

i8o         0/OLD  AGE. 

rits  by  Obfervance,  and  keep  him  eafy  by 
obliging  Behaviour. 

Vinl.  I  confefs,  I  think  you  have  done 
fbme  Juftice  to  Age  :  You  have  proved  its 
Privileges,  and  fetled  the  Preference,  up- 
on Grounds  not  unfatisfadory.  But  fup- 
pofing  the  young  People  fliould  not  do  us 
Right,  can't  we  reUeve  our  felves  without 
(landing  to  their  Courtefy  ? 

Eutrop,  Yes  ;  There  are  two  Things  will 
dous  aKindnefs.     Firft,  we  may  confider; 
that  theDecienfions  of  Age  are  commonly 
very  gradual.     Like  the  Shadow  of  a  Dial, 
the  Motion  is  too  flow  for  the  Eye  to  take 
notice  of.     Could  the  Decays  in  us  be 
mark'd    through  all  their  Progrefs  ,   Life 
would  be  more  uneafy.     But  a  Man  looks 
at  Night,  as  he  did  in  the  Morning.     He 
does  not  fee  that  when  he  is  part  his  Prime,- 
his  Vigour  is  perpetually  wearing  ofF,  that 
the  Blood  grows  left  florid,  and  the  Spirits 
abate  :  Thar  no  day  comes  but  impairs  the 
Strength ,    and  cramps  the  Motion ,  and 
tarnilhcs  the  Colour,  and  makes  us  worfe 
for  Service,  and  Satisfadion  than  we  were 
before.     But  our  Senfes  are  not  fine  enough 
to  perceive  the  Lcffcning,   and   fo  all  goes 
tolerably  well.     If  we  were  thrown  out  of 
ourYouth,  as  we  are  fometimes  out  of  our 
Fortune ,  all   at  once ;   It  would  (enfibly 
touch  us.     Tp  go  to  Bed  at  Thirty,  and 

0/  O  L  D  A  G  E.  1 8 ! 

rife  with  all  the  Marks  of  Eighty,  would 
try  one's  Patience  pretty  feverely.  But  we 
walk  down  the  Hill  Co  very  gently,  that 
the  Change  of  Situation  is  fearcely  per- 
ceiv'd,  till  wr  are  near  the  Bottom.  This 
Advantage  lies  ready  to  our  Plands,  and 
wants  little  Improvement.  But  the  other 
which  remains,  and  is  the  moil:  confide- 
rable,  depends  upon  Condufl. 

Phdl.  Pray  let's  hear  it. 

Eutrop,  Why,  if  we  would  enter  upon 
Age  with  Advantage,  wt  muft  take  care 
to  be  regular  and  fignificant  in  ourYoutk 
This  is  the  way  to  make  both  the  Mind 
and  the  Body  more  eafy.     I  (ay  the  Bodyj 
for    Intemperance    antedates    Infirmities, 
and  doubles  them.     It  ^revenges  its  own 
Excefles,  and  plunges  us  (ocner  and  deeper 
in  the  Mire,    than  orherwife   we  fliould 
fall.     He  that  would  have  his  Health  hold 
out,  mult  not  Live  too  fall.     A  Man  fliould 
Husband  his  Conftitution,  and  not  throw 
it  away  til  he  has  done  Living,  if  he  can 
help  it.     Not  to  provide  thus  tar  is  to  be- 
tray our  Senies,  and  prove  falfe  to  the  In- 
tereft  of  Eafe   and   Pleafure.     And  as  to 
the  Mind,  a  well  managed  Life  will  be  of 
great    Service.     Such    a  Perfon  will  be 
more  difengag'd  from  the  Entertainments 
of  Senfe,  and  not  mils  his  Youth  (b  much 
^s  anotlier.     He  won't  be  troubled  with 


I  82         0/ OLD  AGE. 

imprad:icable  Wifhes,  biit  Strength  and  De" 
fire  will  fall  off  together.     The  Powers  of 
Reafon  will  improve  by  Exercife ;  and  he 
that  has    govern'd    a  ftronger  Appetite, 
will  eafily  govern  a  weaker.     In  (hort,  if 
we  would   be  well  provided  we  mufl  be- 
gin   betimes.     Habits     of  Virtue ,    and 
handfom  Performances,  are  the  beft  Pre- 
paratives.    Let's  lay   in  a  ftock  of  good 
Actions    beforehand.     Theft    will  fecure 
our  Credit  without^  and  our  Peace  withiric 
Are  the  {paces  of  Life  not  ill  fill'd  up  > 
Is  the  World  the  better  for  us  ?  Have  we 
any  ways  anfwer'd  the  Bounties  of  Pro- 
vidence, and  the  Dignity  of  our  Nature  ? 
Thefe  Queftions  well  anfwer'd ,    will  be 
a  ftrong  Support  to  Age  ;  they'll  keep  off 
a  great  part  of  the  weight  of  it ;  and  make 
a  Man's  Years  fit  eafy  upon  him.     The 
Mind  has  a  mighty  Influence  upon  the 
Body;  and  operates  either  way,  accord- 
ing  to  the  quality  of  Reflexion.     The  dif- 
orders  of  Pallion  or  Guilt,  enflame  z  Di- 
flemper,  envenom  a  Wound,  and  boil  up 
the  Blood  to  a  Fever.     They  often  baffle 
the  Virtue  of  Drugs,  and  the  Prefcriptions 
of  Art,     On  the  other  hand  ;  When  the 
Review  pleafes,  when  we  can  look  back- 
ward and  forward  with  Delight  ,•    to  be 
thus  fatisfied  and  compofed,    is  almofl  a 
Cure  of  it  fclf.     'Tis  true,  a  good  Con- 


0/  OLD  AGE.         183 

fcience  won  t  make  a  Man  immortal. 
But  yet  the  quiet  of  his  Mind  often  keeps 
him  from  wearing  out  fo  faft.  It  fmooths 
his  Paflage  to  the  other  World,  and  makes 
him  Aide  into  the  Grave  by  a  more  gentle 
and  inlenfible  Motion.  And  when  the 
Body  is  (haken  with  Difeafes,  when  it  bends 
under  Time  or  Accident,  and  appears  juft 
finking  into  Ruine  ,•  'tis  fometimes  flrange- 
ly  fupported  from  within.  The  Man  is 
prop'd  up  by  the  Strength  of  Thought;  and 
Lives  upon  the  Chearfulnefs  and  Vigour  of 
his  Spirit. 

Even  Vanity,  when  flrongly  imprefs'd, 
and  luckily  directed,  will  go  a  great  way. 
Thus  Epicunis  in  fully  tells  us,  that  the 
j5leafure  of  his  Writings^  and  the  hopes  of 
his  Memory^  abated  the  (harpnefs  of  his 
Pains,  and  made  the  Gout,  and  the  Stone, 
almoil  deep  upon  him. 

Fhil.  Eficurm  had  a  firong  Fancy  : 
Though  I  muft  own  that  pleafant  Retro- 
fpeftions,  and  eafy  Thoughts,  and  com- 
fortable Prefages,  are  admirable  Opiates  : 
They  help  to  aflTwagc  the  Anguifli,  anddif- 
arm  the  Diftemper ;  and  almoft  make  a 
Man  defpife  his  Mifery.  However  Tm 
ftill  a  little  concern'd  th?c  I  muft  go  \^{s 
and  lefs  every  day,  and  do  the  {ame  things 
over  again  with  abatements  of  Satisfadlion 
To  live  only  to  Nurfe  up  Decays,  to  feej 


184        O/OLD  AGE. 

Pain,  and  wait  upon  Difeafes,  is  fomewhat 
troublefome  and  infignificant.^ 

Eutrop,  Pardon  me  there  !  Not  Infigni- 
ficant,  if  it  fhould  happen  lb. 

To  bear  Sicknels  with  Decency,  is  a 
noble  Inftance  of  Fortitude.  He  that 
Gharcres  an  Enemy  does  not  fliew  himfelf 
more  brave,  than  he  that  grapples  hand- 
fomly  with  a  Difeafe;  To  do  this  without 
abjedt  Complaints  ,•  without  Rage,  and 
Expoftulation,  is  a  glorious  Com.bat.  Td 
be  proof  againft  Pain,  is  the  cleareft  Mark 
of  Greatnels  :  It  fets  a  Man  above  the 
dread  of  Accidents.  'Tis  a  State  of  Li- 
berty and  Credit.  He  that's  thus  fenced, 
needs  not  fear  nor  flatter  any  thing.  He 
that  diftinguifties  hhnfelf  upon  theft  Oc- 
cafions,  and  keeps  up  the  Superiority  of 
his  Mind,  is  a  Conqueror,  though  he  dies 
for't ;  and  rides  in  Triumph  into  the  other 
World.  And  when  we  are  engaged  in 
tliele  honourable  Exercifes,  and  proving' 
the  moft  formidable  Evils  to  be  tolera- 
ble ;  are  we  Infignificant  all  this  wdiileo> 
Thus  to  teach  Refignation  and  Great- 
nels, and  appear  in  the  heights  of  Paf- 
five  Glory,  is,  I  hope,  to  live  to  fome 
purpofe.  Other  Performances,  I  grant,  are 
more  agreeable ;  but  poffibly  none  more 
iifefuL  Befides  every  one  has  not  this  Try- 
dv    Sometimes^    the    Senles    are   worn' 

0/  OLD  AGE.         185 

up,  and  the  Materials  for  Tain  are  (pent, 
and  the  Body  is  grown  uncapable  of  being 
pleafed,  or  troubled  in  any  great  degree* 
To  relieve  you  a  little  farther  ,•  give  me 
leave  to  add,  That  the  more  we  fink  into 
the  Infirmities  of  Age,  the  nearer  we  are  to 
Immortal  Youth.  All  People  are  Young  in 
the  other  World.  That  State  is  an  Eter- 
nal Spring ,  ever  frefli  and  flourifhing. 
Now  to  pais  from  Midnight  into  Noon 
on  the  fudden  ;  To  be  Decrepit  one  Mi- 
nute, and  all  Spirit  and  Adivity  the  next, 
rauft  be  an  entertaining  Change.  Call 
you  this  Dying?  Iheabufe  of  Language  ! 
To  fly  thus  (wiftly  from  one  Extream  to 
another  ,•  To  have  Life  flow  in  like  a  Tor- 
rent, at  the  lowefl:  Ebb,  and  fill  all  the 
Chanels  at  once ;  This  mud  be  a  Service 
to  the  Cafe  in  hand.  For  this  Reafbn  old 
People  will  go  ofiT  with  Advantage.  At 
their  firit  Arrival  they  feem  likely  to  be 
more  fenfible  of  the  Difterencc.  They  feem 
better  prepared  to  relilh  Liberty,  and  Vi- 
gour, and  Indolence,  than  others.  The 
Hardfliip  of  their  former  Condition  rewards 
its  ovvn  Trouble.  It  burniflies  their  Hap- 
pinefs,  and  awakens  the  Mind  to  take 
laold  of  it.  Health  after  Sicknefs,  and  Plen- 
ty upon  Poverty,  gives  double  Pleafure. 

In  (hort,  Phikhiis^  to  be  afraid  of  grow- 
ing Old,  is  to  be  airaid  of  growing  Wife, 

N  and 

i86        0/ OLD  AGE. 

and  being  Immortal.  As  if  we  could  be 
happy  too  (oon  !  Pray  what  is  there  in  this 
World  to  make  us  fond  of?  None  yet  were 
ever  fully  pleafed  with  it.  If  the  Publick 
Interefl:  was  generally  purfued,  and  Men 
did  their  bed  to  make  each  other  happy,  it 
would  not  do.  Our  Ideas  of  Satisiad:ion 
can  meet  with  nothing  to  anfwer  them. 
And  as  long  as  Fancy  out-fliines  Nature, 
and  Thoughts  are  too  big  for  Things,  we 
fliall  always  be  craving.  I  could  draw  up 
a  Scheme  of  Happinefs,  if  I  could  have  it  as 
eafily,  that  fliould  Mortifie  the  moll:  fortu- 
nate Ambition  ,•  kill  Alexander  with  Envy, 
and  make  C^efar  pine  away  at  his  own  Lit- 
tlenefs.  And  do  we  Imagine  God  would 
make  an  Appetite  without  an  Objed:  ? 
Mufl  we  be  always  wifliing  for  Impoliibili- 
ties,  and  languiih  after  an  everlafting  No- 
thing? No,  Ph'ilehvj^  the  Being  of  Happi* 
nefs  IS  more  than  a  Dream.  There  are  En- 
tertainments which  will  carry  uptoDefire, 
and  fill  up  all  the  Vacancies  ot  the  Mind, 
But  thefe  Things  are  not  to  be  met  w^ith 
here.  One  would  think  we  (hould  be  glad 
to  go  upon  a  farther  Difcoveiy,-  and  that 
Guriofity  ihould  almoft  carry  us  into  the 
other  World.  Happinefs  is  fure  well 
worth  our  Enquiry.  Who  would  not  try 
the  moll  unknown  Paths  in  fearch  of  fo  no- 
ble an  Objedt  ?  Who  would  not  look  into  ali 

Of  OLD  AGE.         187 

the  Regions  of  Nature ,-  travel  over  the 
Sky,  and  make  the  Tour  of  the  Univcrfe 
And  can  we  then  be  forry  to  fee  our  Voyage 
fixt,  and  ftart  back  when  we  are  juft  Em- 
barking ?  This  is  to  be  over  fond  of  our  Na- 
tive Country,  and  to  hang  about  Life  a  ht- 
tle  too  meanly, 

PhiL  I  thank  you.  I  perceive  my  Ap- 
prehenficns  were  unreafbnable.  Age  has 
ho  fuch  formidable  AfpedJ,  as  I  fuppoftd. 
I  am  now  convinced,  that  if  the  other  parts 
of  Life  have  been  well  managed,  this  will 
prove  tolerable  enough. 

>  ' 

N  2  .  (5  F 

O  F 


THat  Pleajure,  preclfcly  confidcr'd,  is 
an  Advantage,  muft  be  granted  by 
the  moft  fevere  Philofophy  :  'Tisthe  prin- 
cipal  Intendment  of  Nature,  and  the  fole 
Objed:  of  IncUnation.  Every  thing  Good> 
is  fo  far  defirable.  And  why  is  it  (o  ?  Be- 
caufe  it  affords  a  Satisfadlion  to  him  that 
has  it.  The  only  reafon  why  Behg,  is 
better  than  Not  Being ;  is  becaufe  oi  the 
agreeable  Perceptions  we  have  in  the  firfl:, 
which  are  impoffible  in  the  latter.  With- 
out Pleafure  either  in  Hancl^  or  in  Remi^iH^ 
der  ^  Life  is  no  Bleding,  nor  Exiftence 
worth  the  owning.  Were  I  fure  never  to 
be  pleafed,  my  next  Bufmefs  fhould  be  to 
univijh  my  {h\i,  and  pray  for  Annihilation. 
For  if  I  have  nothing  which  delights  me 
in  my  5m^,  the  very  Senfe  of  it  mud  be 
unacceptable  ;  and  then  I  had  better  be 
without  it.  He  that  can  prove  himfelf 
Something ,  by  no  other  Argument  than 
Paifiy  will  be  glad  to  be  rid  of  the  Coriclu-.- 
fion.  For  tofuppofe  that  Mifcryis  prefer- 
able to  Not  Beings  is,  I  believe,  the  wildi^^ 

N  3  ell 

ipo       0/ PLEASURE. 

pft  Thought  that  ever  entred  the  Imagi- 
nation. Avery  fliort  Fit  of  Torture,  and 
Defpair,  would  convince  the  mofl  Obfli- 
nate:  Now  though  there  are  Degrees  of 
Happinefs  or  Miiery,  there  is  no  Mideile 
between  them.  A  Man  muft  feel  one  or 
the  other.  That  which  fome  Philofophers 
call  InMence^  is  properly  a  State  of  Pkiz- 
fure.  For  though  the  Satisfadion  may  be 
fomcvvhat  Drowfy,  yet,  like  the  firfl  Ap- 
proaches of  Sleep,  it  ftrikes  fmooth  and 
gently  upon  the  Senfe.  To  return  ,•  'tis 
fleafitre ,  v^'hich  is  the  laft  and  fartheft 
Meaning  of  every  reafonable  Adion.  'Ti§ 
upon  this  Score  that  the  Husband-man  La- 
bours, axnd  the  Soldier  Fights,  and  all  the 
Hazards  and  Difficulties  of  Life  are  under- 
gone. Wealth  and  Honour,  and  Power^ 
as  Topping  as  they  feem,  are  but  Minifte- 
rial  to  Satisfatllon.  They  are  fuppofed  ta 
furnifli  a  Man's  Perfbn,  and  fix  him  in  a 
Place  of  Advantage.  They  feed  his  Ap- 
petites, and  execute  his  Will,  and  make 
him  valuable  in  his  own  Opinion,  arid  in 
that  of  his  Neighbours.  Thefe  Services 
th"y  promife  at  ieaft,  which  makes  theni 
fp  earneflly  defired  .•  "Tis  Pleafure^  which 
reconciles  us  to  Tain,  Who  would  fub^ 
mit  to  the  Nauieouihefs  of  Me^kine^  or. 
tiie  Torture  of  the  Surgeo?j ;  were  it  not  for 
the  Satisfaftipn  of  receiving  our  Limbs, 

•    '  ■     ^^    and' 

0/ PLEASURE.       191 

and  our  Health  ?  Pleafure  is  purfued  where 
it  feems  mod  renounced,  and  aimed  at  even 
in  Self-denial.  All  voluntary  Poverty, 
all  the  Difclpline  of  Penance,  and  the 
Mortifications  of  Religion,  are  undertaken 
upon  this  View.  A  good  Man  is  content-, 
ed  with  hard  Ufage  at  prefent,  that  ht 
may  take  his  Pleafure  in  the  other  World. 
In  ihort.  To  difpute  the  Goodnefs  of  Plea^ 
fure^  is  to  deny  Experiment,  and  contra- 
did:  Settfation^  which  is  the  higheft  Evi^ 

But  there  needs  no  more  to  be  faid  in  re- 
commendation of  Pleafure.     The  greatefl 
danger  is,  leafl  we  fhould  value  it  too  much. 
The  Seafon^  the  Ohjed^  and  the  Proportion^ 
are  all  Circumftances  of  Importance :  A 
failure  in  any  of  them  fpoils  the  Entertain- 
ment.    He  that  buys  his  Satisfadtion  at  the:, 
Expcnce  of  Duty  and  Difcretion,  is  fure  tor 
over-purchafe.     When  Virtue  is  facrificed 
to  Appetite,  Repentance  mud  follow,  and 
that  is  an  uneafy  Paflion.     All  unwarrant- 
able Delights  have  an  ill  Farewell  and  de- 
ftroy  thofe  that  are  greater.     The  main 
Reafon  why  we  have  Reftraints  clap'd  up« 
on  us,  is  becaufe  an  unbounded   Liberty 
v/ould  undo  us.     If  we  examine  Religion, 
we  {hall  find   few  Anions  forbidden,  bur 
iuch  as  are  naturally  prejudicial  to  Health, 
to    Reafon,    or    Society.     The  Heathen 
N  4  Pli'?. 

Philofophcrs,  excepting  fome  few  of  the 
Cyrenaicks  ^  and  Epicureans^  were  all 
agreed  in  the  folly  of  forbidden  Pleafure, 
They  thought  the  very  Queflion  fcanda- 
lous ;  and  that  it  was  in  effed:  to  difpute, 
whether  'twere  better  to  be  a  Man^  cr  a 

The  genera!  Divifion  oi  Pleafure,  is  into 
that  of  the  Mind,  and  the  other  of  the  Bo- 
dy. The  former  is  the  more  valuable  up- 
on feveral  Accounts.  I  fliall  mention  fbme 
of  them. 

iji.  The  Caufes  of  thefe  Satisfadions 
are  more  reputable  than  the  other.  Corpo- 
real Pleafurcs  are  comparatively  Ignoble. 
They  feem  founded  in  Want  and  Imper, 
feclion.  There  mud  be  fomething  of  Un- 
eafmefs  to  introduce  them,  and  make  them 
welcome.  When  the  Pain  of  Hunger  is 
0nceover,  Eating  is  but  a  heavy  Entertain- 
nnent.  The  Senfes  are  fome  of  them  Co 
mean, that  they  (carce  relifh  anything,  but 
what  they  Beg  for.  But  Rational  Delights 
have  a  better  Original.  They  fpring  from 
noble  Speculations,  or  generous  Adtions,- 
from  Enlargements  of  Knowledge,  or  In- 
ftances  of  Virtue ;  from  fomething  which 
argues  Worth,  and  Greatnefs  ,  and  Im- 
prove me  nt. 

xJly.  The  Satisfadions  of  the  Mind  are 
pore  ^t  coii?niand«     A  Man  may  think  of 


O/' PLEASURE.      193 

a  handfom    Performance,    or  a  Notion^ 
which  pleafes  him  at  his  leifure.  This  Enter, 
tainment  is  ready  with  little  Warning  or 
Expence.     A    fliort    Recolle(3:icn    brings 
it  upon  the  Stage,  brightens  the  Idea,  and 
makes  it  ffiine  as  much  as  when  'twas  firft 
ftamp'd  upon   the   Memory,     Thoughts, 
take  up  no  Room.     When  they  are  right, 
they  afford  a  portable  Pleafure.     One  may 
Travel  with  it  without  any  trouble,  or  In- 
cumbrance.    The  Cafe  with  the  Body  is 
much  otherwife.     Here  the  Satisfaction  is 
more  confin'd  to   Circumftance  of  Place, 
and  moves  in  a  narrower  Compafs.     We 
cannot  have  a  plcafant  Tajle  or  Smelly  un- 
lets the  OhjeB  and  the  Senfe^  are  near  toge- 
ther.    A  little  Diftance  makes  the  Delight 
withdraw,    and  vaniih  like  a  Phantofin. 
There  is  no  Perfuming  of  the  Memory,  or 
Regaling  the  Palate  with  the  Fancy.     'Ti% 
true,  we  have  fbme  faint  confufed  Notices 
of  thefe  abfent  Delights,  but  then  'tis  Ima- 
gination, and  not  Senfe,  which  giveth  it. 
1  grant  the  Eye  and  Ear  command  farther, 
but  ftill  thefc  have  their  Limits.     And  be- 
fides,  they  can  only  reach  an  Objed  Pre^ 
fent^    but   not   make  it  fo.     Whereas  the 
Mind,  by  a  fort  of  natural  Magick,  raifes 
the  Gholt  of  a  departed  Pleafure,  and  makes 
jt  appear  without  any  dependance  upon 
Sp^ce^  or  Time,     Now  the  almofl  Omni- 


194      Of  PLEASURE. 

'     '        -n -     - 

prefence  of  an  Advantage ,  is  a  Circurn- 
(lance  of  Value  ,•  it  gives  opportunity  for 
Ufeand  Repetition,  and  makes  it  fb  much 
the  more  one's  own. 

3^/y.  Intelledual  Delights  are  of  a  nobler 
kind  than  the  other.  They  belong  to  Be- 
ings  of  the  higheft  Order.  They  arc  the 
Inclination  of  Heaven,  and  the  Entertain- 
ments of  the  Deity.  Now  God  knows  the 
choiceft  Ingredients  of  Happinefs  j  He  can 
command  them  without  difficulty  ,  and 
compound  them  to  Advantage.  Omnipo- 
tence and  VVifdom,  will  certainly  fuinidi 
out  the  Richeft  Materials  for  its  own  Con- 
tentment. 'Tis  natural  (or  every  Being  to 
grafp  at  PerfedJion,and  to  give  it  felf  all  the 
Satisfadions  within  Thought  and  Power, 
Since  therefore  Contemplation  is  the  De- 
light of  th^e  Deity^  we  may  be  afTured  the 
Flower  and  Exaltation  of  Blifs,  lies  in  the 
Operation  of  the  Mind. 

To  go  no  higher  than  the  Standard  of 
Humanity.  Methinks  the  Satisfactions  of 
the  Mind  are  of  a  brighter  Complexion, 
and  appear  with  a  diftinguifliing  Greatnefs, 
There  is  nothing  of  Hurry  and  Miftinefs  in 
them.  The  Verceptions  are.  all  clear,  and 
(lay  for  Pcrufal  and  Admiration.  The 
Scene  is  drels'd  up  like  aTriumph,  the  Fan- 
cy, is  Illuminated,  and  the  Shoiv  marches  on 
v/ith  Dignity  and  Scare,  If  the  Senks  have 


0/ PLEASURE.       195 

any  Advantage,  it  lies  in  the  Strength  o^ 
the  Im predion.  But  this  Point  may  be 
fairly  difputed.  Whcii  the  Mind  is  well 
awaken'd,  and  grown  up  to  the  Pleafiires 
of  Reafon,  they  are  flrangely  affedtiog.  The 
J^uxury  of  Thought^  feems  no  lefs  than  that 
of  the  Valate :  The  Difcovery  of  a  great  h^ 
ventzon^  may  be  as  moving  as  Epicurifm. 
The  Entertainments  of  P/^/<?  were  as  high- 
feafon'd,  as  thofe  of  Apichis.  And  Archi- 
medes^ by  his  Behaviour,  (eems  to  have 
palled  his  Time  as  pleafantly,  as  Sardana- 
paltis.  The  Charms  of  Authority,  madeC^- 
to  aver,  that  Old  Age  was  none  of  the  moft 
undiverting  Periods  of  Life.  And  in  all 
likelihood  the  Victory  at  Vharfalia^  tranf- 
ported  Ccefar  beyond  all  the  Delights  of  the 
Roman  Comt. 

The  Stn&s  feem  not  to  be  built  llrong 
enough  for  any  great  Force  of  Vleafurc.  A 
fudden  Excefs  of  Joy  has  fometimes  prov'd 
Mortal,  'Tis  as  dangerous  as  Gun-powder, 
charge  too  high,  and  you  fplit  theBa  rre]. 
It  flames  too  hard  upon  the  tender  Organ, 
and  ftupifies  more  than  pleafes.  To  look 
upon  the  Sun  flrikes  us  bhnd.  Thus  a  glo- 
rious Appearance  from  the  other  World, 
has  often  over-let  the  bed  Men.  Nature 
fiink  under  the  Correfpondence,  and  was 
too  weak  to  bear  rheLuflre  of  theObJecS:. 


ip^      of  PLEASURE. 

The  Body  was  not  made  to  be  Mafler  in 
this  Affair.  This  may  appear  from  Self- 
denial,  which  has  a  Mixture  of  fomething 
agreeable.  'Tjs  a  Pleafure  to  refufe  one. 
To  arrefl:  an  importunate  Appetite,  to  /i- 
lence  the  Clamour  of  a  Paffion  ,•  and  repel 
an  Aflault  upon  our  Virtue,  is  a  noble  In- 
flance  of  Force,  a  handfbm  proof  of  Tem- 
per and  Difcretion.  A  brave  Mind  muft  be 
entertained  by  furveying  its  ConqueftS)  and 
being  confcious  of  its  Sovereignly.  And 
thus  by  frequent  ReAllance  ,  and  generous 
Thinking,  the  Forbearance  grows  an  Equi- 
valent to  Fruition.  And  that  which  at  hrfl 
was  almoft  too  big  for  Oppofition,  is  at 
Jafi:  too  little  forNotice.  Thefe  Satisfadtions 
of  Reftraint,are  afairProof  of  theD/y?i;^5/^« 
of  Soul  and  Bor!y.  And  that  we  are  made 
up  of  fbiTicthing  greater  than  Matter  and 
Motion.  For  that  Atomes  fliould  difcipline 
riiemfelves  at  this  rate,  check  their  own 
agreeable  Progrefs,  and  elap  one  another 
under  Hatches  ;  is  very  unconceiveable. 
Atomes  don't  ufe  to  be  fo  crofs  as  this  come^ 
to.  Pleafure,  of  what  kind  foever,  is 
nothing  but  an  Agreement  between  the 
Objedl  and  ihe  Faculty.  ThisDefcription 
well  applied  ,  will  give  us  the  true 
Heiglit  of  our  feives,  and  tell  us  what  fize 
we  are  of.  If  little  Things  will  pleafe  us^ 
we  may  conclude  we   are  none    of  the 


of  PLEASURE.      197 

biggeft  People.Children  are  as  vveil  known 
by  their  Diverfions,  as  their  Stature.Thofe 
Satisfactions  which  require  Capacity  and 
Underdanding  to  relifli  them,  which  either 
fuppofe  Improvement,  or  promote  it,  are 
of  the  better  fore.  On  the  other  fide  ;  To 
be  pleaftd  with  Gawdinefs  in  Habit,  with 
Gingles  and  Falfe  Ornament  in  Difcourft 
with  Antick  Motions  and  Podures,  is  a  figri 
that  the  IncUnations  are  Trifling,  and  the 
Judgment  vulgar  and  unpoiiiVd.  There 
Ihould  be  fbmewhat  of  Greatnefs  and  Pro- 
portion, and  Curiofity  in  Things,  tojufli- 
fie  our  Appetite.  To  be  gain'd  by  every 
little  pretending  Entertainment,  does  but 
Ihew  our  Meannefs. 

'Tis    (bmewhat  furprizirfg    to  obferve 
how  eafily  we  are  fbmetimes  engag'd,  and 
one  would  think,  when  we  were  Jeaft  In 
Humour.     For  the  purpofe.    Here's  a  Man 
that  has  lately  buried  his  only  Son,  and  is 
embarrafs'd  with  Debts  and  Difputes  in  his 
Fortune  :  How  comes  it  about  thtit  he  is  Co 
airy  and  unconcern'd  on  the  fudden  >  No 
longer  ago  than  this  Morning,  he  was  ex- 
treamly  fenfible  of  his  Misfortune ;  what 
has  made  him  forget  it  in  fo  (hort  a  time  > 
Why  nothing,  but  he  isjud  chop'din  with 
a  Pack  ot  Dogs,  uho  are  Hunting  down  a 
Har  e,  and  all  Openhg  upon  the  Fiew.     The 
Man  needs  no  more  to  change  hisPaflions. 


ipg       0/PLEASURE. 

This  Noife  has  drown'd  all  his  Grief:  He  is 
Cured  and  made  Happy  Extempore.    And 
if  it  would  laft,  'twas  fomething  :  But  alas, 
'tis  quickly  over.     'Tis  a  Happinefs  with- 
out a  Fund  :  'Tis  no  more  than  a  little 
mantling  of  the  Spirits    upon  ftirring  :  A 
Childifii  Exultation  at  the  Harmony  of  a 
Rattle,     \t  proceeds  not  from  any  thing 
rich  or  folid  in  Nature :  'Tis  meer  Levity  of 
Mind,  which  fnatches  him  a  little  from  his 
Mifery.  The  Caufe  of  the  IntermiiTion  is 
uncreditabie.  The  Entertainment  is  not  big 
enough  for  the  Occafion.     'Tis  true,  thp 
trouble  is  remov'd,  and  foiar  the  Point  is 
gain'd.    But  then  the  Satisfadtion  is  fb  Fan- 
taftick  and  Feveriih,  that  the  Cure  it  felf 
is  an  ill  Symptom,  and  almofl:  worfe  than 
the  Difeafe.     Upon  the  whole,  I  think,  we 
ought  to  be  concern'd,  that  (uch  Trifles 
can  provoke  our.  Appetite :    And  that  wo 
may  be  tofs'd  from  one  State  to  another, 
by  fo  weak  a  Motion,  The  truth  is,  as  we 
manage  the  Matter,  our  Diverfions  are  of- 
tentimes    more    uncreditabie   than    our 
Troubles.     However,  fmce  Health  is  kept 
up,  and  Melancholly  difcharg'd  by  thefe 
Amufements,they  may  be  tolerable  enough 
within  a  Rule.     But  to  purfue  them  with 
Application,  to  make  them  our  Profeflion^' 
and  boaft  of  our  Skill  in  thefe  little  Myfte- 
ries^  is  the  way  to  be  ufelcfs  and  ridiculouso- 


0/  PLEASURE.      19P 

The  Being  of  Pkafure,  as  things  flandxit 
preftnt,  is  very  Precarious.  Not  to  men- 
tion any  other  Inconvenience,  it  lies  terri- 
bly expofed  to  the  Incurfions  of  Pain.  And 
when  theft  two  Parties  happen  to  meet, 
the  Enemy  always  gets  the  better.  Pain 
is  a  ftrange  domineering  Perception.  Jt  for- 
ces us  into  an  Acknowledgment  of  its  Supe- 
riority :  It  keeps  off  Satisfadions  when  we 
have  them  nor,  and  deftroys  them  when 
we  have  them.  The  Prick  of  a  Pin,  is 
enough  to  make  an  Empire  infipid  for  the 
time.  The  En^^l  of  Vleafure  is  to  fupport  the 
Offices  of  Lifc  ;  to  relieve  the  Fatigues  of 
Bufinefs  ,•  to  reward  a  Regular  Acftion  , 
and  encourage  the  Continuance.  None 
are  allowed  this  Privilege,  but  fuch  as  keep 
within  the  Order  of  Nature.  'Tis  true,  it 
becomes  the  Greatnefs  of  theDeity,to  work 
by  the  mod  comprehenfive  ,  unvariable 
Methods  ;  and  therefore  Satisfadion  is  ry- 
cd  to  certain  General  Laws,  which  it  is  in: 
the  liberty  of  Man  to  abufe.  And  when 
this  happens,  the  Force  of  the  firlt  Decree 
is  notfufpended.  God  does  noc  think  nc  to 
alter  the  Courfe  of  Nature,  and  break 
through  a  Chain  of  Caufes,  to  puniih  every 
Mifrtianagement.  The  Senjes  turn  upon 
Capacity  and  Proportion,  not  upon  Jufncs 
and  Property.  For  Inilance ,  He  that 
fteals  a  pinner,  may  tafte  it  as  well,  as  if 


2CO       Of  PLEASURE. 

it  had  been  his  own.  If  things  were  other-, 
wife.  Virtue  would  have  no  Tryal.  But 
let  every  one  take  heed,  not  to  make  bold 
with  the  Divine  Eflablifliment,  nor  riot  in 
the  Liberalities  of  Providence.  All  Excef- 
fes  and  Mifapplications  are  Ufurpations  of 
Pleafure,  and  muflexpedian  after  Reckon- 
ing. A  Man  will  be  fure  to  pay  for  them  in 
Repentance,  or  fomething  worfe. 

F    I    N    I    S. 

Date  Due 


IN  U.  S.  A.